Anda di halaman 1dari 73

Basic Course of

CDMA RF Optimization
by using ACTIX Analyzer
Prepared By:

Infracell Engineering Service Dept.

RF Optimization Unit Task


Presented By:

CHAIRUL HALIM
Senior RF Engineer
Mobile: 0811-88-8051 / 0815-86-332-332
Flexi Jakarta: 021-7085-2942
Email: kc0qeq@infracell.net

Course Learning Objectives


Upon completions of this course you will be able to:
Use the ACTIX Analyzer to post process the drive test data,
visualize the data and analyze the data.
Have the knowledge of voice network optimization.
Identify the problems and solutions found during the testing.

This course material is not intended to


replace the user manual provided by software application.
Please refer to it for further detail explanations.

Course Pre-requisite

cdmaOne and CDMA2000 concepts and terminology


Technical Background in Wireless Communication
Systems
Basic Call Processing in CDMA

Course History

It was aimed to be one of our


commitments to transfer the
knowledge and experiences
about ACTIX Analyzer to PT.
TELKOM.
This course was designed based
upon our technical knowledge
that was gained from
Qualcomm CDMA University
as one of CDMA knowledge
center.

ACTIX Analyzer

One of the best post processing tool that supports data from
multiple data collection vendors as well as multiple
technologies.
Able to decode the call trace collection devices.
Provide the flexibility for engineers to specify their own
analyses based on parameters collected during testing.
Using phone and scanner data for CDMA network analysis.
Automated report generation such as call statistics, handoff
states and many more.
Latest news from ACTIX 8 of the world top 10 operators
use ACTIX.

ACTIX Analyzer (continued)

Getting Started with ACTIX

Launch the ACTIX Analyzer application.


Configure the Analyzer. (Its only done once per optimization
area/workspace)

Setting up Maps
Loading Cell Site Data
Data Aggregation (Binning)
General Settings

Loading drive test data.


Create Superstream.
Export data to a file.
Generate the automated reports.
ACTIX data attributes most commonly export to a file.

Start Running the ACTIX

Launch the application by clicking the Analyzer Icon either on Desktop


Windows or Start Menu
Main Menu and
Button Bars

Workspace Explorer

Data Viewing Windows

Setting up Map

It is only required when we


want to display the data on top
of the background map.
Open the map windows by
clicking the View Menu ->
Display new Map

Setting up Map (continued)

Add map files (MapInfo


*.tab files) from the
Map windows toolbar
by clicking the Layers
Button

Setting up Map (continued)

Map toolbar reference

Loading Cell Site Data

The network data input files should be in tab, space or comma separated
files with one row of data per cell.
Basic required fields:

SiteID
Latitude
Longitude
Sector_ID
Azimuth
Beamwitdh
PN

By using import wizard feature, a user may define the format of a network data

input file and define how the source data is mapped to ACTIX fields.
There are two types of data imported from input files which are
categorized as cell and sites data.

Loading Cell Site Data (continued)

Use the Network


Explorer to import, view
and edit the network
information.

Loading Cell Site Data (continued)

Configure the column


settings of cell with
minimum required
fields as follows:

SectorID
Azimuth
Beamwitdh
PN

Loading Cell Site Data (continued)

Configure the column


settings of site with
mininum required fields
as follows:

Site_Name
SiteID
Latitude
Longitude

Loading Cell Site Data (continued)

Using the current


network information
(CellRefs) that was just
imported through the
Tools Menu and
Preferences.

Data Aggregation (Binning)

Binning is a method of grouping and averaging the data loaded


from a log file.
Binning criterion can be specified in terms of:

Time
Geographic Location
Distance Traveled
Message Number

The Map, Chart and Table are binned views, means that they
display binned data.
The Message Browser and Protocol Stack Browser are
message based views, means that they display data taken
directly from the messages in the logfile.
Currently, we are using the location binning mode for our data
analysis purpose.

Data Aggregation (Binning Continued)

Some best practice recommendations for binning


modes:

Comparing my network to a competitors, or current


location of my network to that of 3 months ago Use
location binning, 100m or 200m square bin sizes.
Creating bins only when there is a change in GPS
coordinates Use distance binning at 50m or 100m
intervals, is the best alternative.
Examining a small section of a drive test to solve a very
specific problem Use either message-based binning or
time-based binning at 500ms.

Data Aggregation (Binning continued)

To set the default


binning settings for the
workspace, from the
Tools menu, select
Preferences.

General Settings

Make Distance Units


into Kilometres
Adjust the Mobile and
Switch Time Offset to
our local time zone
which is GMT +7

Loading Drive Test Data

From the Analyzer


toolbar, click the Open
Logfiles button, and this
display the Open dialog
window
Select an appropriate
file

Loading Drive Test Data (continued)

Navigate the workspace


explorer to view the loaded
data.
The only objects that you
actually need to recognize
are filenames, data streams
and data attributes.
Data attributes will be used
by map, chart and table
windows.
Data streams will be used
by message browser and
protocol stack browser
windows.

Loading Drive Test Data (continued)


Filename
Loaded Data Stream

Loaded Data Attributes

Create Superstream

A superstream is a data stream that has been


generated by correlating and merging data
streams from different sources.
Data from the superstream can be displayed in
maps, charts and table.
With ACTIX, it is possible to merge the drive
test and call trace data by superstreaming.

Create Superstream (continued)

From the Tools menu,


select Create
Superstream to open the
Superstreaming dialog
window. This dialog
shows all currently
available data streams.
Check each data stream
that you want to
combine as a
superstream

Create Superstream (continued)

Merge Method Settings:

Use Timestamps this uses timestamp data within each stream to


synchronize the data.
Correlated Parameters use specified data attributes to correlate the
data streams.
Time Offsets use this to apply a shift to the time value for one of the
streams. It is a good option for superstreaming mobile and land-based
log files collected using speech quality equipments

Currently, we are using the timestamps method for our


analysis purpose.

Create Superstream (continued)

Export Data to a File

From the File menu, select


Export Text File to open the
Export Wizard.
Select the data stream, one or
more data attributes that are to be
exported and lastly specify the
export format using the options
provided.
This step is only required if we
are going to use the 3rd party
application such as MapInfo to
produce the drive test plots or
manipulate data within a MS
Excel.

Export Data to a File (continued)

Generate The Automated Reports

Most commonly reports produce by ACTIX such as:

CDMA Summary Report that consist of the following


reports:

Call Statistics
FER and EcIo
Mtx and Mrx
Handoff State

CDMA Event Inspection that consist of the following


reports:

Call Dropped Window Stats: For every dropped call, this reports
key performance metrics for a 5-second window before the drop.
Setup Failure Window Stats: For every dropped call, this reports
key performance metrics for a 5-second window before the drop.

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of Call
Statistics Summary

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of Handoff
State Report

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of Call
Dropped Window
Stats Report

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of
Setup Failure
Window Stats

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of FER and


EcIo Reports

Generate The Automated Reports (continued)

Sample of MS Rx and
Tx Power

ACTIX Data Attributes

There are two types of Data Attributes:

Handset Data Attributes that consist of:

Scanner or Receiver Data Attributes that consist of:

Downlink Measurements
Dedicated Radio Link
Pilot Measurements
Call Events
Pilot Measurements
Event Data

Those ACTIX Data Attributes are most commonly


used for our data analysis purposes.

CDMA RF Optimization
Course Outlines:

3 Major Steps in Optimizing Network


RF Optimization Process
Key Performance Metrics
Cluster and Drive Route
Infrastructure Data Collection
Post Processing and Analysis
CDMA Handset States
MS Call Processing
Soft Handoff Process
MS Timer Values
CDMA Layer 3 Messages
CDMA Event Technical Reference
Originating Call Flows
Paging Channel Messages
Dropped Calls
Outgoing Call Fail
Network Tuning

Three Major Steps in Optimizing Network

RF Optimization is the process of


measuring, analyzing, and tuning
an existing network to meet
network performance criteria.
It usually occurs after the
network planning is completed
It can be performed frequently, to
respond to:

Changes or growth in the network


Customer Complaints such as
coverage, dropped calls etc
The need to improve capacity

Test

Tune

Analyze

RF Optimization Process

Key Performance Metrics

It was defined to evaluate the network performance depend on what is


important to the network operator.
The specific metric may vary (not standardized)
The key performance metrics can change over time.
The primary key performance metrics are specified on most network. These
include:

Access Failure Rate (Mobile Origination and Termination Failures)


Drop Call Rate
Forward Frame Error Rate
MS Receive Power
MS Transmit Power
Pilot Ec/Io

Other metrics are specified on some, but not all networks. These include:

Average Call Setup Time


Soft Handoff Percentage
Area Availability

Cluster and Drive Route

Network should be divided into cluster if it consist of more


than 10 sites and the network coverage area is bigger.
Clustering will make it easily to identify the problems and
determine the causes.
Drive route should be defined and meet the following criteria:

The route should go through all the sectors and extend to the cell
boundary.
The route should include the points of interests such as stadiums,
arenas, location with high wireless usage and trouble spots/hot spots.

Infrastructure Data Collection

OMCR Data

MSC Data

MIB Database.
CDL Logs for the ESN that were used during the test.
Daily/Hourly Reports such as PM Sum, XCAT and CEM
Reports.
Call Trace Data (if required).

Site Audit Data

Antenna Checklist.
BTS Pilot Power Output.
Physical Installation Checklist.
Antenna Sweep Test Result.

Post Processing and Analysis

Use ACTIX to post process the mobile log files based


upon location and time.
The drive test plots are produced during the post
processing base upon the following ACTIX handset
data attributes:

MS Receive Power
Ec/Io 1st Best
Mobile Transmit Power
Forward FER
PN 1st Best Ec/Io
Handoff State

Post Processing and Analysis (continued)

This step also produce the call statistics such as:

Call Setup Time


Dropped Call Rate
Origination and Termination Failure Rate

Use ACTIX to identify the problems and solutions


through layer 3 messages (message browser and
protocol stack browser)

CDMA Handset States

Idle States This is the state that the phone is in,


before a call is originated or received. After a call is
terminated through normal or abnormal means, it
returns to the Idle States.
Origination State This is the state that the phone is
in after an Origination or Page Response is sent on the
access channel, but before the forward and reverse
traffic channels are active.
Dedicated State (Conversation) This is the state
that the phone is in, after transmission has started on
both link (forward and reverse traffic channels).

MS Call Processing

MS Call Processing (continued)

Soft Handoff Process

Soft Handoff Process (continued)


1.

2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

Pilot strength exceed T_ADD. MS sends a Pilot Strength Measurement


Message and transfers pilot to the Candidate Set.
BS sends an Extended Handoff Direction Message, a General Handoff
Direction Message or a Universal Handoff Direction Message.
MS transfers pilot to the Active Set and sends a Handoff Completion Message.
Pilot strength drops below T_DROP. MS starts the handoff drop timer
TT_DROP.
Handoff drop timer expires. MS sends a Pilot Strength Measurement Message.
BS sends an Extended Handoff Direction Message, a General Handoff
Direction Message or a Universal Handoff Direction Message.
MS moves pilot from the Active Set to the Neighbor Set and sends a Handoff
Completion Message.
This Soft Handoff Process will occur if
P_REV_IN_USEs is 3 or SOFT_SLOPEs = 000000

MS Timer Values

CDMA Layer 3 Messages

Synch Channel Messages (Forward Link)


Paging Channel Messages (Forward Link)

General Page Message


Access Parameter
System Parameter
Extended System Parameter
CDMA Channel List
Extended CDMA Channel List
Extended Channel Assignment
Neighbor List

Access Channel Messages (Reverse Link)

Origination Message
Paging Response Message

CDMA Layer 3 Messages (continued)

Forward Traffic Channel Messages (Forward Link)

Universal Handoff Direction Message


BS Acknowledgement
Service Connect
In Traffic System Parameter Update
In Traffic Neighbor List Update
Service Request

Reverse Traffic Channel Messages (Reverse Link)

Pilot Strength Measurement Messages


Power Measurement Report Messages
Service Connect Completion
Handoff Completion
MS Acknowledgment
Service Response

CDMA Layer 3 Messages (continued)

Use ACTIX Protocol Stack Browser to view the signaling messages .

CDMA Layer 3 Messages (continued)

Message Browser
combines an event
panel (sequentially
listing call events)
with a panel of
Layer 3 Messages,
allowing you to
pinpoint the root
causes of problems.

CDMA Event Technical Reference

Call Completed: This attribute indicates successful outgoing


call initiations triggered by the following sequence of
messages:

Call Dropped: This attribute indicates abnormal call


terminations triggered by the following sequence of events:

Origination or Enhanced Origination Messagee


Followed by a Service Connect or a Service Connect Completion Message

Outgoing Call Setup OK or Incoming Call Setup OK (defined below)


Not followed by a Forward Release Order
Followed by a return to the Sync Channel

Call Setup Time: It provides the difference in time between


the Service Connect Completion message and the associated
Origination, Enhance Origination, or Page Response Message.

CDMA Event Technical Reference (continued)

CDMA Call Type: It provides a description for each


call in a log file:

0 Outgoing Call Successfully Terminated


1 Incoming Call Successfully Terminated
2 Outgoing Call Failed Initiation
3 Incoming Call Failed Initiation
4
Outgoing Call Dropped
5 Incoming Call Dropped

Handoff OK: This attribute indicates handoff events


for mobiles handing off within the same carrier of a
CDMA system. This attribute is triggered by the
following sequence of messages:

CDMA Event Technical Reference (continued)

Extended Handoff Direction, Universal Handoff Direction,


or General Handoff Direction messages.
Followed by a Handoff Completion or Extended Handoff
Completion messages.

Incoming Call Fail: This attribute indicates failed


incoming call attempts triggered by the following
sequence of messages:

Page Response message.


Not followed by a Service Connect Completion.
Followed by another Page Response message or a
transition back to Idle mode.

CDMA Event Technical Reference (continued)

Incoming Call OK: This attribute indicates


successful incoming call initiations triggered by the
following sequence of messages:

Page Response message.


Followed by a either a Service Connect or Service Connect
Completion message.

Outgoing Call Fail: This attribute indicates failed


outgoing call initiations triggered by the following
sequence of messages:

Origination or Enhanced Origination messages.


Not followed by a Service Connect Completion message.

CDMA Event Technical Reference (continued)

Followed by an Origination message or a transition


back to idle mode.

Outgoing Call OK: This attribute indicates


successful outgoing call initiations triggered
by the following sequence of messages:

Origination or Enhanced Origination messages.


Followed by a Service Connect or a Service
Connect Completion message.

Paging Channel Messages


(General Page Message)

Paging Channel Messages


(Access Parameter)

Paging Channel Messages


(CDMA Channel List)

Paging Channel Messages


(Neighbor List)

Paging Channel Messages


(System Parameters)

Paging Channel Messages


(Extended System Parameter)

Paging Channel Messages


(Extended CDMA Channel List)

Dropped Calls

Dropped Calls are caused by the inability to maintain a closed


loop path for signaling and traffic between the mobile and the
base station once the call is established.
Key Observations:

Drive Test Plots produced by ACTIX Handset Data Attributes such as


MS Rx Power, MS Tx Power, Forward FER and 1st Best Ec/Io.
Call Drop Window Stats 5 Secs Before Drop (ACTIX CDMA Event
Inspections).
Infrastructure Logs (CDL and MSC Call Trace Data).
CDMA Layer 3 Messages and Mobile Diagnostic Messages that are
viewed by protocol stack browser and message browser.

Most Probably Causes: System Release, RF Loss, MS/BS Bad


Frames, MS Fade Timer, Forward FER Too High, Weak Ec/Io
and Missing Potential Neighbor.

Sample of Dropped Calls

Drive test plot shows too high Forward


FER but good RSSI and Ec/Io. This is
indication of weak traffic channel.
CDL logs shows CFC=26 (System
Release).
MSC logs shows Fail Reason (System
Failure).

Outgoing Call Fail

Key Observations:

Drive Test Plots produced by ACTIX Handset Data


Attributes such as MS Rx Power, MS Tx Power, Forward
FER and 1st Best Ec/Io.
Setup Failure Window Stats 5 secs. Before Event Outgoing
Failures (ACTIX CDMA Event Inspection Report).
Infrastructure Logs (CDL and MSC Call Trace Data).
CDMA Layer 3 Messages and Mobile Diagnostic Messages
that are viewed by protocol stack browser and message
browser.

Most probably causes: link imbalance, access failure,


repeater problems and communicates with distant site.

Sample of Outgoing Call Fail

MS communicates with
distant sites which was
shown by searcher and
finger info messages.
Max number of access
probe sequences were
reached (num_step=3 and
max_rsp_seq=3)

Network Tuning

After a network has been tested and the test data has
been analyzed, the network is tuned to bring it up its
defined performance specifications.
Hardware Changes:

Antenna Adjustments (Orientation, Tilt and Height)

Software Changes:

Neighbor List Add/Delete


BTS Pilot Power
MAHO Parameter
Search Windows Parameter
Access Parameter
Cell Radius

Enjoy Your Day


with ACTIX
Thank You Very Much for Your Attention