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MK.

KESUBURAN TANAH

UNSUR MIKRO
23/9/2008

II. Unsur-unsur hara Bagi Pertumbuhan Tanaman

Unsur Hara Mikro


Merupakan unsur hara yang sama pentingnya
dengan unsur-unsur hara makro bagi tanaman,
walaupun dalam hal ini kebutuhannya hanya
sedikit. Disebut juga unsur hara minor atau
trace element.
Unsur hara mikro terdapat dari sumber :
- Batu-batu mineral bahan induk tanah
- Air irigasi
- Sisa-sisa bahan organis
Pada umumnya diperlukan dalam jumlah sedikit
dalam ukuran gram-1 kg/ha.
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Unsur mikro merupakan zat katalisator atau zat yang dapat


mempercepat persenyawaan kimiawi dalam tubuh
tanaman.
Unsur yang diperlukan oleh tanaman gandum :
Fosfor 8 Kg/ha (uh. Makro)
Tembaga 20 gr/ha (uh.Mikro)
Seng 100 gr/ha (uh. Mikro)
Mangan 500 gr/ha (uh. Mikro)
a. Besi (Fe)
Zat besi penting bagi pembentukan hijau daun
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zat besi (Fe) terdapat dalam enzim :


- catalase
- Peroksidase
- Prinodic hidrogenase
- Cytrochrom oxidase
Tersedianya zat besi dalam tanah secara berlebihan,
misalnya karena pemupukan dengan zat ini yang
overdosis, dapat membahayakan bagi tanaman yaitu
keracunan.
Sebagai pupuk, zat besi ini dipakai dalam bentuk larutan yang
disemprotkan melalui daun atau dalam bentuk bubuk besi
yang diinjeksikan pada tanah.
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Zat Besi (Fe)


- Pembentuk klorofil
- Oksidasi reduksi dalam pernapasan
- Penyusun enzim dan protein
b. Borium (Bo)
Borium diserap oleh tanaman dalam bentuk BO 3= dan
berperan dalam pembentukan atau pembiakan sel terutama
dalam titik tumbuh pucuk, juga dalam pertumbuhan tepung
sari, bunga dan akar.
Pada legum terutama dalam pembentukan bintil-bintil akar.
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Borium berhubungan erat dengan metabolisme K dan Ca.


Unsur ini dapat memperbanyak cabang-cabang nodule
untuk memberikan banyak bakteri dan mencegah bakteri
parasit.
Kekurangan unsur ini dapat
- Berpengaruh pada kuncup-kuncup dan pucukpucuk yang tumbuh dan akibatnya dapat mematikan.
- Pertumbuhan dalam meristem akan terganggu
- Menyebabkan terjadinya kelainan dalam
pembentukan berkas pembuluh
- Pengangkutan makanan terganggu
- Pembentukan tepung sari akan jelek
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Kekurangan Borium banyak terjadi pada tanah berpasir


dan tanah-tanah yang kaya akan kapur.
Di dalam tanah borium banyak terdapat dalam bentuk :
Tourmaline
Datolit (Ca(OH)2BoSiO4)
Borax (Na2Bo4O21OH2O)

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c. Mangan (Mn)
Mangan diserap tanaman dalam bentuk Mn++.
Fungsi Mangan bagi tanaman :
- Pembentukan zat protein dan vitamin terutama vit.C
- Untuk mempertahankan kondisi hijau daun pada
daun yang tua
- Sebagai enzim feroksidase dan sebagai aktifator
macam-macam enzim, diduga Mn ini berhubungan
erat dengan reaksi Deoksidase dan Dehidrogenase
Tanah yang kekurangan Mn dapat diatasi dengan
memberikan 1 % MnSO4H2O, dalam bentuk larutan
langsung dapat diserap tanaman
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Mangan Banyak terdapat pada tanaman gadung.


Di dalam tanaman Mn terdapat pada mineral-mineral :
Pyroluste -----------------(MnO2)
Rhodonite ----------------(MnSiO 3)
Rhodochrosit ------------(MnCo3).

Tersedianya Mn bagi tanaman tergantung pada pH tanah,


dimana pada pH rendah Mangan akan banyak tersedia.
Penyemprotan MnSO4 melalui daun akan lebih efektif
daripada melalui tanah, karena Mn 2+ pada tanah cepat
direduksi. Kelebihan Mn bisa dikurangi dengan jalan
menambah zat fosfor dan kapur.
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d. Tembaga atau Cuprum (Cu)


Unsur tembaga diserap oleh akar tanaman dalam
bentuk Cu++. Tembaga sangat diperlukan dalam
pembentukan macam-macam enzim seperti berikut :
Ascorbic acid oxydase
Lacosa
Butirid Coenzim A.dehidrosenam
Pembentukan klorofil
Katalis pernapasan
Metabolisme karbohidrat dan protein

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Umumnya tanah jarang sekali yang kekurangan Cu,


akan tetapi apabila terjadi kekurangan Cu maka
pengaruhnya terhadap daun yang dalam hal ini daun :
Daun menjadi tercoreng-coreng (belang)
Ujung daun memutih
Keadaan demikian lazim disebut penyakit reklamasi
(reclamation desease).
Jika kekurangan Cu berkelanjutan, tanaman akan layu
dan akhirnya mati.
Tembaga (Cu) mempunyai peranan penting dalam
pembentukan hijau daun (khlorofil).
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Di dalam tanah Cu terdapat dalam bentuk :


Malachit -------------------------- (CaCO3Cu(OH)2
Cuprit ----------------------------- (Cu2O)
Defisiensi tembaga pada umumnya terjadi pada tanah-tanah
gambut yang mengakibatkan pertumbuhan tanaman
menjadi tidak normal (pelayuan yang cepat disertai batang
tanaman melemah).
Cu sebagai pupuk digunakan dalam bentuk CuSO4.5H2O
(Cupri sulfat)

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e. Seng atau Zincum (Zn)


Zincum diserap dalam bentuk Zn++.
Merupakan bagian yang penting dari asam
Carboxylase,Carbonic anhidrosa. Dalam keadaan yang
sangat sedikit Zn telah dapat memberikan dorongan
terhadap perkembangan-perkembangan, kelebihan sedikit
saja dari ketentuan penggunaannya akan merupakan
racun, dapat dikatakan bahwa tanaman yang tahan dengan
larutan makanan tercampur dengan Zn mgr/liter jumlahnya
adalah sedikit sekali.
Persenyawaan-persenyawaan Zn berfungsi pula pada
pembentukan hormon (auxin) dan penting bagi
keseimbangan fisiologis.
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Defisiensi Zn dapat menyebabkan pertumbuhan


vegetatif terhambat selain juga dapat menghambat
pertumbuhan biji.
Zn dalam tanah terdapat dalam bentuk :
Sulfida ------------------- (ZnS)
Calamine --------------- (ZnCO3)
Kekurangan Zn sering terjadi pada daerah-daerah yang
lembab serta pada tanah-tanah yang asam sampai
sedikit netral.
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Pemupukan Zn dalam bentuk ZnSO4.7H2O atau seng


sulfat, pemupukan melalui semprotan ke daun adalah
lebih efektif daripada melalui tanah. Di samping
penyemprotan ke daun juga dapat dilakukan
penyemprotan larutan Zn ke dalam tanah.
f. Molibdenum (Mo)
Mo diserap akar tanaman dalam bentuk MoO4 (ion
Molibdat). Mo mempunyai peranan dasar dalam fiksasi
N oleh mikroba pada leguminoseae dan Mo sebagai
katalisator dalam mereduksi N, tanpa bantuan Mo
Legum tidak dapat mereduksi unsur metal ini.
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Mo dalam tanah terdapat dalam bentuk MoS2.


Tersedianya Mo bagi tanaman dipengaruhi oleh pH.
Dalam hal ini apabila pH rendah maka tersedianya Mo
bagi tanaman akan kurang. Di dalam tanaman Mo
terdapat dalam bentuk Nitrate reductase. Zat mikro ini
diperlukan tanaman dalam ukuran atau timbangan yang
sangat sedikit, justru dengan jumlah sedikit ini akan
sangat efektif. Kelebihan sedikit saja dari ketentuan
ukuran akan merupakan racun bagi tanaman. Selain
bagi tanaman Leguminoseae, zat ini juga penting bagi
tanaman jeruk dan sayuran.

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g. Khlor (Cl)
Dari hasil analisa pada tanaman ternyata bahwa Cl banyak
terdapat dalam abu tanaman (relatif besar) dan dari hasil
penyelidikan Cl ternyata banyak terdapat pada tanaman
yang mengandung serat, seperti kapas. Bagi tanaman yang
menghasilkan tepung, Cl memberikan pengaruh jelek
terhadap kualitas tepungnya.
Pada tanaman tembakau apabila Cl keadaannya lebih
besar maka produksi tembakaunya akan jelek.
Bentuk Cl yang lebih dari 0,1 % bagi tanaman pada
umumnya akan menimbulkan keracunan, sedangkan pada
padi timbulnya keracunan apabila Cl lebih dari
0,3 %.
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h.Cobalt (Co)
- Fiksasi nitrogen oleh bakteri simbiotik
- Penyususn Vit. B-12, terpenting untuk pembentukan
hemoglobin pada bintil-bintil akar pengikat nitrogen.
Unsur-unsur lain yang berhubungan erat dengan tanaman
adalah :
Na (Natrium)
Si (Silikum)
Ni (Nikel)
Ti (Titan)
Se (Selenium), V (Vanadium, Ar (Argon), dan Yodium.
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Kandungan unsur MIKRO dalam tanah dan jaringan tanaman

RESPON TANAMAN TERHADAP UNSUR MIKRO

SUMBER PUPUK UNSUR MIKRO

Lima macam sumber unsur mikro :


1.Produk Pupuk Organik
2. Khelat sintetik
3. Senyawa organik kompleks alamiah
4. Produk gelas frits (frits).
5. Pupuk An-organik

PUPUK MIKRO An-organik


Pupuk mikro anorganik dapat berupa: oxides and carbonates, and metallic salts
such as sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates.
The sulfates are the most common of the metallic salts and are sold in crystalline or
granular form. An ammoniated ZnSO4 solution also is used in polyphosphate
starter fertilizers.
Oxides of manganese and zinc also are commonly used, and are sold as fine powders
and in granular form. Because oxides such as ZnO and MnO are water insoluble,
their immediate effectiveness for crops is rather low in granular form.
The available divalent form of manganese in MnO will oxidize to the unavailable
tetravalent form of manganese, so there is very little residual availability of
manganese fertilizers for succeeding crops.
Agronomic effectiveness of granular MnO may be rather low. Since manganese in
MnO2 already is in the unavailable form, it should not be used as a manganese
fertilizer.

PUPUK MIKRO An-organik


Oxysulfates are oxides, usually industrial by-products, which have been
partially acidulated with sulfuric acid, and generally are sold in granular
form.
The percentage of water-soluble manganese or zinc in oxysulfates is directly
related to the degree of acidulation by sulfuric acid.
Research results have shown that about 35 to 50 percent of the total zinc in
granular zincoxysulfate should be in water-soluble form to be immediately
effective for crops.
Similar results would be expected for manganese-oxysulfate.

Pupuk mikro anorganik biasanya harganya lebih murah, tetapi


tidak selalu lebih efektif bagi pertumbuhan dan produksi
tanaman .

Khelat Sintetik
Khelat sintetik ini dibentuk dengan jalan menggabungkan agen-agen
khelat dengan logam mikro melalui ikatan koordinasi.
Stability of the metal-chelate bond affects availability to plants of the
UNSUR MIKRO metals --- copper, iron, manganese, and zinc.
An effective chelate is one in which the rate of substitution of the
chelated UNSUR MIKRO for other cations in the soil is quite low,
thus maintaining the applied UNSUR MIKRO in chelated form.
Relative effectiveness for crops per unit of UNSUR MIKRO as soilapplied chelates may be from two to five times greater than that of
inorganic sources, while chelates costs per unit of UNSUR MIKRO
may be five to 100 times higher.

SENYAWA ORGANIK KOMPLEKS ALAMIAH


These complexes are made by reacting metallic salts with some organic by-products
of the wood pulp industry or related industries.

Beberapa tipe senyawa organik kompleks ini adalah :


lignosulfonates, polyflavonoids dan phenols.
The types of chemical bonding of the metals to the organic components are not well
understood. Some bonds may be coordinate as in the chelates, but other types of
chemical bonds also may be present.
While natural organic complexes are less costly per unit of UNSUR MIKRO, they
usually are less effective than synthetic chelates. They also are more readily
decomposed by microorganisms in soil.
These sources are more suitable for foliar sprays and mixing with fluid fertilizers.

Frits
Fritted glassy products (frits) in which solubility is controlled by
particle size and changes in matrix composition.
Kandungan UNSUR MIKRO beragam 2 - 25 %, and more than
one UNSUR MIKRO may be included in a fritted product.
Fritted UNSUR MIKRO generally are used only on sandy soils in
regions of high rainfall were leaching occurs. This class of
materials is more appropriate for maintenance programs than
for correcting severe UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies.
Therefore, frits only have a small share of the UNSUR MIKRO
market.

Aplikasi dengan pupuk campuran


The most common method of UNSUR MIKRO application for crops is soil
application.
Recommended application rates usually are less than 10 lb/acre (on an elemental
basis), so uniform application of UNSUR MIKRO sources separately in the field
is difficult. Therefore, both granular and fluid NPK fertilizers are commonly
used as carriers of UNSUR MIKRO. Including UNSUR MIKRO with mixed
fertilizers is a convenient method of application and allows more uniform
distribution with conventional application equipment. Costs also are reduced by
eliminating a separate application.
Four methods of applying UNSUR MIKRO with mixed fertilizers are:

1. Pencampuran selama pembuatan pupuk


2. Blending dengan pupuk granuler
3. Penyelimutan pada pupuk granuler
4. Pencampuran dengan uppuk cairan

Pencampuran dengan Pupuk Granuler


Incorporation during manufacture results in uniform distribution of UNSUR
MIKRO throughout granular NPK fertilizers.
Because the UNSUR MIKRO source is in contact with the mixed fertilizer
components under conditions of high temperature and moisture, the rate of
chemical reactions which may reduce the plant availability of some UNSUR
MIKRO is increased.
For example, acid decomposition of ZnEDTA or any synthetic chelate may occur
if they are mixed with phosphoric acid before ammoniation during manufacture,
which results in reduced plant availability of the UNSUR MIKRO.
Immediate plant availability of applied zinc in granular ammoniated phosphates
also decreases with the level of water-soluble zinc in these products.

Blending dengan Pupuk Granuler


Bulk blending of UNSUR MIKRO with granular NPK fertilizers is a common
practice in the world.
The main advantage is that fertilizer grades can be produced which will provide the
recommended UNSUR MIKRO rates for a given field at the usual fertilizer
application rates. The main disadvantage is that segregation of nutrients can occur
during the blending operation and with subsequent handling. Segregation results in
non-uniform application, which is critical with UNSUR MIKRO since their
application rates are quite low.
Segregation can be minimized by properly matching particle sizes of UNSUR
MIKRO sources with those of the NPK components of the blend. Mechanical
devices to minimize coning and segregation of the materials during handling and
storage are available. Blending of various sized fertilizer particles results in
nonuniform application because of segregation in the applicator during transport
and spreading operations.

Penyelimutan Pupuk Granuler


Coating powdered UNSUR MIKRO onto granular NPK fertilizers decreases the
possibility of segregation, which is the main disadvantage of bulk blending
UNSUR MIKRO with mixed fertilizers.
Fertilizer solutions are preferred as binding agents because the fertilizer grade is
not decreased so much as with use of water, oils and waxes. Some binding
materials are unsatisfactory because they do not maintain the UNSUR MIKRO
coatings during bagging, storage, and handling. This results in segregation of the
UNSUR MIKRO sources from the granular NPK components.
Agronomic effectiveness of UNSUR MIKRO coated onto soluble granular NPK
fertilizers should be similar to that with incorporation during manufacture. This
method of UNSUR MIKRO application is not commonly used because of the
extra costs associated with coating.

PUPUK CAIR
Mixing UNSUR MIKRO with fluid fertilizers has become a popular method of
application, especially Clear liquids are commonly used as starter fertilizers for
row crops and some UNSUR MIKRO, especially zinc sources, are easily applied
with these fluids.
Solubility of some UNSUR MIKRO sources is higher in polyphosphate fertilizers
such as 10-34-0 than in orthophosphate clear liquids.
UNSUR MIKRO also may be applied with nitrogen solutions such as UAN, but
solubility of many sources is rather low. Compatibility tests should be made before
tank mixing operations of UNSUR MIKRO with fluid fertilizers are attempted;
otherwise, problems could occur when incompatible sources are mixed.
Suspension fertilizers also are used as UNSUR MIKRO carriers. Oxides also can
be applied with suspensions since complete solution is not required.

Penyemprotan Daun = Foliar Sprays


Foliar sprays are widely used to apply UNSUR MIKRO, especially iron and
manganese, for many crops. Soluble inorganic salts generally are as effective as
synthetic chelates in foliar sprays, so the inorganic salts usually are chosen because
of lower costs.
Advantages of foliar sprays are: (1) application rates are much lower than for soil
application; (2) a uniform application is easily obtained; and (3) response to the
applied nutrient is almost immediate so deficiencies can be corrected during the
growing season. Low residue foliar sprays of manganese and zinc have been used to
correct deficiencies of citrus and other fruit crops, but sprays which will discolor the
fruit should be avoided.
Disadvantages of foliar sprays are: (1) leaf burn may result if salt concentrations of
the spray are too high; (2) nutrient demand often is high when the plants are small
and leaf surface is insufficient for foliar absorption; (3) maximum yields may not be
possible if spraying is delayed until deficiency symptoms appear; and (4) there is
little residual effect from foliar sprays.
Application costs will be higher if more than one spray is needed, unless they can be
combined with pesticide spray applications.

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO

Boron
Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Boron agak rendah (0.5 to 2 lb/acre), but
should be carefully followed because the range between boron
deficiency and toxicity in most plants is narrow.
Uniform application of boron in the field is very important for the
above reason. Boronated NPK fertilizers (those containing boron
sources incorporated at the factory) will insure a more uniform
application than most bulk blended fertilizers.
Aplikasi daun (Foliar sprays) also insure a rather uniform application,
but costs generally are higher.

Pengaruh pH tanah terhadap ketersediaan Boron dan Hasil Kapas

Hasil penelitian di Arkansas, hasil kapas meningkat sebesar 490 dan


584 lb/acre pada pemupukan B sebesar 0.3 dan 0.5 lb/acre.
Without applied boron, cotton yields decreased with increasing soil
pH. Yields were increased at all soil pH levels when boron was applied
at a rate of 0.5 lb/acre.
Soil tests should be included in boron fertilization programs, first to
assess the level of available boron and later to determine possible
residual effects (buildup).
The most common soil test for boron is the hot-water-soluble test. This
test is more difficult to conduct than most other UNSUR MIKRO soil
tests, but most boron response data have been correlated with it.

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO

Cu = Copper
Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Cu berkisar 3 - 10 lb/acre as CuSO4 or
finely ground CuO.
Residual effects of applied copper are very marked, with responses being noted up
to eight years after application.
Because of these residual effects, soil tests are essential to monitor possible copper
accumulations to toxic levels in soils where copper fertilizers are being applied.
Plant analyses also can be used to monitor copper levels in plant tissues.
Copper applications should be decreased or discontinued when available levels
increase beyond the deficiency range.

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO

Fe = Iron
Aplikasi tanah pupuk mikro Fe biasanya tidak efektif bagi
tanaman , so foliar sprays are the recommended application
method.
Spray applications of a 3 to 4% FeSO4 solution at 20 to 40 gallons/acre are
used to correct iron deficiencies. The application rate should be high enough to
wet the foliage. More than one foliar application may be required for
correction of iron chlorosis.
Inclusion of a sticker-spreader agent in the spray is suggested to improve
adherence of the spray to the plant foliage for increased iron absorption by the
plant.

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO


Manganese
Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Mn berkisar 2 - 20 lb/acre Mn, biasanya
dalam bentuk MnSO4.
Application rates of MnO would be similar if applied as a fine powder or in NPK
fertilizers.
Band application of manganese sources with acid-forming fertilizers results in a
more efficient use of applied manganese because the rate of oxidation of applied
manganese to the unavailable tetravalent form (as in MnO2) is decreased. There are
no residual effects of applied manganese for the same reason, so annual applications
are needed.
Foliar spray applications of MnSO4 also are used and require lower rates than soil
applications.
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Respon Kedelai terhadap Pupuk Mn

Respons Kapas terhadap Pupuk Mn

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO

Mo
Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Mo, are much lower than those for the
other UNSUR MIKRO, and uniform application is very important.
Broadcast application of molybdenized phosphate fertilizers prior
to planting or to pastures has been used to correct Mo deficiencies.
Soluble Mo sources also can be sprayed on the soil surface before
tillage to obtain a uniform application.

Response Kedelai terhadap Mo

Aplikasi Pupuk Mo
Perlakuan benih merupakan metode aplikasi pupuk mikro Mo yang
paling lazim dilakukan.
Mo sources are coated onto the seed with a sticking agent and/or
conditioner. This method insures a uniform application and sufficient
amounts of Mo can be seed coated to provide
sufficient Mo .
Data in the following table show the effectiveness for soybean of seedcoated Mo at a rate of one ounce of Mo/acre.
Soybean yields without applied Mo increased with increases in soil
pH, but not as high as those with seedapplied Mo at each soil pH
level

DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO

Zinc
Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Zn berkisar 1 - 10 lb/acre. Band or broadcast
applications are used, but foliar applications also are effective.
Band applications of zinc sources with starter fertilizers is a common practice for

row crops.
Foliar sprays of a 0.5% ZnSO4 solution applied at a rate of 20 to 30 gallons/acre
also will supply sufficient zinc, but several applications may be necessary.
Residual effects of applied zinc are substantial, with responses found at least 5
years after application. Because of these residual effects, soil test levels of
available zinc generally increase after several applications. Many states have
reduced their recommended zinc application rates because of these residual
effects.
Crop response to several zinc sources each banded with a 10-34-0 starter
fertilizer at zinc rates up to 3 lb/acre for corn in Nebraska is shown below.
Results show that ZnEDTA was much more effective at the lower zinc rates, but
all zinc sources were about equally effective at the highest zinc rate.

Response Jagung terhadap Pupuk Zn

Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ?

Boron
Uji tanah untuk Boron (B) masih jarang dilakukan .
A general boron recommendation is made for cotton, broccoli, cauliflower and
cabbage. Two pounds of boron per acre are recommended for alfalfa, broccoli,
cauliflower and cabbage.
One-half pound of boron per acre is recommended for cotton when the pH is
above 6.0 or anywhere lime is used.
A pound of boron per acre is recommended for burley or dark tobacco
anywhere deficiency symptoms have been noted previously or where plant
analysis results show a need for boron.

Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ?

Iron
Uji tanah Fe banyak dilakukan dalam usahatani tanaman hias :
azaleas, hydrangeas, etc.
Iron sulfate is a commonly used and locally available source for iron. Chelated iron
sources are often more appropriate for established plantings when soil pH is very
much above the desired range. Such use is not based upon soil test results but upon
plant appearance (unthrifty and usually chlorotic [yellowing] condition).
If soil is tested prior to plant establishment, then a more desirable approach is to
avoid an iron deficiency by lowering the soil pH using elemental sulfur or other
acidifying amendments well ahead of planting.
The soil test lab report gives specific instructions for amount of elemental sulfur (the
most economical soil-acidifying material) to use.
Lowering of soil pH or attempted correction of iron deficiency after establishment of
shrubs or small fruits is a salvage operation that usually does not achieve the desired
result.

Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ?

Manganese
Manganese (Mn) is recommended only for soybeans when soil pH
is above 7.0 and soil test manganese is below 16 pounds per acre.
The recommendation is to apply 20 pounds of manganese per
acre broadcast just prior to planting.
NOTE:
Manganese should not be confused with magnesium nor should it
be requested when manganese toxicity (low soil pH) is the
problem.

Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ?

Mo
Aplikasi pupuk Mo melalui Perlakuan-benih lazim digunakan
dlaam usahatani kedelai.
Treat seed with 0.2 ounce actual Mo per bushel when the soil pH
is 6.5 or below.
This can be accomplished by applying either 0.5 ounce of sodium
molybdate per bushel of seed or following the product label for
specific liquid hopper-box-applied sources containing fungicides.
Research has shown very favorable results to seed application of
Mo down to a soil pH of about 5.8.

Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ?

Zinc
A general zinc (Zn) recommendation is made for corn and snap beans on soils
from those counties where zinc deficiencies commonly occur . However, when
zinc is tested on a soil sample from any county for corn or snap beans, the zinc
recommendation is based on the result of the soil test as follows: If the Zn
results are two pounds per acre or less, five pounds of elemental zinc per acre
will be recommended for corn or two pounds per acre for snap beans.
Also, a general zinc recommendation of two pounds of zinc sulfate per 1000
square feet is made for pecan trees. Unless deficiency symptoms persist, this
should be considered as a one-time application.
When a zinc soil test is requested for crops other than corn or snap beans, the
results are always reported as sufficient.
Zinc sulfate is the commonly used and locally available source for Zn.

SIKLUS UNSUR MIKRO


Metals exist in one of four forms in the soil: mineral, organic, sorbed (bound
to soil), or dissolved. The majority of metals in soil are bound in minerals and
organic matter , and are unavailable to plants. Sorbed metals represent the third
largest pool, and are generally very tightly bound to soil surfaces. Although
mineral, organic, and sorbed metals are not immediately plant available, they can
slowly release metals into solution.
Dissolved metal concentrations are usually very low, especially at soil pH levels
typical for Montana and Wyoming. The concentration of plant available metals
can be estimated with an organic extractant such as DTPA. The total
concentrations of metals in soil (determined by extracting with strong acids) are
generally orders of magnitude higher than plant available metals (Table 1). Most
notably, the available Fe concentration represents less than 0.1% of the average
total Fe concentration in soils. The processes that determine the amount of metals
available in solution are: plant uptake, sorption/desorption,
precipitation/dissolution, mineralization/ immobilization, erosion, and crop
removal.
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SIKLUS UNSUR MIKRO LOGAM

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FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN UNSUR MIKRO


Ketersediaan unsur mikro sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH
tanah.
Mo exhibits the opposite effect, with increased availability
at higher pH.
Cl availability is independent of pH.
Factors other than pH that affect UNSUR MIKRO
availability are discussed below.

Ketersediaan unsur mikro dalam tanah sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH


tanah

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN
COPPER
High C:N organic material or residues can
cause Cu deficiency due to uptake by
microorganisms, sorption, and inhibited root
development, likely caused by low available N
concentrations.
Sandy soils generally have a higher likelihood
of Cu deficiency than finer-textured soils.

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN

IRON
Most Fe deficiencies occur on calcareous, high pH soils.
In addition, periods of saturation in poorly aerated soils
can enhance Fe deficiency, possibly due to reduced
nutrient absorption under these conditions.
Fe deficiency is also more common on soils low in OM,
especially where land leveling has removed the upper
organic rich soils and exposed calcareous subsoil.
Chelators in OM will increase Fe availability.

Pengaruh pH dan Eh tanah terhadap ketersediaan Fe dalam tanah

Penyerapan Fe oleh akar tanaman

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN
MANGANESE
Penambahan bahan organik dapat meningkatkan Mn tersedia,
meskipun tanah-tanah yang secara alami kaya BOT kadangkala
menunjukkan defisiensi Mn .
This apparent discrepancy is due to the relative availability of Mn in
recently added organic amendments compared to older materials
where decomposition has slowed considerably.
Dry weather increases Mn deficiency likely due to precipitation of
unavailable Mn oxides. Saturated conditions cause some Mn
minerals to dissolve and become available to plants.

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN
ZINC
Bahan organik dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan Zn karena
mekanisme khlesai dan mineralisasi, but at very high levels, can
decrease Zn availability due to sorption and precipitation of organicZn solids.
For example, Zn deficiency can occur in peat soils due to these
second two reactions.
High concentrations of available soil P have been found to cause Zn
deficiencies in both sugar beets and dry beans (Halvorson and
Bergman, 1983).

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN
BORON
Aplikasi bahan organik dapat meningkatkan serapan B
likely due to both chelation and mineralization.
Fine soils retain and release B better than coarse soils.
Soils high in K may increase B deficiencies, although the
reason for this effect is unknown (Havlin et al., 1999).
Any drought conditions can increase B deficiencies, likely
due to slower diffusion.

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN
CHLORIDE
Cl deficiencies can be attributed to indigenous soils being very low in
Cl levels, little Cl being deposited from the atmosphere, and until
recently, limited application of potash (KCl).
Cl mudah tercuci dari dalam tanah , dan defisiensi Cl dapat terjadi
di daerah-daerah dengan curah hujan tinggi .
Wheat is one of the crops that have had confirmed Cl deficiencies.

FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN

Mo
Tanah-tanah yang kaya oksidaoksida Fe dan/atau Al
akan mengikat kuat Mo , sehingga mereduksi
ketersediaan Mo bagi tanaman .
Higher levels of phosphate increase Mo availability
because P and Mo are so similar that P will compete
for the same sorption sites as Mo, resulting in Mo
desorption.

UJI UNTUK UNSUR MIKRO


How do you know if your field or crop is deficient in one of the
UNSUR MIKRO, and therefore, if UNSUR MIKRO fertilization
would be expected to result in a yield response?
Gejala defisiensi sering digunakan untuk diagnosis defisiensi unsur
mikro. Akan tetapi, seringkali tanaman mengalami hidden
hunger, mereka sebenarnya defisien hara mikro, tetapi belum
menunjukkan gejala defisiensi yang spesifik .
In addition, many of the UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies look similar,
making testing of soil or plant tissue essential for determining if a
response to a UNSUR MIKRO fertilizer is likely or not.

Uji Tanah untuk UNSUR MIKRO


Pengambilan Contoh Tanah (Soil sampling)
Once the soils are collected, they are delivered to a laboratory for testing. UNSUR
MIKRO availability in soils is tested with a variety of methods, although some
tests have become more standard than others.
Metals are typically measured with diethylenetr iaminepetaacetic acid (DTPA), a
chelator designed to extract the most readily available metals. DTPA is buffered
with triethanolamine (TEA) to maintain a pH near 8, because pH can greatly
affect metal solubility as pointed out earlier.
Chloride is measured in a water extract, and a hot water extraction is the most
typical for B.
Soil test results should be compared with UNSUR MIKRO fertilizer guidelines for
your state. Decisions on UNSUR MIKRO fertilization should depend on
knowledge of growth responses to UNSUR MIKRO fertilization in the local area.
In addition, as pointed out earlier, fertilizer solubilities and forms may greatly
affect the amount of fertilizer needed to produce a growth response.

Rekomendasi pemupukan UNSUR MIKRO berdasarkan Analisis Tanah

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Uji Jaringan Tanaman untuk UNSUR MIKRO


An alternative to soil testing is to sample plant tissue for UNSUR
MIKRO, and compare the tissue concentrations to a sufficiency
range for a particular crop.
A sufficiency range for small grains of 15-70 ppm Zn contained in
the four uppermost leaves from the top of the plant.
There is a few published fertilizer recommendations for a specific
UNSUR MIKRO tissue test.
Due to the variability within a plant, and the variability within a
growing season , tissue testing is less accepted than soil sampling for
determining fertilizer requirements, yet can represent a reasonable
tool to identify deficiencies.

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO

Boron
Deficiencies of B in alfalfa have been identified in Western Montana.
Conversely, studies conducted in the Western Triangle (Ledger, Montana) on
alfalfa found no significant growth responses to B fertilization even on a soil with a
soil test B of only 0.41 ppm (Jackson and Miller, 1998).
A study of 33 sites in the three prairie provinces of Canada found no correlation
between the relative yield of canola seed and hot water-extractable B (Goh and
Karamonos, 2002).
In addition, foliar, broadcast, and incorporation of B at four of these sites
produced no significant yield increases, and a significant yield decrease at one of
these sites that had only 0.5 ppm water-soluble B.
The conclusion of the study was that responses to B fertilizer are likely rare on
Canadian prairie soils.

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO

Chloride
A soil near Poplar, Montana that had an average of 0.64 ppm Cl in the upper 3
feet was fertilized with 0 and 40 lb/acre Cl (as KCl) and planted with durum
wheat.
The Cl fertilizer decreased spot severity from 87% to 6% in the flag leaf, and
increased yield by 22% (Table 3). Previous work on winter wheat found that grain
yield increased 16% when 20 lb Cl/acre was applied to a soil containing
approximately 1.5 ppm Cl in the upper 2 feet (Engel et al., 1998).
In both studies, K 2SO4 was applied as the check treatment to make certain that
K was not causing the yield increase.
Results from studies on both winter and spring wheat suggest a critical plant
tissue Cl concentration between 1,000 and 4,000 ppm (Engel et al., 1998). It was
determined that soil Cl plus fertilizer Cl should be between 8.5 and 36 lb/ac to
reach these minimum and maximum critical concentrations.
Chloride has also been found to prevent plant diseases such as root rot and spot
blotch in small grains in North Dakota (Havlin et al., 1999).

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO

Copper
A study conducted at the Western Tiangle Agricultrual
Research Center in Conrad, Montana, on a soil with 1.2 ppm
extractable Cu, found no yield increases in 9 of 10 spring
wheat and durum varieties (Jackson and Christiaens, 1995).
Yield responses to Cu are not expected in most Montana soils
based on a study that found that 100% of 301 producer soils
in Montana tested adequate (>0.2 ppm) in DTPA Cu (Haby
and Sims, 1979).
Studies in Alberta have found Cu fertilization has resulted in wheat
yield increases of up to three-fold in soils having extractable Cu
concentrations <0.4 ppm (Goh and Karamanos, 2001).

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO

BESI
Iron deficiency is observed in the Great Plains, especially in corn and legumes
grown on high pH, calcareous soils. Deficiencies are indicated by interveinal
chlorosis, which means that the veins remain green, yet the leaves between the
veins are yellow.
A study on a pH 8.6 soil with 2.9 ppm DTPA Fe in Nebraska assessed the effect of
Fe fertilizers on sweet corn yields for both chlorosis-tolerant and non-tolerant
hybrids.
The study found that the average yield of tolerant hybrids was approximately
sixfold higher than the yield of non-tolerant hybrids from 1997-1999 .
In addition, Fe fertilizer placed in seed rows (2 inches to the side and 2 inches
below the seed) was able to overcome most of the difference between hybrids,
although yield decreased at the highest Fe treatment (30 lb Fe/ac), likely due to a
salt effect.
Similar yields were obtained using either a liquid Fe suspension or dry granules.

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO


ZINC
Dry beans grown in the Lower Yellowstone Valley of Montana have been
noted to have Zn deficiencies, especially when grown in soil with high available P
concentrations.
Foliar and soil applications of Zn were applied to an irrigated silty clay in the
valley that had greater than 60 ppm soil test P and less than 1.2 ppm DTPA Zn.
Average grain yield over a three year period was increased by approximately 300
lb/ac with a foliar application of 1 lb Zn/ac as ZnSO4, and by up to 700 lb/ac when
soil was fertilized with ZnEDTA (a chelated form of Zn) at 5 lb Zn/ac .
The yield response was highly probable on soils with > 25 ppm soil test P and < 1.5
ppm DTPA Zn. To overcome Zn deficiencies, they recommended using ZnSO4
(due to cost) either as a 0.5% solution at 20 to 30 gal/ac for a foliar application or
10 lb Zn/ac broadcast or incorporated before seeding. Based on the low mobility of
Zn, banding and direct seed applications should be effective application methods.

RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO


ZINC
A 5 lb Zn/ac starter fertilizer, placed 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the
seed, increased navy bean yield by approximately 12% near Powell, Wyoming
(Blaylock, 1996). In addition, the damage percentages of harvested bean seed were
14.7% for the check treatment and 8.8% for the 5 lb Zn/ac treatment.
Fertilizing a loamy sand in Colorado that had low available Zn (0.48 ppm) with 3
ppm Zn increased corn yield by approximately 4 30% depending on the form of
Zn fertilizer (Westfall et al., 2001).
The fertilizers with higher concentrations of water-soluble Zn (ZnSO4, ZnEDTA,
and a combined ZnSO4-paper waste) resulted in significantly higher yields than
the lowest water-soluble Zn fertilizer (Zn sucrate). Therefore, if fertilizing with Zn,
make certain to compare price per percent water-soluble Zn.

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The effect of Fe fertilization on corn yield in a high pH, low Fe soil


for both chlorosis-tolerant and non-tolerant hybrids (modified from
Stevens et al., 2001).

Increase in yield due to Zn fertilization on a low Zn (<1.2 ppm), high


P (>60 ppm) soil in Montana (data from Halvorson and Bergman,
1983).
ZnMNS is a zinc, manganese, nitrogen, and sulfur mix.

PUPUK MIKRO
PUPUK MIKRO are generally supplied as either liquid foliar
applications or dry product for application to the soil.
Foliar applications are often more effective per pound of UNSUR
MIKRO because a higher percentage of the applied nutrient is
generally absorbed by the plant. Due to the cost of mixing and
transporting liquids, however, foliar applications are more expensive
per pound of UNSUR MIKRO.
Therefore, the decision regarding whether to purchase foliar or dry
product formulations will generally be driven by ease of application
and economics.

PUPUK MIKRO yang ada


Chelated forms of metal UNSUR MIKRO, such as ZnEDTA, are generally much
more expensive than non-chelated forms, but are also much more effective per lb of
Zn .
In choosing a fertilizer, target those with medium-high solubilities, and compare cost
per percentage of UNSUR MIKRO.
Perhitungan dosis PUPUK MIKRO untuk menentukan jumlah UNSUR MIKRO
fertilizer to apply is very similar to determining the amount of N fertilizer to apply.
First, use historical data, your experience, or soil test data combined with researchbased fertilizer guidelines to determine the pounds of UNSUR MIKRO to add per
acre.
In irrigated areas of Montana and Wyoming, irrigation water should be tested and
the results considered before UNSUR MIKRO fertilizers are prescribed.
This is particularly important for irrigated fields using re-used return flows.
Second, choose a fertilizer based on availability and the criteria outlined above.
Third, calculate the fertilizer requirement based on the percentage of UNSUR
MIKRO .

Contoh perhitungan

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Pupuk Sumber UNSUR MIKRO

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UNSUR MIKRO are no less essential to plant growth than the macronutrients;
they are simply needed in smaller amounts. The metal UNSUR MIKRO are held
strongly by the soil, especially at pH levels above 7. The anion UNSUR MIKRO
are held less strongly; with the exception of Mo.
In areas where UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies occur, the ability to identify these
deficiencies either visually, with soil testing, or with plant tissue testing is
necessary to determine if UNSUR MIKRO fertilizers are needed.
The most common UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies are believed to be boron,
chloride, iron and zinc.
UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies can usually be overcome with fertilizers, although
additions of organic matter, such as manure, will often increase UNSUR MIKRO
availability.
Due to the poor mobility of most UNSUR MIKRO, placement near the seed, foliar
applications, and using chelated UNSUR MIKRO have proven most successful at
producing growth responses.

REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN


The elements zinc, manganese, copper, boron, iron, and Mo are
required by vegetables in very small amounts, and are accordingly
termed UNSUR MIKRO.
A UNSUR MIKRO deficiency can be just as limiting and reduce
yields just as much as a deficiency of any major nutrients. In
addition, when present in the soil in excessive amounts, some
UNSUR MIKRO (most commonly boron and manganese, but
sometimes zinc and copper) can have adverse effects on
vegetables.
Subsequently, while a deficiency of a UNSUR MIKRO can reduce
yields, overuse or incorrect UNSUR MIKRO application can be
harmful to vegetable growth as well.

REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN

Respon Tanaman
Vegetables show a wide range of response to UNSUR MIKRO, and a UNSUR
MIKRO deficiency is highly crop-specific.
If the soil is low or deficient in a certain UNSUR MIKRO, response to application
of that UNSUR MIKRO would likely occur if the crop has a high requirement for
that UNSUR MIKRO; response would probably occur if the crop has a medium
requirement; and response would likely not occur if the crop has a low
requirement.
For example, boron is the most widely deficient UNSUR MIKRO in vegetables.
Under conditions of low boron supply in the soil, crops like beets, broccoli, and
cauliflower, which have a high requirement for boron, would likely show a growth
response to boron fertilization, while crops such as beans, cucumbers, and peas,
which have relatively low requirements for boron would be unresponsive to added
boron fertilizer.

REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN


Deficiency Situations
Pada umumnya defisiensi UNSUR MIKRO dipengaruhi oleh lima kondisi :
(1) strongly weathered soils; 2) coarse textured soils (i.e. sands); 3) high soil pH; 4)
highly organic soils (i.e. peats and mucks); 5) soils inherently low in organic
matter or are low in organic matter because of processes that have removed the
topsoil.
UNSUR MIKRO fertilization should be used when verified deficiencies exists, or
when certain crops have a high nutrient requirement, such as boron for beets.
Because most UNSUR MIKRO soil tests have relatively low reliability (except soil
B), UNSUR MIKRO plant analysis will probably provide a better estimator of
UNSUR MIKRO need than soil tests.

REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN


METODE APLIKASI
Petani mempunyai beragam pilihan untuk melakukan pemupukan unsur mikro,
termasuk metode aplikasi (broadcast, band, foliar) dan formulasi pupuk mikro
(inorganic, chelate).
Band application is generally more effective than broadcast application in
calcareous soils by reducing fertilizer contact with soil particles.
In general, foliar application will correct UNSUR MIKRO deficiency problems
most rapidly. However, this effect may be short-lived, particularly for severe
deficiencies, and additional applications may be necessary. To avoid plant injury
with foliar application, care must be taken not to exceed recommendation rates.
This precaution is especially true with chelates, where relatively low levels of
UNSUR MIKRO are required when applied directly to foliage.

Kebutuhan Zn dari Tanaman

Kebutuhan Mn dari Tanaman

Kebutuhan B dari Tanaman

Kebutuhan Fe dari Tanaman

Kebutuhan Cu dari Tanaman

Kebutuhan Mo dari Tanaman

KHELATE UNSUR MIKRO


UNSUR MIKRO diaplikasikan ke tanah hanya apabila terjadi gejala defisiensi .
Uji tanah atau jaringan daun akan menentukan derajat defisiensi unsur.
Dosis aplikasi pupuk mikro ke tanah adalah maksimum.
Chelating agents such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetate) are large organic
structures that form a complex with UNSUR MIKRO.
This complex forms a larger chelated ion which reduces the ability of the UNSUR
MIKRO to react with the soil, making the UNSUR MIKRO more available for
plant uptake.
The chelating agent keeps the UNSUR MIKRO in solution even when the soil pH
is higher than desired for a specific crop.
Plants are able to absorb chelates very easily and there is less chance of burning
roots than if sulphates are used.

Khelate unsur mikro


EDTA
Ethylene diamine tetra-acetate or EDTA is the most economical of the commonly
used chelating agents. It is used to chelate Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Mg and is very
effective in the acid-neutral pH range 5 - 7.0.

DTPA
Diethylene triamine pentaacetate or DTPA is a special chelating agent, generally
used only with iron and effective over a larger pH range, particularly somewhat
alkaline conditions 5 - 7.5. This is important in hydroponic growing systems.

EDDHA
Ethylene diamine dihydroxyphenyl acetate or EDDHA is particularly good at
chelating Iron over a very wide pH range, going as high as 8.5. Cut flower growers
sometimes apply a portion of their iron requirement in the form of EDDHA.

Copper Chelate 14% Copper (Cu)


63.4% EDTA Chelating Agent
Ketersediaan Cu sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH tanah ,
jumlah bahan organik dan adanya kation logam
lainnya, seperti Fe dan Mg .
Copper Chelate can be applied as a soil or foliar
application to correct copper deficiency in ornamentals,
turf, field crops and fruit trees growing in alkaline or
acid soils.

Iron Chelate 7% Iron (Fe)


48.6% DTPA Chelating Agent
Khelat besi ini menjadi sumber Fe bagi tanaman
hortikultura dan tanaman pertanian, terutama pada
kondisi tanah agak alkalin .
It can be used for correcting a deficiency or as a
constant feed, in hydroponics, substrate culture, soil or
soilless media.
Applikasinya dapat melalui daun atau media tumbuh.

Iron Chelate 13.2% Iron (Fe)


68% EDTA Chelating Agent
Defisiensi Fe menjadi masalah serius pada kondisi tanah-tanah dengan pH tinggi .
Iron Chelate can be used to correct iron deficiency in ornamentals, turf and fruit
trees. This product contains 13.2% chelated iron and can be applied as a foliar spray
or soil drench to crops such as chrysanthemums, gardenia, hydrangea, rose, azalea,
holly, rhododendron, turf and fruit trees.

Woody Plants:
0.5 kg/100 m2 as a drench
1 kg/1000 L as a spray
(1 lb./1000 ft2 or 1 lb./100 gal. water)

Herbaceous Plants:
0.5 kg/100 m2 as a drench
250 to 500 g/1000 L water as a spray
(1 lb./1000 ft2 or 1/4-1/2 lb./100 gal. water)

Manganese Chelate 13% Manganese (Mn)


68.1% EDTA Chelating Agent
Manganese deficiency results in reduced photosynthetic
activity.
Kondisi tanah dnegan pH tinggi, miskin BOT atau tanah-tanah
berpasir akan mereduksi ketersediaan Mn .
Manganese Chelate can be used to correct
deficiencies in ornamentals, turf, field crops and fruit trees.

Zinc Chelate 14% Zinc (Zn)


61.7% EDTA Chelating Agent
Zn mempunyai peranan sangat penting dalam
pemanfaatan unsur hara lainnya.
Defisienai umumnya terjadi pada tanah-tanah berpasir ,
tanah-tanah miskin bahan organik dan tanah-tanah
yang telah dipupuk fosfat dosis tinggi.
Depending on the crop, zinc deficiencies can be
corrected by soil or foliar applications.

UNSUR MIKRO
dalam
PRODUKSI KENTANG

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UNSUR MIKRO yang dibutuhkan tanaman kentanh : Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl),
Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mo (Mo), Selenium (Se),
Sodium (Na), dan Seng (Zn).
The availability of these nutrients in the soil depends on the soil and the
environment. For example, Zn is a relatively immobile nutrient that is
concentrated in the soil organic matter near the soil surface. Cool, wet weather
reduces the availability of Zn, possibly resulting in a deficiency.
Ketersediaan UNSUR MIKRO umumnya menurun kalau pH tanah meningkat .
Availability of B, Cu and Zn declines rapidly as soil pH rises above 7 . Therefore,
deficiencies can occur in soils with high pH.
Also, sandy soils are more likely to show UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies than clay
soils.

Gejala Defisiensi Boron, zinc dan copper Tanaman Kentang

Pengelolaan kesuburan tanah untuk tanaman kentang


mensuplai unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman.
Defisiensi UNSUR MIKRO pada tanaman kentang telah banyak
dilaporkan dan dikaji di berbagai daerah.
Research have been conducted to evaluate the response of potato
to added UNSUR MIKRO under any local conditions.
Small plot studies were carried out at CSIDC to examine the
effects of soil and foliar applied B, Cu, and Zn on the
productivity and quality of seed and consumption (table or
processing) grade potatoes.

Tanaman kentang untuk produksi bibit merrespon aplikasi UNSUR MIKRO


secara berbeda dengan tanaman kentang untuk konsumsi, karena ia dipanen
lebih awal dan ukuran umbinya lebih kecil dibandingkan umbi untuk konsumsi.
Trials were conducted on an irrigated sandy loam soil with no previous history of
UNSUR MIKRO use.
The concentrations of UNSUR MIKRO used in these studies were based upon
commercial recommendations.
Soil applications included, 1.6 kg B/ha (1.44 lb/ac) in the form of granular Borate,
10 kg Cu/ha (9 lb/ac) in the form of Copper chelate, and 10 kg Zn/ha (9 lb/ac) in
the form of Zinc sulphate broadcast on to the seedbed prior to planting.
The foliar treatments included 0.3 kg B/ha (0.27 lb/ac), 0.5 kg Cu/ha (0.45 lb/ac),
and 0.5 kg Zn/ha (0.45 lb/ac) applied as a foliar spray at the time of early tuber
bulking.
The sources of the foliar UNSUR MIKRO applications included commercial
formulations of liquid Boron, Copper chelate, and Zinc EDTA.

Pengaruh pH Tanah terhadap Ketersediaan B, Cu dan Zn.

HASIL APLIKASI PUPUK MIKRO LEWAT DAUN


Neither soil-applied nor foliar-applied B, Cu or Zn affected seed or
consumption grade yields, specific gravity, or fry colour of
processing cultivars.
The lack of any significant yield or quality responses to UNSUR
MIKRO supplements is likely due to the presence of adequate levels
of UNSUR MIKRO in the soil.
For example, soil testing to 30 cm (12 in) in the spring of 1997
showed that the soil contained 4.4 kg B/ha (4.0 lb/ac), 3.4 kg Cu/ha
(3.1 lb/ac), and 2.4 kg Zn/ha (2.2 lb/ac). Recommended soil levels for
potato production are 1.1 kg B/ha (1.0 lb/ac), 0.4 kg Cu/ha (0.4
lb/ac), and 1.1 kg Zn/ha (1.0 lb/ac).

Pengelolaan hara-pupuk menjadi bagian kritis dalam suatu


ushataani kentang yang berhasil .
The use of UNSUR MIKRO supplements should be based on soil
tests, tissue tests and close visual examination of the potato crop for
deficiency symptoms.
Growers should carefully follow recommendations for UNSUR
MIKRO to avoid unnecessary costs and possible toxic effects or
deleterious interactions with other nutrients.
Selection of an effective application method depends on the UNSUR
MIKRO needed, local soil conditions, and the stage in the growing
season at which a deficiency is detected.

Diagnosa Defisiensi Hara


Gejala Defisiensi yang Umum
A first step in diagnosing nutrient deficiencies is to describe what the symptoms
look like. Each deficiency symptom must be related to some function of the
nutrient in the plant.
Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies are generally grouped into five categories:
1) Pertumbuhan kerdil;
2) khlorosis;
3) interveinal chlorosis;
4) warna merah-keunguan
5) nekrosis.
Stunting is a common symptom for many deficient nutrients due to their varied
roles in the plant.

Unsur hara tidak mobil

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