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n and CrossCultural

Setting the Scene

When a group or a society is in contact with a more powerful society,

the weaker group is often obligated to acquire cultural elements from
the dominant group.
Acculturation is a process of extensive borrowing in the context of
super ordinatesubordinate relations between societies. Acculturation
in contrast to diffusion comes about as a result of some sort of external
Many cultural changes in the modern world have been generated,
directly or indirectly, by the dominance and expansion of Western
societies. Commercial exchange is a fundamental change for many
cultures that have had other modes of exchange or kinds of economies.
increased migration for economic necessity or better opportunities
self-sufficient economies change to trade or cash cropping
The growing influence of Western societies has also led to religious
change in many parts of the world
Globalization is the spread of cultural features around the world.
Globalization is minimizing cultural diversity but not eliminating it.

What is Globalization?
The shift toward a more
integrated and
interdependent world
Two components:
The globalization of markets
The globalization of production

Globalization of Production
Vizio flat panel TV is
designed in a small office in California
assembled in Mexico
panels made in South Korea
electronic components made in China
microprocessors made in the U.S.

Not just manufacturing

Globalization of production has
historically been about
Increasingly companies are using
modern communications to
service activities to low-cost

Globalization of markets
In the past, each country had
its own companies in many
industries and its own products
I never saw Japanese media (and I saw
little non-US media) in college


International Business is business whose activities are carried out across

national borders (not only international trade and foreign manufacturing but
also the growing service industry in areas such as transportation, tourism,
advertising, construction, retailing, wholesaling, and mass communication)
Foreign Business denotes the operations of a company outside its home or
domestic market; many refer to this as business conducted within a foreign
country. This term sometimes is used interchangeably with international
A multidomestic company (MDC) is an organisation with multicountry affiliates,
each of which formulates its own business strategy based on perceived market
A global Company (GC) is an organisation that attempts to standardise and
integrate operations worldwide in most or all functional areas
An international company (IC) is a global or multidomestic company
Foreign Direct Investment and Exporting Direct investments in equipment,
structures, and organisation in a foreign country at a level that is sufficient to
obtain significant management control; does not include mere foreign
investment in stock markets
Exporting the transportation of any domestic good or service to destination
outside a country or region; the opposite of importing, which is the
transportation of any good or service into a country or region, from a foreign
origination point


The tendency toward an international integration of goods,

technology, information, labour, and capital, or the process of
making this integration happen
Globalization(orglobalization) is the process of international
integration arising from the interchange ofworld views, products,
ideas and other aspects ofculture. Advances
intransportationandtelecommunicationsinfrastructure, including
the rise of thetelegraphand its posterity theInternet, are major
factors in globalization, generating furtherinterdependenceof
economic and cultural activities.
Globality means that from now on nothing that happens on our
planet is only a limited local event; all inventions, victories, and
catastrophes affect the whole world

Ethnocentric : Home office people put in

charge of key international positions.
Polycentric : Local nationals placed in key
positions and allowed to appoint and
develop their own people.
Regiocentric ; Depends on local managers
from a particular geographic region to
handle operations in and around that area.
Geocentric: Attempt to integrate diverse
regions of the world through a global
approach to decision making. Subsidiary
and headquarters managers are treated on
equal terms.

Globalisation Drivers

Disposable incomes increasing

Gen X & Y making their presence across the globe
Accessability TV, Internet
Convergence western lifestyle aspirations
More education/ western education
Emergence of middle/ rich class
Competition in market-niche
Global strategy/action.
Open vs Closed trade

Forces of Globalisation

Political there is a trend toward the unification and socialisation of the

global community. Preferential trading arrangements, such as the North
American Free Trade Agreement and the European Union, that group
several nations into a single market have presented firms with significant
marketing opportunities. Many have moved swiftly to gain access to the
combined markets of these trading partners, either through exporting or
by producing in the area

The progressive reduction of barriers to trade and foreign investment by most government,
which is hastening the opening of new markets by international firms that are both exporting
to them and building production facilities in them;
The privatisation of much of the industry in formerly communist nations and the opening of
their economies to global competition

Technological Advances in computers and communications technology

are permitting an increased flow of ideas and information across borders,
enabling customers to learn about foreign goods. Cable and satellite TV
systems in Europe and Asia, for example, allow an advertiser to reach
numerous countries simultaneously, thus creating regional and sometimes
global demand. Global communications networks enable manufacturing
personnel to coordinate production and design functions worldwide so that
plants in many parts of the world may be working on the same product

The internet and network computing enable small companies to compete globally because
they make possible the rapid flow of information regardless of the physical location of the
buyer and seller

Forces [contd.]

Market As companies globalise, they also become global customers. For years,
advertising agencies established offices in foreign markets when their major clients
entered those markets to avoid having a competitor steal the accounts. Finding the
home market saturated also sends companies into foreign into foreign markets
Cost Economies of scale to reduces unit costs are always a management goal. One
means of achieving them is to globalise product lines to reduce development,
production, and inventory costs. The company can also move production or other
parts of the companys value chain to countries where the costs are lower. Dramatic
reductions in the cost of generating and transmitting information due to innovations
in computing and telecommunications, as well as the decline in transportation
costs, have facilitated this trend toward relocating activities worldwide
Competitive Competition continues to increase in intensity. New firms, many from
newly industrialised and developing countries, have entered world markets in
automobiles, computers, and electronics, for example. Companies are defending
their home markets from competitors by entering the competitors home markets to
distract them. Many firms that would not have entered a single country because it
lacked sufficient market size have established plants in the comparatively larger
trading groups (European Union, ASEAN)

Globalization affects all parts

of the world
not always positively!

The Globalization Debate

Lower prices for goods
and services
Economic growth
Increase in consumer
Creates jobs (for many)
Countries specialize in
production of goods and
services that are
produced most

Destroys manufacturing
jobs in wealthy nations
Wage rates of unskilled
in advanced countries
Companies move to
countries with fewer
labor and environment
Loss of sovereignty
Homogenized cultures

Unintended Consequences of
Market Globalization

Loss of national sovereignty

Offshoring and the flight of jobs

Benefits of globalization are not evenly distributed

Effect on the natural environment

Globalization causes dislocation of jobs; firms shift

manufacturing abroad in order to avoid workplace safety and
health regulations

Effect on the poor

Power shifts to MNEs and supranational organizations;

concentration of power by MNEs leads to monopoly

MNEs fail to protect the environment

Effect on national culture

Globalization results in loss of national cultural values and


Fun Reading- Ze
Langadzh of ze Urop

The European Commission has just announced an agreement whereby

English will be the official language of the European Union rather than
German, which was the other possibility. As part of the negotiations Her
Majesty's Government conceded that English spelling had some room for
improvement and has accepted a 5 year phase-in plan that would be known
as "Euro-English".
In the first year, 's' will replace the soft 'c'. Sertainly, this will make the sivil
servants jump with joy. The hard 'c' will be dropped in favour of the 'k'. This
should klear up konfusion and keyboards kan have one less letter.
There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year when the
troublesome 'ph' will be replased with the 'f'. This will make words like
'fotograf' 20% shorter.
In the third year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to
reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. Governments
will enkourage the removal of double leters which have always been a
deterent to akurate speling. Also al wil agre that the horibl mes of the silent
'e' in the languag is disgrasful and it should go away.
By the 4th yer peopl will be reseptiv to steps such as replasing 'th'with 'z' and
'w' with 'v'. During ze fifz yer, ze unesesary 'o' be dropd from vords
kontaining 'ou' and similar changes vud of kors be aplid to oza kombinations
of letas.
After ziz fifz yer ve vil have a rali sensibl riten styl. Zer vil be no mor trubl or
difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu anderstand ech oza. Ze drem of an
united Urop vil finali kum tru!