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Dogma Sentral

Biologi Molekuler
Riandini Aisyah
2009

History
In

1944 Oswald Avery proves DNA is the


genetic material, and his findings were
confirmed in 1952 by Hershey and Chase.

In 1953, DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) was
discovered as a double helix
structure by Watson and
Crick using data collected
by Rosalind Franklin.

1961 Marshall Nirenberg and colleagues decipher the genetic code


Genetic code is a triplet code, with each codon consisting of
three nucleotide bases.

Code

Properties

Universal
Degenerate
Unambiguous
Contains

Common

start and stop signals

Origin of Life

1970 American

microbiologist, Daniel
Nathans, discovers first restriction enzyme
which can cut specifically cut DNA at a
specific recognition site.

Central Dogma
Gene

Genome
Transcription

RNA

Transcriptome

Translation

Protein

Proteome

Information Only Goes One Way


The central dogma states that once information has
passed into protein it cannot get out again.
The transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic
acid, or from nucleic acid to protein, may be possible, but
transfer from protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic
acid, is impossible.
Information means here the precise determination of
sequence, either of bases in the nucleic acid or of amino
acid residues in the protein.
Francis Crick, 1958

HUMAN GENOME = total


genetic information

NUCLEAR GENOME
* 23 pairs of chromosomes 2 X ( 3 X
109 b.p) 2 meters DNA / Cell
* 2 X ( 3 X 1012 ) meters DNA in human
body 8,000 X (earth to moon)

MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME

Human 4 x 109
22 autosom yang berbeda
2 sex kromosom
Masing2 single linier DNA

E.Coli 4.7 x 106 1 Chromosom


40 50 loop superkoil

Human genome= total genetic


information
Contain

3.109 nucleotides (bp),


organized as 24 chromosomes
two copies
Each DNA mol: contain a centromere,
two telomeres and replication origins
Centromeres serve to hold the two
copies and attach via kinetochore

Nucleotides:
A - T
G - C

Sugar:
De oxy ribose
Ribose

Phosphate

STRUCTURE :

DNA/RNA DE OXY RIBOSE / RIBOSE


Phosphate group
BASE : PURINE :
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
PYRIMIDINE :
Cytosin (C)
(DNA) - Thymin (T)
(RNA) - Uracil (U)

* Composition of bases of DNA from different


organism varies greatly

DNA * Consist of two intertwined polynucleotid


chain (the Double Helix)
* The Double helix is held together by
Hydrogen bond
* Adenin (A) pair with Thymin (T) (A = T)
Guanin (G) pair with Cytosin (C) (G = C)
* Base pairing = complementary

DNA

* can be renatured and denatured


* denatured : boils temperature
extreme of PH (PH < 3
PH > 10)
* renatured : 650C

A segment of DNA found on a chromosome that codes


for a particular proteins; a unit of heredity

Structurally, a basic unit of hereditary material; an


ordered sequence of nucleotide bases that encodes a
product (this product could be just RNA like rRNA or
finally coding for a protein)

How to understand gene functions ?


Certain stimuli
receptor
signal transduction
intracell pathway
nuclear response
certain gene on
transcription
RNA
splicing
m RNA
translation
Protein (a.a)

Each gene produces an RNA molecule

The primary fuction of the genome: to specify RNA


mol
The expression is regulated prot. bind to the DNA
in regulatory regions to determine whether a gene is
transcribed
coding and coding sequences= exon and intron
One gene

one protein

DNA

RNA

Protein

(Central Dogma)

RNA -

m RNA
t RNA
r RNA

Fungsi RNA
m RNA
t

- transfer information from genes to


protein - synthesizing machine
RNA - carries activated a.a for protein
synthetis

r RNA

- protein synthesis

GENOME :
Mus musulus : mammalia
Homo sapiens

3.109 bp DNA
3.5 109 bp

GEN (DNA) ANALYSIS


RFLP = RESTRICTION FRAGMENT
LENGTH POLY MORPHISM
PFGE = PULSED FIELD GEL ELECTRO
PORESIS
PCR = POLYMERASE CHAIN
REACTION
HYBRIDISATION
NORTHERN, SOUTHERN
WESTERN

DNA / Genes
* existence
* multicopy
* rearrangement
* mutation
* structural / sequence changes

RNA :
* gene expression
* level of expression
* degradation time
* gene function