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Geologic Analysis of Naturally

Fractured Reservoirs
2nd Edition, R.A. Nelson (2001)
Gulf Professional Publishing
a subsidiary of
Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA

Geologic Analysis of Naturally


Fractured Reservoirs
2nd Edition, R.A. Nelson (2001)
The following contains renditions of the
figures included within the book as well as
additional figures used by the author to
teach industry courses on the subject.
Also included is Appendix D of the book.

Ronald A. Nelson
Discipline

Structural Geology & Rock


Mechanics

Location

BP Amoco, Upstream Technology,


Geology Team, Houston

History

26 years with BP Amoco as


Specialist & Manager

Education

BS (Northern Illinois), MS, PhD


(Texas A&M) all in Geology

Skills

Fractured Reservoirs, Technology


Management, Peer Assists,
Recruiting, Structural
Interpretation
in Thrust Belts and Rifts

Publications

75 citations; including a textbook


Geologic Analysis of Naturally
Fractured Reservoirs eds. 1&2.

Liesegang
Banding in
Aztec Ss,
Nevada

Work Builds On:


Nelson, R. A., 1985, Geological Analysis of
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: Contributions in
Petroleum Geology & Engineering, Gulf
Publishing Co., Houston, TX, 320 p.
Material presented in the AAPG Fractured
Reservoir Analysis School, 1984-1996.

Courtesy of Gulf Professional


Publishing, Boston

General Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Introduction
Fracture Origin
Fracture Morphology
Fracture Porosity
Fracture Permeability
F/M Interaction
Fracture Intensity
Intensity Prediction

9. Orientations
10. Reservoir Types
11. Well Directions
12. Simulation
13. Fracture Reservoir
Production
14. Reservoir Screening
15. Summary
(Field Examples)

Reasons Why We Look at


Natural Fractures

Delineate Structure
Determine Mode & Path of Deformation
Define Mechanics of Fracture
Determine Paleo-stress Directions
Determine Velocity Anisotropy
Determine Mechanical Anisotropy
Predict Reservoir Properties & Potential

Total Integration Includes:

Fracture system characterization


Stratigraphic interpretation & modeling
Structural geology
Petrophysics
Seismic mapping & attribute analysis
Well testing, inc. production logs
Production history matching
Reservoir engineering, inc. dual porosity flow behavior
Fracture scaling and reservoir simulation
Drilling and completion technology

Modeling in Fractured Reservoirs SPE Forum, Sept. 200


Experience & Analogs
Static Description

Dynamic Description
Static Conceptual
Model

Dynamic Conceptual
Model

Pressure
Derivative

Data considered: Outcrops

Hansen

Subsurface
Outcrop
Wellbore
Geophysics

bedding contained joints


-type, orientations, spacing
non bedding contained joints
-type + orientation + forelimb/ backlimb
joint zones
-type + orientation + forelimb/ backlimb
faults
-type +orientation + forelimb/ backlimb
normal
reverse
strike slip
thrusts

dominant fracture direction

Oil
Water

no increase of fractures at hinge


faults near hinge?

Peng

Statistical & Geomechanical


Upscaling
Representation
Discrete Model

Pressure

Nelson

Pressure
Temperature
Fluid Types
Energy

Peng

Well Test Data &


Well Histories
Continuous Model

Full Static &


Dynamic Simulation

Simulation
Model

Rawnsley

Sanction, Recovery Planning, Flood Design, etc.

Fundamental Approach
after Nelson (1985)

Determine fracture system origin(s) in 3-d


Allows for predictability away from wellbore
Tectonic, regional, cleat, diagenetic, sequence

Determine reservoir properties & var. in 3-d


Quantifies porosity, permeability, etc.
Morphology, width, spacing/intensity, stress affects

Fracture/matrix communication
Linkage in dual porosity system
Cross flow, connectivity, recovery

Fundamental Approach (cont.)


Determine reservoir type
Defines relative contribution of fractures and
problems
Simulation, production character, management

Locate optimum drill locations & well paths


Quantifies sweet spots & maximizes wellbore
surface
Intensity, azimuth, directional drilling, seismic attributes

Develop reservoir management strategies


Control the reservoir to efficiently balance rate &
recovery and reduce well costs
Fracture closure, well patterns, sweep

Recent Advancement Areas

Log Characterization
Spacing Estimates
Fracture Zone Identification
Reservoir Simulation
Azimuth Predictions
Reservoir Analogs
Effects of Fracture and Diagenetic
History

Impacts on Fractured Reservoir Studies


Simplified E&P Process in Fractured Reservoirs

Experience
Learnings from
BP, Amoco, &
Industry
Base-case learnings
from other fields and
analogues that give guidance
to current evaluations and
planning

Input Data
(Static & Dynamic)
Outcrop
Lab
Subsurface
Obtaining appropriate
quality input data to
characterize fractured
reservoirs

Business Model
& Decision
Cross Project
Issues

Models
(Static & Dynamic)
Improved Modeling Tools &
Procedures
Obtaining fast &
accurate modeling
routines & procedures
to predict fractured
reservoir performance

Appropriate & cost-effective


drilling & completion techniques in
fractured reservoirs

Fracture
A macroscopic planar discontinuity in rock
which is interpreted to be due to
deformation or physical diagenesis
It may be due to compactive or dilatent
processes, thus having either a positive or
negative effect on fluid flow
Its characteristics may have been modified
by subsequent deformation or diagenesis

Fractured Reservoir
Any reservoir in which naturally occurring
fractures have, or are predicted to have, a
significant effect of flow rates, anisotropy,
recovery, or storage.

Avoid
Fracture Denial

Fracture Denial
Keeps Us From:
Gathering important static data early
Optimizing our well locations & paths
Designing our secondary recovery patterns
correctly
Accurately predicting field rates & recovery
Economically depleting our field