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Teknologi Fermentasi Susu

Pilihan THT

Pengertian

Legowo et al. (2009), Keju adalah


produk segar atau matang,yg dibuat dg
cara mengkoagulasikan protein susu,
skim susu atau susu yg diperkaya dg
krim
Buckle et al. (1985), Keju adalah
makanan yg dibuat dr dadi (curd) susu
yg dipisahkan, yg diperoleh dg
penggumpalan bagian kasein dr susu
dan susu skim

lanjutan pengertian

Menurut Food Drug Administration (FDA),


keju adalah produk yg dibuat dg cara
mengkoagulasikan kasein susu, susu krim
atau susu yg diperkaya dg krim
Cheese, a concentrated dairy food made
from milk, is defined as the fresh or
matured product obtained by draining the
whey (the moisture or serum of the original
milk) after coagulation of casein, milks
major protein.

lanjutan pengertian

Menurut Codex STAN 283-1978 Cheese is


the ripened or unripened soft, semi-hard,
hard, or extra-hard product, which may be
coated, and in which the whey
protein/casein ratio does not exceed
that of milk, obtained by coagulating
coagulating wholly or partly the protein of
milk, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk,
cream, whey cream or buttermilk, or any
combination of these materials, through
the action of rennet or other suitable
coagulating agents

lanjutan pengertian

Keju menurut FAO / WHO*:


Cheese is the fresh or matured solid or
semisolid product obtained by
coagulating milk, skimmed milk, partly
skimmed milk, cream, whey cream, or
buttermilk, or any combination of these
materials, through the action of rennet or
other suitable coagu-lating agents, and
by partially draining the whey resulting
from such coagulation.

Koagulasi yg terjadi pd proses


pembuatan keju berasal dr kerja enzim
rennet (atau enzim lain yg cocok) atau
dg meningkatkan keasaman susu
melalui proses fermentasi asam laktat,
atau dg kombinasi kedua teknik ini

Koagulasi susu adalah proses terjadinya


pengendapan atau penyatuan casein
micelles atau pembentukan dadih, krn
partikel kasein bersifat hidrofobic
(menolak air), maka memiliki
kecenderungan alami untuk saling
menyatu membentuk kumpulan
(agregate) ion.

Jenis-jenis keju umumnya diklasifikasikan


berdasarkan:
1. Kadar air dan komposisi kimiawi, khususnya
kandungan lemak dlm bahan padat
2. Ada tdknya proses pemeraman (Ripened and
Unripened)
3. Jenis mikroba yg digunakan
4. Berdasarkan konsistensi atau lunak kerasnya
keju, shg dikenal keju keras (hard cheese), keju
semi-keras (semi-hard cheese) dan keju lunak
(soft cheese)

Pengertian Keju berdasarkan ada tdknya proses pemeraman


(Ripened and Unripened)
Ripened cheese is cheese which is not ready for
consumption shortly after manufacture but which must be
held for such time, at such temperature, and under such
other conditions as will result in the necessary biochemical
and physical changes characterizing the cheese in question.
Mould ripened cheese is a ripened cheese in which the
ripening has been accomplished primarily by the development
of characteristic mould growth throughout the interior
and/or on the surface of the cheese.
Unripened cheese including fresh cheese is cheese which
is ready for consumption shortly after manufacture.

Starter Keju

Starter keju adalah kultur aktif dr


mikroba tertentu
Kultur tsb berasal suatu galur spesies
mikroba, yg terdiri dr:
Galur tunggal, hanya dr satu spesies

mikroba
Campuran dr beberapa spesies mikroba
(multi galur)

Mikroba yg Digunakan dlm Starter


KejuMikroorganisme
Keterangan
Streptococcus lactis

Penghasil asam

Streptococcus cremoris

Penghasil asam

Streptococcus diacetilactis

Penghasil asam dan citarasa

Streptococcus thermophilus

Penghasil asam dan tahan


thp suhu lebih tinggi

Streptococcus durans

Penghasil asam dan citarasa

Streptococcus faecalis

Penghasil asam dan citarasa

Leuconostoc citrovorum

Penghasil citarasa

Leuconostoc dextranicum

Penghasil citarasa

lanjutan starter
Mikroorganisme

Keterangan

Lactobacillus casei

Penghasil asam dan citarasa

Lactobacillus bulgaricus

Penghasil asam dan citarasa,


digunakan pd keju yg
diproses pd suhu tinggi

Lactobacillus helveticum

Penghasi asam dan citarasa

Bakteri-bakteri lain:
Propionibacterium shermani

Penghasil gas dan citarasa

Brevibacterium linens

Penghasil warna orange


kemerahan

lanjutan starter
Mikroorganisme

Keterangan

Kapang:
Penicillium camemberti

Penghasil citarasa

Penicillium caseiocolum

Penghasil citarasa

Penicillium candiudum

Penghasil citarasa

Penicillium roqueforti

Penghasil citarasa

Skema transformasi susu menjadi keju

Gel Formation

Syneresis
Many gels tend to shrink spontaneously, thereby expelling
liquid. A rennet milkgel can do so, expelling whey.
Syneresis is spontaneous expulsion of whey
Acid milk gels are also subject to syneresis by the same
mechanism as rennet gels, though much slower

Which cheeses constitute the (economically) most


important varieties in the world?
Most likely the following:
1. Gouda-type varieties, which are defined as those
that:
Are made of cows milk
Have 40 to 50% fat in the dry matter
Use mesophilic starters
Are brine-salted after pressing
Have a water content in the fat-free cheese below 63%
Have no essential surface flora
Are matured from 2 to 15 months

2. Cheddar-type cheeses , which are much like the


cheese of the previous group, but they are made in
a different way, in that they are salted in the curd
stage. They are on average slightly drier and
slightly more acidic than the Gouda-type varieties
and have a different flavor note.
3. The group of fresh cheeses , which have a high
water content and are either little matured or not
matured at all.

Furthermore, fairly large quantities of the following cheeses are


being produced:
a. Very hard cheeses (Parmesan, Sbrinz, and Pecorino
Romano)
b. Cheese with propionic acid bacteria (Emmentaler and
Jarlsberg)
c. Stretched-curd or pasta-filata cheeses (Provolone, Kashkaval,
and Mozzarella)
d. A semisoft type of cheese with a very mild flavor (Saint Paulin,
Monterey, and Amsterdammer)
e. White pickled cheeses (Feta and Domiati)
f. Soft cheeses with a white mold (Brie and Camembert, often
poorly resembling the original cheese that had a more distinct
flavor)
g. Blue-veined cheeses (Bleu dAuvergne, Gorgonzola,
Roquefort, and Stilton)

KEJU CEDAR OLAHAN : SNI 01-2980-1992


Keju cedar olahan (processed cheddar chesse)
adalah produk berupa padatan plastis yang
diperoleh melalui pengolahan keju cedar dengan
penambahan pengemulsi dan pemanasan dengan
atau tanpa penambahan bahan tambahan makanan
lain yang diizinkan.