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Mar 13, 2016

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Mechanics Lab Experiments

© All Rights Reserved

41 tayangan

Mechanics Lab Experiments

© All Rights Reserved

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Imam Mohammed

bin Saud Islmic

University

Science

Collage

Physics 011

Mechanics

Lab Manual

Prepared and

Designed by:

Hanan Akhdar (MSc)

2008

Imam University

Science Collage

Physics Department

Prepared and

Designed by:

Hanan Akhdar (MSc)

Physics_011@Hotmail.com

Lab

Table of Contents

Physics

011

Page 2

Page 3

Section 3: Graphing

Page 4

Page 6

Section 5: Experiments

Page 11

Page 12

Page 15

Page 18

Page 23

Page 26

Page 30

Page 31

Page 34

Experiment 9: Torque

Page 37

Page 41

Section 6: Appendix

Page 47

Page 1

Section 1

Lab Rules

Physics

011

-No one is admitted to the lab once the lab begins.

-Each student must have her own lab notebook.

-No food. No drinks.

-The lab must be clean at all time.

-Ask your teacher to check your equipments before

starting your experiment.

-At the end of each lab arrange all equipment tidily on

the bench.

-The laboratory manuals are NOT meant to be standalone documents; students are expected to use a text

book for supplementary reading.

-Lab reports must be submitted in a weeks time.

-Lab reports writing must be an individual effort

although the experiments will be performed in groups.

-The grading of the lab will be as follows: 5 grades for

the lab reports, 5 grades for the final theoretical exam

and 10 grades for the final experimental exam.

-A missed lab will receive a zero grade.

-A make up lab must be performed during the same week

of the missed lab.

Page 2

Section 2

Lab Report

Physics

011

Title: This should begin each report. The student's name

followed by the date on which the experiment was performed

and the date the report is submitted and the name of

experiment.

Theory: A brief introduction including important formulas

and units.

Objective: The main objectives of the experiment.

Procedure: This briefly and clearly describes both the

experimental apparatus and how it was used.

Data Analyses: This is the heart of the report. Here you

describe how derived quantities were calculated from the raw

data. You should explain carefully and concisely the steps

involved in manipulating the data. You should include

appropriate analysis of any uncertainties. Include any tables

and figures that are necessary to explain your experiment.

Conclusion: This is where you summarize the results of the

lab and the percentage error.

Page 3

Section 3

Graphing

Physics

011

between the quantities of interest.

A graph indicates a relation between two quantities, x and

y, when other variables or parameters have fixed values.

Before plotting points on a graph, it may be useful to

arrange the corresponding values of x and y in a table.

It is very important to use graph paper.

Choose a convenient scale for each axis so that the plotted

points will occupy a substantial part of the graph paper,

but do not choose a scale which is difficult to plot and

read.

Label each axis to identify the variable being plotted and

the units being used.

Identify plotted points with appropriate symbols.

Often there will be a theory concerning the relationship of

the two plotted variables. A linear relationship can be

demonstrated if the data points fall along a single straight

line. The straight line should be drawn as near the mean of

the all various points as is optimal. The line should be

drawn with about as many points above it as below it, and

with the 'aboves' and 'belows' distributed at random along

the line.

Page 4

Section 3

Graphing

Physics

011

steepness, incline, gradient, or grade of a straight line.

The slope of a line in the plane containing the x and y axes is

generally represented by the letter m, and is defined as the

change in the y coordinate divided by the corresponding

change in the x coordinate, between two distinct points on the

line. This is described by the following equation:

Page 5

y

x

Section 4

Lab Equipment

Physics

011

Used to measure short time intervals

Timing starts and stops manually or dynamically

Holding Electromagnet

Electromagnet with temporally-defined triggering of motions

Page 6

Section 4

Lab Equipment

Physics

011

Track

Contains two running rails on its top surface and it is

equipped with a recessed measuring scale on one side and

grooved rails on each side for attaching accessories

Pulley

Used to hang weights using threads

Page 7

Section 4

Lab Equipment

Physics

011

Trolley

The wheels are designed so as to make the trolley selfcentering and

a string holder is provided at both ends of the trolley

Mass Hanger

Used to slot weights

Page 8

Section 4

Lab Equipment

Physics

011

Slotted weights

Used with the weigh hanger

Light Barrier

Used as a sensor

Page 9

Section 4

Lab Equipment

Physics

011

Helical Spring

With scale on transparent tube for good visibility of the spring

balance construction

Page 10

Experimen

t

#1

Acceleration of

Linear Uniform

Motion

Physics

011

Theory:

Equations of motion are used to study the linear motion of a

uniformly accelerated body.

where:

1

d v 0 t at 2

2

v f v 0 at

v f2 v 02 2ad

d:

vo:

vf:

the acceleration

Final velocity, the velocity at the end of the

acceleration.

a:

t:

acceleration.

d = v0t + (1/2)at2

If the object starts at rest, we get:

d = (1/2) a t2

Equation 1.1

Page 11

Experimen

t

#1

Acceleration of

Linear Uniform

Motion

Physics

011

Objective:

To calculate the acceleration of an object moving in a

straight line with a constant acceleration using equations of

motion.

Equipment:

Track trolley holding magnet electronic stop clock

light barrier pulley mass hanger slotted weights

cables.

Page 12

Experimen

t

#1

Acceleration of

Linear Uniform

Motion

Physics

011

Procedure:

Set the equipment, use the cable to connect the trolley with

the pulley and the hanging mass.

Connect the holding magnet to the stop clock and adjust the

voltage so that the trolley is held.

Put the light barrier at a certain distance.

Release the trolley by stopping the magnet and record the

time the trolley took to pass the light barrier.

Repeat and record the time three times then calculate the

average time.

Change the distance and repeat the previous steps for each

distance.

Tabulate your data.

Distance

m

Time 1

s

Time 2

s

Time 3

s

Average

Time

s

Time square

s2

distance (y-axis) or displacement traveled by the trolley.

Draw the best line and find its slope.

Calculate the acceleration from the slope using equation

1.1.13

Page

Experimen

t

#2

Free Fall

Physics

011

Theory:

Under free fall all objects have the same constant

acceleration, which in the metric system is 9.8 m/s 2 at sea

level, directed towards the center of the earth.

1

y v 0 t gt 2

2

v f v 0 gt

v f2 v 02 2g y

where

y:

vo:

vf:

g:

t:

Page 14

Vertical displacement

Original velocity, the velocity at

the start of the acceleration

Final velocity, the velocity at the

end of the acceleration.

Acceleration due to gravity

Time, this is the time period of the

acceleration.

Experimen

t

#2

Free Fall

Physics

011

1

y v 0 t gt 2

2

y = (1/2) g t2

Equation 2.1

Objective:

To calculate the gravitational acceleration of a free falling

ball.

Equipment:

Steel ball contact plate holding magnet holding magnet

adapter with a release mechanism electronic stop clock

stand base rods scale connecting leads.

Page 15

Experimen

t

#2

Free Fall

Physics

011

Procedure:

Set the equipment and hold the steel ball using the holding

magnet at a certain height.

Release the ball and read the time the ball took traveling the

vertical distance, then reset the stop clock and reattach the

ball and read the time again , you should take three readings

of the time then find the average time the ball has traveled.

Reduce the height and repeat the previous steps.

Tabulate your data.

Height

m

Time 1

s

Time 2

s

Time 3

s

Average

Time

s

Time square

s2

Plot a graph between the square time (x-axis) and the height

(y-axis) or displacement of ball.

Draw the best line and find its slope.

Calculate the gravitational acceleration from the slope using

equation 2.1.

Find the percentage error.

Page 16

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

Theory:

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws which

provide relationships between the forces acting on a body and

the motion of the body, first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton.

Newton's First Law: an object with no force acting on it

moves with a constant velocity.

Newton's Second Law: the acceleration of a body is directly

proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely

proportional to its mass.

F = ma

Equation 3.1

Newton's Third Law: for every action there is an equal and

opposite reaction.

In order to apply Newtons second law; a free body diagram

should be drawn for every object in the system.

Page 17

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

M, is a trolley resting on a horizontal track and held by a

magnet. The other mass, m, is hanging freely and is subject to

a downward force due to gravity (its weight); W = mg, and an

upward force due to the tension T in the string. The masses of

the string and pulley as well as the frictional resistance of the

pulley are assumed to be negligible.

force on the hanging mass, so the tension in the string is given

by: T = W.

Cart accelerating: Since the length of the string does not

change, the cart and the hanger accelerate at the same rate, a.

Page 18

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

T W = - ma

or

W - T = ma

or

T = mg - ma

where m is the hanging mass.

Page 19

Equation 3.2

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

T - fk = Ma

where M is the mass of the cart and fk is the frictional force

between the cart and the track and fk = k (fN), where k is the

kinetic friction coefficient and fN is the normal force done by

the track on the cart. In this case f N = W = Mg, Which gives

that:

T W = Ma

or

T - k (Mg) = Ma

or

T = Ma + k (Mg)

Equation 3.3

From equations 3.2 and 3.3 we get:

Ma + k (Mg) = mg ma

k = (mg ma Ma)/Mg

Equation 3.4

Page 20

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

Objective:

To find the kinetic friction coefficient of a trolley moving

on a track using Newtons second law.

Equipment:

Track trolley holding magnet electronic stop clock

light barrier pulley mass hanger slotted weights

cables.

Page 21

Experimen

t

#3

Newtons Second

Law

Physics

011

Procedure:

Set the equipment, use the cable to connect the trolley with

the pulley and the hanging mass, the hanging mass should be

kept constant through out the experiment.

Connect the holding magnet to the stop clock and adjust the

voltage so that the trolley is held.

Put the light barrier at a certain distance, the distance should

be kept constant through out the experiment.

Release the trolley by stopping the magnet and record the

time the trolley took to pass the light barrier.

Repeat and record the time three times then calculate the

average time, the acceleration and the kinetic friction

coefficient from equation 3.4.

Increase the weight of the trolley by adding blocks on top of

it.

Repeat the previous steps for each mass.

Tabulate your data

Mass (M)

kg

s

s

s

s

s2

Page 22

a = 2d/t2

m/s2

Experimen

t

#4

Physics

011

Theory:

When an object slides down an incline, the component of

gravity pushing the block down the incline plane is:

Wx = mg sin()

Page 23

Equation 4.1

Experimen

t

#4

Physics

011

Objective:

Balancing a rolling mass on an inclined plane.

Equipment:

Magnet board Inclined plane Pulley Masses Spring

balance Rolling mass Mass hanger String.

Page 24

Experimen

t

#4

Physics

011

Procedure:

Weigh the rolling mass using the balance spring and

calculate its weight.

Set the incline on the magnet board at a certain angle and

record it.

Attach the rolling mass with a string and tie the string to the

balance spring and support the string with a pulley.

For accurate results, the string should be parallel to the

plane.

The Tension of the string is equal to the component of

gravity pushing the mass down the incline Wx.

The tension also could be measured using the balance

spring.

Find the percentage error between the two values of the

force.

Change the angle of the incline and repeat the previous

steps.

Tabulate your data.

Degree

30

40

50

60

Page 25

Fx (Measured)

Wx (calculated)

Percentage Error

Experimen

t

#5

Friction of an

Inclined Plane

Physics

011

Theory:

When an object is placed on an incline, Newtons second law

could be applied as follows:

plane: Wx = mg sin(). Component of gravity pushing the

block against the incline plane: Wy = mg cos()

Page 26

Experimen

t

#5

Friction of an

Inclined Plane

Physics

011

F = ma

On the y-axis:

fN Wy = 0

fN = Wy = m g cos()

Equation 5.1

On the x-axis:

fk Wx = - ma

k (fN) Wx = - ma

k (fN) = Wx ma

By substituting from equation 5.1:

k (m g cos) = mg sin ma

k = (mg sin ma) / (m g cos)

Equation 5.2

d = v0t + (1/2)at2

If the object starts at rest, we get:

d = (1/2) a t2

Equation 5.3

Page 27

Experimen

t

#5

Friction of an

Inclined Plane

Physics

011

Objective:

To find the kinetic friction coefficient of an inclined plane.

Equipment:

Magnet board plane with protractor blocks stop clock.

Page 28

Experimen

t

#5

Friction of an

Inclined Plane

Physics

011

Procedure:

Attach the inclined plane to the magnet board with a certain

angle, record the angle.

Put a block on the plane and start the stop clock at the time

you release the block.

Stop the stop clock at the time the block reaches the end of

the plane and record the time it took the block to travel the

plane.

Repeat three times an find the average time of the block

sliding the plane.

Use equation 5.3 to calculate the acceleration of the block.

Use the result in equation 5.2 to find the kinetic friction

coefficient of the planes surface with the block.

Repeat the previous steps with two different angles.

Compare all results and give your conclusion.

Time 1

s

Page 29

Time 2

s

Time 3

s

Average

Time

s

Time square

s2

a = 2d/t2

m/s2

Experimen

t

#6

Hooks law:

Expansion of a

Helical Spring

Physics

011

Theory:

A material has a rest shape and its shape departs away from

the rest shape due to stress. The amount of departure from rest

shape is called deformation, the proportion of deformation to

original size is called strain.

Elastic material retain their rest shape after the stress is

removed. A spring is an example of elastic materials.

A spring-mass system obeys Hook's law, which states that the

extension produced is directly proportional to the load:

F = - kx

Equation 6.1

Where:

x: is the distance that the spring has been stretched or

compressed away from the equilibrium position [usually in

m].

F: is the restoring force exerted by the material [usually in N].

K: is the force constant (spring constant) and it is a measure

of the spring's stiffness [usually in N/m].

The negative sign in Equation 6.1 indicates that the direction

of F is always opposite the direction of the displacement. This

implies that the spring force is a restoring force. In other

words, the spring force always acts to restore, or return, the

body to the equilibrium position regardless of the direction of

the displacement,

Page 30

Experimen

t

#6

Hooks law:

Expansion of a

Helical Spring

Physics

011

Objective:

To determine a spring constant using Hooks law.

Equipment:

Helical spring magnetic board mass hanger slotted

weights

Page 31

Experimen

t

#6

Hooks law:

Expansion of a

Helical Spring

Physics

011

Procedure:

Attach the spring to the magnetic board.

The spring is placed in a scaled transparent tube which

allows reading the expansion or the force applied on the

spring directly.

Hang the mass hanger at the end of the spring and note its

mass.

Start adding slotted masses on the hanger one after another.

For each mass read the expansion and the force.

Tabulate your data.

Mass

kg

Weight

N

Expansion

m

(y-axis) of the spring.

Draw the best line and find its slope.

Calculate the springs constant from the slope using

equation 6.1.

Page 32

Experimen

t

#7

Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

Physics

011

Theory:

Energy is the ability to do work and is measured by Jouls.

Mechanical energy has two different forms:

Potential energy is the energy an object stores due to its

position.

The gravitational potential energy is given by:

PE = m g h

Equation 7.1

Where m is the mass of the object, g is the gravitational

acceleration and h is the height of the object.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

The kinetic energy is given by:

KE = (1/2) m v2

Equation 7.2

The total mechanical energy E, of any isolated system of

objects, is defined as the sum of the kinetic and potential

energies:

E = PE + KE

Equation 7.3

The principle of conservation of energy could be written as:

Ei = E f

Equation 7.4

Where Ei is the initial energy and Ef is the final energy

Page 33

Experimen

t

#7

Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

Physics

011

acceleration. Energy conservation law:

Ei = E f

KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf

Equation 7.5

If the object starts from rest, we get:

m g hi = (1/2) m vf2 + m g hf

Equation 7.6

(1/2) m vf2 = m g hi m g hf

(1/2) vf2 = g hi g hf

v f 2g(h i h f )

Equation 7.7

From the equations of motion:

d = (1/2) (vi + vf) t

Equation 7.8

If the object starts at rest, we get:

vf = 2d / t

Equation 7.9

Which means that the final velocity could be found either by

the energy conservation law (Eqn 7.7) or by equation of

motion

(Eqn 7.9).

Page

34

Experimen

t

#7

Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

Physics

011

Objective:

To find the final velocity of an object sliding an incline with

constant acceleration using energy conservation law.

Equipment:

Track trolley holding magnet electronic stop clock

light barrier cables.

Page 35

Experimen

t

#7

Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

Physics

011

Procedure:

Set the track so that it will become an incline by rising one

side of it, use the holding magnet to hold the trolley still.

Connect the stop clock with a light barrier and put the light

barrier at a certain distance and record the distance that the

trolley should travel.

Measure the height at the beginning and at the end of the

motion of the trolley.

Release the trolley and find the time it needs to travel the

distance three times and find the average time of traveling.

Use the equation 7.7 and 7.9 to find the final velocity. The

two values should be equal.

Find the percentage error.

Calculate the initial and final PE and KE.

Repeat the previous steps by changing the height, the mass

and the distance and conclude their effect on energy.

Page 36

Experimen

t

#8

Equilibrant Force

Physics

011

Theory:

An object is said to be in equilibrium if the the resultant force

acting on the object is zero.

If a resultant force acts on an object then that object can be

brought into equilibrium by applying an additional force that

exactly balances this resultant. Such a force is called the

equilibrant and is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction

to the original resultant force acting on the object.

Page 37

Experimen

t

#8

Equilibrant Force

Physics

011

Objective:

To find the resultant force of two forces, then find the

equilibrant force.

Equipment:

Magnet board degree scale pulleys masses mass

hangers spring balance force ring string.

Page 38

Experimen

t

#8

Equilibrant Force

Physics

011

Procedure:

Use the magnet board to attach the degree scale.

Tie three strings to the force ring and attach two strings with

two mass holders with different slotted masses.

Set the hangers as pulling forces by using pulleys and make

the forces act in different angles with respect to the zero

degree line.

Use the holding pin to prevent the ring from accelerating.

Now attach the third string with the spring.

Adjust the spring balance until the force ring is in

equilibrium.

resultant.

The resultant force you found should be equal to the force

applied by the spring (magnitude and direction), check your

results.

Page

39

Experimen

t

#9

Torque

Physics

011

Theory:

When a force F acts on a point which is displaced from the

axis of rotation a distance d, the torque by this force is

= Fd sin

Equation 9.1

where the is the angle between F and d.

torque must be zero to establish a mechanical equilibrium.

Page 40

Experimen

t

#9

Torque

Physics

011

Objective:

Balancing an object with different torques.

Equipment:

Magnet board balance beam pulleys masses mass

hangers spring balance string.

Page 41

Experimen

t

#9

Torque

Physics

011

Procedure:

Use the magnet board to attach the balance beam.

Hang two mass holders with different slotted masses.

Change the distance until the beam is balanced.

Calculate the torques and check your answer.

Page 42

Experimen

t

#9

Torque

Physics

011

Now remove one of the mass holders and use the degree

scale and the spring balance to apply another forces on the

beam with an angle of 30o.

Adjust the spring in order to balance the beam.

Then tabulate your data to find the force applied by the

spring and find the percentage error.

Change the angle and repeat the previous steps.

Degree

30

40

50

60

Page 43

F1

=F1d1sin

Experimen

t

# 10

Center of Mass

Physics

011

Theory:

The center of mass is an important concept in physics. The

center of mass is the point at which an object can be balanced.

Sometimes finding the center of mass of an object can be

challenging, especially if the object has an odd shape. This

experiment illustrates a simple way to find the center of mass

of some interesting shapes.

Page 44

Experimen

t

# 10

Center of Mass

Physics

011

Objective:

Finding the center of mass of a plane.

Equipment:

Magnet board Planar mass masses mass hangers

Degree plate string.

Page 45

Experimen

t

# 10

Center of Mass

Physics

011

Procedure:

Hang the planar mass from the holding pin of the degree

plate.

Since the force of the pin acting on the mass is equilibrant

to the sum of the gravitational forces acting on the mass, the

line of the force exerted by the pin must pass through the

center of mass of the planar mass.

Hang a piece of string with a hanging mass from the

holding pin.

Tape a piece of paper to the Planar Mass as shown.

Mark the paper to indicate the line of the string across the

Planar Mass.

Now hang the planar mass from a different point. Again,

mark the line of the string.

By finding the intersection of the two lines, locate the

center of mass of the planar mass.

Hang the Planar Mass from a third point. Does the line of

the string pass through the center of mass?

Page 46

Prefix

Appendix

A

Physics

011

SI Units Basic

Unit Name

Unit Symbol

Quantity

Meter

Length

Kilogram

Mass

Second

Time

Joule

Energy

Watt

Power

SI Prefix

Multiple

Prefix

Symbol

1012

Tera

109

Giga

196

Mega

103

Kilo

102

Hector

10

Deca

Da

10-1

Deci

10-2

Centi

10-3

Milli

10-6

Micro

10-9

Nano

10-12

Pico

Appendix

B

Fractions

Physics

011

b

and b the denominator.

The addition or subtraction of fractions:

a c ad cb

b d

db

a c ac

x

b d db

a c ad cb

b d

db

Appendix

C

Vectors

Physics

011

magnitude alone.

Vectors: are quantities which are fully described by both a

magnitudeand a direction.

A vector A in the x-y plane has two components, Ax and Ay.

obtained

by placing the initial point of Bon the final point

of

of to

A , and then

drawing a line from the initial pointA

the final point B

of .

Then

ABC

A x Bx C x

Ay B y C y

Appendix

C

Vectors

Physics

011

ABC

A x Bx C x

Ay B y C y

Appendix

D

Physics

011

problem of an object, and the force vectors acting on it. This

body is free because the diagram will show it without its

surroundings.

some of the main forces:

Gravity: The first is that due to gravity, which is called the

gravitational force. The acceleration due to gravity of Earth is

approximately g = 9.8 m/s2. The force, by Newton's Second

Law is:

Fg = m g

Normal: The normal force is one which prevents objects

from falling into whatever it is they are sitting upon. It is

always perpendicular to the surface with which an object is in

contact.

Friction: Related to the normal force is the frictional force.

The two are related because they are both due to the fact that

the body is in contact with the surface. Friction is divided into

two types-static and kinetic.

Push and Pull: Another force which may act on an object

could be any physical push or pull.

Tension: Tension in an object results if the pulling force acts

on its ends, such as in a rope used to pull an object.

University

Phone: 2585190

Website: www.imamu.edu.sa

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