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PERKEMBANGAN

HORISON TANAH

PERKEMBANGAN HORISON TANAH


A-Horizon development
Accumulation of organic matter
Clumping of individual soil particles
Distinct from parent material and other layers

B and C horizon development


Carbonic and organic acids are carried by water into
soil where dissolve various minerals (transformations)
Soluble materials (ions Ca2+, CO32-, SO42-, etc) are
carried by water and precipitate in the soil from upper
to lower horizons (translocation)
Weathering of primary minerals into secondary
minerals
Wetting and drying cracks soils and makes structures.
DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..

PERKEMBANGAN HORISON TANAH

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Adsorption Adsorpsi - Penjerapan:
Proses ini terjadi kalau gaya-gaya tarik antara permukaan
padatan-tanah (adsorbent) dan komponen larutan-tanah
(adsorbat ) lebih besar dibandingkan gaya-gaya tarik
antara komponen terlarut dan larutan tanah (solvent),
serta gaya tolak antara permukaan tanah dan spesies yang
dijerap.

DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Aggregation - Agregasi:
Partikel-partikel diikat (dipegang) bersama menjadi unit-unit yang
ukurannya beragam, bentuknya bebreda-beda, dengan bvantuan
proses-proses fisika, kimiawi dan biologis.
Suatu Agregat dipisahkan dari agregat lainnya melalui bidang
permukaan yang lemah.

DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Alkalization - Alkalisasi:
Akumulasi kation Na; pembentukan Horison
natrik..
Audification - Pengasaman:
Akumulasi ion-ion H+.
Carbonation Karbonasi (calcification):
Akumulasi kalsium karbonat; pembentukan
Horison Kalsik atau Horison Petrokalsik.
Chelation- Khelasi Peng-khelat-an:
Pembentukan senyawa kompleks logam
dengan agen organik. Logal dijebak dalam
struktur cincin, sehingga menjadi sangat
stabil.
DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2014

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Compaction Kompaksi - Pemadatan:
Reduksi fisik kandungan uadar tanah yang mengakibatkan
meningkatnya Bobot Isi.
Cryoturbation:
Pencampiran tanah akibat dari suhu rendah, mis. Untuk merusak
horison, memasukkan bahan organik ke dalam horison bawah, dan
untuk menata batu-batu.
Dealkalization (solodization):
Pergerakan ion Na ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil tanah.
Decarbonation (decalcification):
Pergerakan kalsium karbonat ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil tanah.

DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Decomposition - Dekomposisi:
Penghancuran bahan mineral dan bahan organik secara
biokimiawi.
Dehydration - Dehidrasi:
Kehilangan air yang mengakibatkan suatu senyawa kembali ke
keadaan orisinalnya.
Deposition merupakan sedimentasi bahan yang terangkut:
1. Akumulasi partikel tanah / colluvium
2. Akumulasi unsur hara / Peningkatan KTK
3. Pengkayaan partikel berukuran medium.

DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Desalinization - Desalinisasi:
Pergerakan garam-garam larut ke luar dari bagian
tertentu profil tanah.
Desilication - Desilikasi:
Pergerakan silika ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil
tanah.
Diffusion (into and out of the soil):
Pertukaran udara antara atmosfir dan tanah karena
pengaruh tekanan partial gerakan massa.

Disaggregation - Disagregasi: Hancurnya


agregat atanah.
Dispersion - Dispersi:

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Eluviation - Eluviasi:
Gerakan material ke luar dari lapisan profil tanah
(secara harfiah pencucian material);
menghilangnya material yang tercuci ke luar
(misalnya sequioxides, mineral liat, bahan organik
tanah)
Energy influx / outflux: Radiation absorption /
reflection:
1. Temperatur Tanah
2. Microbiological activity -> humification ,
decomposition, mineralization
3. Evaporasi
4. Air tanah

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Erosi adalah pengangkutan partikel tanah (dan
bahan organik tanah) oleh air atau angin.
1. Pukulan tetes air hujan menghancurkan
agregat tanah
2. Soil movement / removal of the A horizon
3. Smoothing or levelling of the soil surface
4. Loss of nutrients / decrease of CEC
5. Selective particle transport results in the
relative enrichment of coarse and fine particles
and depletion of medium-sized particles
6. Reduced infiltration / increase in surface
runoff / reduced soil moisture
7. Penyumbatan permukaan tanah.
DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Ferrugination:
Development of brown, reddish brown, and reddish soil colors.
Flocculation:
It is a process where the individual particles of clay are
coagulated to form floccular aggregates.
Gleization:
It involves the reduction of iron and its segregation into
redoximorphic features, or its removal by leaching form the
gleyed horizon; process occuring in poorly drained soil.
Humification - Humifikasi:
Pembentukan HUMUS dari bahan organik segar.
Hydration:
Absorption of water to form a new compound which differs only
slightly from the original state
DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

Humification
1.

Describes the addition of organic


matter to, and its chemical
decomposition into humus and
organic acids

2.

HUMUS is the dark material that


makes soils black or brown

3.

Breakdown of the humus and


organic acids also produces high
CO2 concentrations in the soil,
leading to carbonic acid and
another form of chemical
weathering.

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Hydrolysis: The replacement of cations in a
mineral structure .by hydrogen ions from the soil
solution.
Illuviation: Movement of material into a section
of the soil profile (literally washing into or
towards); accumulation of material washed into
(e.g. sequioxides, clay minerals, organic
material)
Induration: Hardening of a section of the profile
produced in association with iron pans and
plinthite, and with other cementing agents (Si or
Ca).
Infiltration: The entry of water into the soil
surface
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Interflow (Subsurface flow, through flow, seepage):
Lateral subsurface flow.
Lessivage: Physical downward movement of clay
minerals.
Leucinization (decoloration): Lightening the color
in a section of the profile - formation of an albic
horizon.
Melanization: Darkening the color of light-colored
mineral initial unconsolidated material by mixture
and accumulation of organic matter; formation of a
mollic horizon due to incorporation of organic
matter.
Mineralization: Release of minerals in various
forms during the decomposition of organic matter.
Neutralization: Counteraction of the H+ ions.
Outflow: Loss of water from the pedosphere to the
. 17/2/2013
groundwater.DIUNDUH
LossDARI:
of water
and soluble and

Lessivage
1. Physical transport of clay-sized material
downward from surface horizon (Translocation)
2. Leads to reddish coloration and clay-rich
subsurface horizons
3. Seasonally wet climates

Modern California

Argentina, 225 Million Year old rocks

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Oxidation-Oksidasi:
Formation of an oxide or the release of
electrons.
Pedoturbation: The churning and disruption of
horizon formation by biological, physical and
to some extent chemical activity, such as
wetting and drying, swelling and contraction,
freezing and thawing, root pressures, animal
burrowing, acitivty of man.
Podzolization - PODSOLISASI:
Proses translokasi SESQUIOKSIDA dalam profil tanah.
Bentuk besi ferro larut berada pada zone eluviation,
dan besi ferri tidak larut pada zone illuviation.
Podsolisasi adalah
proses
tanah yang
DIUNDUH
DARI: pembentukan
. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH

Precipitation: Separation and


deposition of a substance in a solid
form from a solution.
Reduction: Loss of oxygen ions or
acceptance of electrons.
Salinization: Accumulation of
soluble salts such as chlorides and
sulphates of Ca, Mg, Na, or K.
DIUNDUH DARI:

. 17/2/2013

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Silication: Accumulation of silica.
Solifluction: Slow flow of saturated soil on a
permanent frozen soil (permafrost table).
Solution: Dissolving of minerals into solution (e.g.
calcium carbonate into bicarbonate).
Surface crusting (soil sealing): A process which results
in the formation of soil crusts on the soil surface,
ranging in thickness from a few mm to perhaps as
much as 3 cm, that is much mor compact, hard and
brittle, when dry, than the material immediately
beneath.
Surface runoff (overland flow): Discharge of rainwater
over the surface of the land. Surface runoff is

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH


Suspension: The floating of dispersed
particles in a medium like water. It is
one of the states of particle transport
of eroded sediments, especially for the
smaller and lighter particles such as
clay.
Synthesis: The biochemical formation
of a new compound by combination of
elements or constituents.

PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH

Upward movement PERGERAKAN KE


ATAS:
Movement of dissolved or suspended matter
by capillarity.
Weathering - PELAPUKAN:
All physical and chemical changes produced
in rocks, at or near the earth's surface, by
atmospheric agents.