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Manajemen

Operasi Dan
Produksi
Materi 1 : Pendahuluan
a. Pengertian MO/P
b. Sistem Produksi
c. Perkembangan MO/P

Buku :
a. T. Hani Handoko, DasarDasar Manajemen Produksi
dan Operasi, 1991
b. Heizer/Render, Manajemen
Operasi Ed 11, 2015

Ikhtisar
Apa itu Manajemen Operasi
(MO)?
Apa yang disebut Sistem
Produksi?
Apa hasil Produksi?
Kenapa belajar MO?
Perkembangan MO
Produktifitas

THE HARD ROCK CAFE


Dibuka pertama kali pada tahun 1971
Restoran bertema pertama di dunia
(memorabilia musik rock)
Sekarang ada lebih dari 150 restoran di
seluruh dunia
Menyediakan 3500 jenis makanan di
Orlando
Bagaimana mereka menentukan
menu/hari?
Bagaimana mereka menghadapi 35 juta
pengunjung per tahunnya?

Manajemen Operasi
Apa Itu Manajemen Operasi?

Produksi?
Penciptaan barang dan jasa
Manajemen Operasi adalah
serangkaian aktifitas yang
menciptakan nilai dalam bentuk
barang dan jasa dengan
mengubah masukan menjadi hasil

Produk Barang dan Jasa


Barang : Hasil Produksi yang berwujud
Jasa : Aktifitas yang memberikan
kombinasi dari nilai dari waktu, lokasi,
bentuk atau psikologis

Sistem Produksi
Proses Pengubahan input berupa
Sumber daya menjadi barangbarang dan jasa yang lebih
berguna

Operasi Sebagai Sistem


Produksi

Handoko, 1991

Contoh Sistem Produksi


Jenis Industri

Input

Output

Bank

Teller, kasir, Staf,


komputer, fasilitas,
modal

Pelayanan Finansial
seperti deposito,
tabungan, transfer,
kredit, insurance dll

Rumah sakit

Dokter, perawat, staf,


peralatan,

Pelayanan kesehatan
seperti pemeriksaan
umum, cek rontgen,
cek lab, cek USG, IGD

Restoran

Fasilitas, energi, koki,


pelayan, bahan
makanan

Hidangan, hiburan

(Handoko, 1991 p8)

Pengorganisasian untuk
Menghasilkan Barang dan
Jasa

Setiap organisasi melakukan 3


fungsi:
a) Pemasaran : Menghasilkan
permintaan terhadap suatu produk
b) Produksi/opersi : Menciptakan
Produk
c) Finansial/Akuntansi: Melacak kinerja,
pembayaran tagihan dan
pengumpulan uang

Organizational Charts

Organizational Charts

Organizational Charts

Kenapa Belajar MO
1. MO merupakan salah satu
dari tiga fungsi utama yang
selalu dilakukan sebuah
organisasi jadi sangat
penting mengetahui
bagaimana aktifitas MO
berfungsi
2. Mengetahui bagaimana
barang dan jasa diproduksi
3. Pemahaman mengenai apa
yang dilakukan oleh
Manajer Operasi

Opsi Untuk Menaikkan


Kontribusi
Marketing
Option

Current
Sales
Cost of Goods
Gross Margin
Finance Costs
Subtotal
Taxes at 25%
Contribution

$100,000
80,000
20,000
6,000
14,000
3,500
$ 10,500

Finance/
Accounting
Option

Increase
Reduce
Sales
Finance
Revenue 50% Costs 50%
$150,000
120,000
30,000
6,000
24,000
6,000
$ 18,000

$100,000
80,000
20,000
3,000
17,000
4,250
$ 12,750

OM
Option
Reduce
Production
Costs 20%
$100,000
64,000
36,000
6,000
30,000
7,500
$ 22,500

Apa yang Dilakukan oleh


Manajer Operasi ?
Fungsi dasar dari manajemen adalah untuk melakukan
aktifitas :

Planning (Perencanaan)
Organizing (Pengorganisasian)
Staffing
Leading (Pengarahan)
Controlling (Pengendalian)

10 Keputusan
Manajemen Operasi

Design of goods and services


Managing quality
Process and capacity design
Location strategy
Layout strategy
Human resources and job design
Supply chain management
Inventory management
Scheduling
Maintenance

Keputusan Kritis
Desain
barang
dan jasa

What good or service should


we offer?
How should we design these
products and services?

Mengelo
la
kualitas

How do we define quality?


Who is responsible for
quality?

Keputusan Kritis
Desain What process and what
capacity will these products
proses
require?
dan
What equipment and
kapasita technology is necessary for
these processes?
s
Strategi
Lokasi

Where should we put the


facility?
On what criteria should we
base the location decision?

Keputusan Kritis
Strategi
Tata
Ruang
SDM
dan
Desain
Pekerjaa
n

How should we arrange the


facility?
How large must the facility
be to meet our plan?
How do we provide a
reasonable work
environment?
How much can we expect our
employees to produce?

Keputusan Kritis
Manajem
en Rantai
Pasokan

Should we make or buy this


component?
Who are our suppliers and
who can integrate into our ecommerce program?

Manajem
en
Persediaa
n

How much inventory of each


item should we have?
When do we re-order?

Keputusan Kritis
Penjadwala
n

Are we better off keeping


people on the payroll
during slowdowns?
Which jobs do we perform
next?

Pemelihara
an

Who is responsible for


maintenance?
When do we do
maintenance?

Dimana Ranah
Pekerjaan MO?

Figure 1.2

Peristiwa Penting Dalam


Perkembangan Manajemen
Operasi

Perkembangan
Manajemen Operasi

Computer (Atanasoff 1938)


CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957)
Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960)
Computer aided design (CAD 1970)
Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975)
Baldrige Quality Awards (1980)
Computer integrated manufacturing (1990)
Globalization (1992)
Internet (1995)

Eli Whitney
Born 1765; died 1825
In 1798, received government
contract to make 10,000 muskets
Showed that machine tools could
make standardized parts to exact
specifications
Musket parts could be used in any
musket

Frederick W. Taylor
Born 1856; died 1915
Known as father of scientific
management
In 1881, as chief engineer for
Midvale Steel, studied how tasks
were done
Began first motion and time studies

Created efficiency principles

Taylors Principles
Tanggung Jawab Manajer
Seharusnya adalah:
Menempatkan pekerja pada
pekerjaan yang tepat untuk nya
Memberikan pelatihan yang layak
Memberikan metode dan alat kerja
yang tepat
Memberikan insentif untuk
pekerjaan yang sudah selesai

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth


Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (18781972)
Husband-and-wife engineering team
Further developed work
measurement methods
Applied efficiency methods to their
home and 12 children!
Book & Movie: Cheaper by the
Dozen, book: Bells on Their Toes

Henry Ford
Born 1863; died 1947
In 1903, created Ford Motor
Company
In 1913, first used moving assembly
line to make Model T
Unfinished product moved by
conveyor past work station

Paid workers very well for 1911


($5/day!)

W. Edwards Deming
Born 1900; died 1993
Engineer and physicist
Credited with teaching Japan
quality control methods in postWW2
Used statistics to analyze process
His methods involve workers in
decisions

Kontribusi untuk MO
Human factors
Industrial engineering
Management science
Biological science
Physical sciences
Information
technology

Tantangan Baru Pada


Bidang MO
From

Local or national focus


Batch shipments
Low bid purchasing
Lengthy product
development
Standard products
Job specialization

To

Global focus
Just-in-time
Supply chain
partnering
Rapid product
development,
alliances
Mass
customization
Empowered
employees, teams

Karakteristik Barang
Tangible product
Consistent product
definition
Production usually
separate from
consumption
Can be inventoried
Low customer
interaction

Karakteristik dari Jasa


Intangible product
Produced and
consumed at same time
Often unique
High customer
interaction
Inconsistent product
definition
Often knowledge-based
Frequently dispersed

Barang Versus Jasa


Attributes of Goods
(Tangible Product)
Can be resold
Can be inventoried
Some aspects of quality
measurable
Selling is distinct from
production
Product is transportable
Site of facility important for cost
Often easy to automate
Revenue generated primarily
from tangible product

Attributes of Services
(Intangible Product)
Reselling unusual
Difficult to inventory
Quality difficult to measure
Selling is part of service
Provider, not product, is
often transportable
Site of facility important for
customer contact
Often difficult to automate
Revenue generated primarily
from the intangible service
Table 1.3

Barang dan Jasa


Automobile
Computer
Installed carpeting
Fast-food meal
Restaurant meal/auto repair
Hospital care
Advertising agency/
investment management
Consulting service/
teaching
Counseling
100%
|

75
|

50
|

25
|

Percent of Product that is a Good

0
|

25
|

50
|

75
|

100%
|

Percent of Product that is a Service


Figure 1.4

New Trends in OM
Past

Causes

Future

Local or
national
focus

Reliable worldwide
communication and
transportation networks

Global focus,
moving
production
offshore

Batch (large)
shipments

Short product life cycles


and cost of capital put
pressure on reducing
inventory

Just-in-time
performance

Low-bid
purchasing

Supply chain competition


requires that suppliers be
engaged in a focus on the
end customer

Supply chain
partners,
collaboration,
alliances,
outsourcing
Figure 1.6

New Trends in OM
Past

Causes

Future

Lengthy
product
development

Shorter life cycles,


Internet, rapid international
communication, computeraided design, and
international collaboration

Rapid product
development,
alliances,
collaborative
designs

Standardized
products

Affluence and worldwide


markets; increasingly
flexible production
processes

Mass
customization
with added
emphasis on
quality

Job
specialization

Changing socioculture
milieu; increasingly a
knowledge and information
society

Empowered
employees,
teams, and lean
production
Figure 1.6

New Trends in OM
Past

Causes

Future

Low-cost
focus

Environmental issues, ISO


14000, increasing disposal
costs

Environmentally
sensitive
production, green
manufacturing,
recycled
materials,
remanufacturing

Ethics not
at forefront

Businesses operate more


openly; public and global
review of ethics; opposition
to child labor, bribery,
pollution

High ethical
standards and
social
responsibility
expected

Figure 1.6

New Trends in OM
Global focus
Just-in-time performance
Supply chain partnering
Rapid product development
Mass customization
Empowered employees
Environmentally sensitive
production
Ethics

Tantangan Produktifitas
Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods
and services) divided by the inputs
(resources such as labor and capital)
The objective is to improve productivity!
Important Note!
Production is a measure of output only
and not a measure of efficiency

Improving Productivity at
Starbucks
A team of 10 analysts
continually look for ways to
shave time. Some
improvements:
Stop requiring signatures
on credit card purchases
under $25

Saved 8 seconds
per transaction

Change the size of the ice


scoop

Saved 14 seconds
per drink

New espresso machines

Saved 12 seconds
per shot

Improving Productivity at
Starbucks
A team of 10 analysts
continually look for ways to
shave time. Some
improvements:

Operations improvements have


Stop requiring signatures
Saved
8 seconds
helped Starbucks
increase
yearly
on credit card purchases
perby
transaction
revenue per outlet
$200,000 to
under $25
$940,000 in six years.
improved
by 27%,
Change the sizeProductivity
of the ice hasSaved
14 seconds
or about 4.5% per
scoop
peryear.
drink
New espresso machines

Saved 12 seconds
per shot

Productivity
Productivity =

Units produced
Input used

Measure of process improvement


Represents output relative to input
Only through productivity
increases can our standard of living
improve

Productivity Calculations
Labor Productivity
Productivity =

Units produced
Labor-hours used
1,000
=
= 4 units/labor-hour
250

One resource input single-factor productivity

Multi-Factor Productivity
Output
Productivity =
Labor + Material + Energy +
Capital + Miscellaneous
Also known as total factor productivity
Output and inputs are often expressed in
dollars
Multiple resource inputs multi-factor productivity

Contoh Soal
Collin Title Insurance Ltd. Ingin mengevaluasi produktifitas
buruh dan multifaktornya dengan sebuah sistem pencarian
judul yang terkomputerisasi. perusahaan memiliki 4 orang
staf, masing-masing bekerja selama 8 jam/hari dengan
biaya $640/hari dan biaya overhead senilai $400/hari.
Dengan sistem lama ini, Collins memproses dan menutup
8
judul
setiap
hari.
Sistem
pencarian
judul
terkomputerisasi yang baru memungkinkan pemrosesan
14 judul /hari. Jumlah staf, waktu kerja dan gajinya sama,
biaya overhead naik menjadi 800/hari. Hitung produktifitas
dan produktifitas multi faktor untuk sistem lama dan baru!

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

Old labor
productivity

8 titles/day
32 labor-hrs

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

Old labor
productivity

8 titles/day
32 labor-hrs

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

= .25 titles/labor-hr

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day

Overhead = $800/day

Old labor
productivity

New labor
productivity

8 titles/day
32 labor-hrs

14 titles/day
32 labor-hrs

= .25 titles/labor-hr

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day

Overhead = $800/day

Old labor
productivity

New labor
productivity

8 titles/day
32 labor-hrs
14 titles/day
32 labor-hrs

= .25 titles/labor-hr

= .4375 titles/labor-hr

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day
Old multifactor
productivity

Overhead = $800/day
=

8 titles/day
$640 + 400

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day
Old multifactor
productivity

Overhead = $800/day
=

8 titles/day
$640 + 400

= .0077 titles/dollar

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day
Old multifactor
productivity

New multifactor
productivity

Overhead = $800/day
=

8 titles/day
$640 + 400

14 titles/day
$640 + 800

= .0077 titles/dollar

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day
Old multifactor
productivity

New multifactor
productivity

Overhead = $800/day
=

8 titles/day
$640 + 400

= .0077 titles/dollar

14 titles/day
$640 + 800

= .0097 titles/dollar

Collins Title Productivity


Old System:

Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day


Payroll cost = $640/day

8 titles/day
Overhead = $400/day

New System:

14 titles/day
Old multifactor
productivity

New multifactor
productivity

Overhead = $800/day
=

8 titles/day
$640 + 400

= .0077 titles/dollar

14 titles/day
$640 + 800

= .0097 titles/dollar

Measurement Problems
Quality may change while the quantity
of inputs and outputs remains
constant
External elements may cause an
increase or decrease in productivity
Precise units of measure may be
lacking

Productivity Variables
Labor - contributes
about 10% of the annual
increase
Capital - contributes
about 38% of the annual
increase
Management contributes about 52%
of the annual increase

Key Variables for Improved


Labor Productivity
Basic education appropriate for the labor
force
Diet of the labor force
Social overhead that makes labor
available
Maintaining and enhancing skills in the
midst of rapidly changing technology and
knowledge

Investment and
Productivity
Percent increase in productivity

10
8
6
4
2
0
10

15

20

25

Percentage investment

30

35

MANAGEMENT
MANAJEMEN merupakan sebuah faktor dari produksi
dan sebuah sumber daya ekonomi
Manajemen bertanggung jawab untuk memastikan bahwa
buruh dan modal digunakan secara efektif untuk
meningkatkan produktivitas.

THANK YOU