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DAM 21102

ENGINEERING MATERIALS SELECTION


WEEK 9 :
MATERIALS SELECTION CHART (2)
En. Muhammad Hanafi Bin
Asril Rajo Mantari

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015

INTRODUCTION
Basic procedure for material selection is establishing
the link between material and function (Figure 1).
A material has attributes (density, strength, cost,
resistance to corrosion etc.). Refer to Figure 2

The selection is done by:


a) Screening & Ranking
b) Supporting Information
c) Property Limits
d) Material Indices

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PehtcMyoesanritomcveamirrli,oaiclmnsmplearcetohnprtariebanrluit,citeeassl,: Shape
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Figure 1: Material selection is


determined by function. Shape
sometimes influences the
selection. (M.F. Ashby, 1999)

MATERIALS ATTRIBUTES
Kingdom

Material

Family

Ceramics
Glasses
Metals
Polymers
Elastomers
Composites

Class

Sub-class

Steels
Cu-alloys
Al alloys
Ti-alloys
Ni-alloys
Zn-alloys

1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000

Member

Attributes

5005-O
5005-H4
5005-H6
5083-O
5083-H2
5083-H4
5154-O
5154-H2

Density
Modulus
Strength
Toughness
T-conductivity
T-expansion
Resistivity
Cost
Corrosion
oxidation

Figure 2: Taxonomy of the kingdom of materials and


their attributes (M.F. Ashby, 1999)

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

Strategy for Selection of


Material& Ranking
a) Screening

Screening
elimination of candidates materials which cannot do the
job at all because one or more of their attributes lies
outside the limits imposed by the design.

Ranking
listing of materials according to their capability to give
the best performance for certain application.

Property limits help to separate the suitable materials.

Materials Index identifies the best materials among a group


of the suitable materials.

Refer Figure 3
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All Materials

Screening: apply property limits


(Eliminates candidates which cant do the job)
Ranking: apply material indices
(Find candidates which can do the job well)

Subset of Materials

Supporting Information:
Handbooks, specialized software, expert systems, CD-ROMS,
WWW
(Search family history of candidates)

Prime Candidates

Local conditions
(Does the choice match local needs, expertise?)

Final Material Choice

Figure 3: The strategy for materials selection. The main steps are enclosed in
colored boxes (M.F. Ashby, 1999)
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b) Supporting Information

The outcome of the screening step is a shortlist of


candidates which satisfy the quantifiable requirements of
the design.

Need details profile for each materials (properties, graphic,


price etc.)

Information can be found in handbooks, suppliers data


sheets, CD-based data sources and the worldwide web.

All materials information will be compared in order to be


able to carry out details selection.

c)Local Conditions
The final choice between competing candidates will often
depend on local conditions e.g.
- in-house expertise,
- equipment,
- availability of suppliers etc.
There is no specific procedure for this part expect totally
depends on the local conditions.

d)Derivation of Property Limits


and Material Indices

Design requirements for a component defines to prescription


of materials through observation on
- function of component
- design constraints
- design objective
which is determined by designer in order to optimize the
component performance.

Function, objective and constraints define the boundary


conditions for selecting a material.

Function, Objective & Constraint

(design

requirements)

Function

What does component do?

Objective

What is to be maximized or
minimized?

Constraints *

What non-negotiable conditions


must be met?
What negotiable but desirable
conditions?

* It is sometimes useful to distinguish between hard


and soft constraints. Stiffness and strength might be
absolute requirements (hard constraints); cost might
be negotiable (a soft constraint).

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Property Limits
Involve the certain level of ability need to be fulfill by
material to carry out the required function.
Example:
If the component must operate at 250C, then all
materials with a maximum service temperature less
than this are eliminated.
The screening procedure uses property limits derived
in this way to reduce the kingdom of materials to an
initial shortlist.

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Exercises :
Identify design requirements (function, objective and
constraints) for each product in the stated cases studies.
Case 1 :
A design of cylindrical tie-rod of specified length
l, to carry a tensile force F without failure; it is
to be of minimum mass.

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Answers :
Case 1 :
Function

Tie-rod

Objective

Minimize the mass

Constraints

(a) Length, l specified


(b) Support tensile load F without failing

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Case 2 :
Think of golf-club shafts. Consider, then, a light
beam of square section b x b and length l loaded in
Bending which must meet a constraint on its stiffness
S, meaning that it must not deflect more than
under a load F .
F
b

A
l

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Answers :
Case 2 :

Function

Beam

Objective

Minimize the mass

Constraints

(a) Length, l specified


(b) Support bending load F without
deflecting too much

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Case 3 :
Consider the selection of a light beam for a strength
limited application. Deflection is acceptable
provided the component does not fail. The
dimensions are the same as the beam in case 2.
Function

Beam

Objective

Minimize the mass

Constraints

(a) Length, l specified


(b) Support bending load F without
failing by yield or fracture

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Case 4 :
We seek for the cheapest legs of a table (cylindrical
column) of a specified height, l, which will safely
support a load F.
Function

Column

Objective

Minimize the cost

Constraints

(a) Length, l specified


(b) Support compressive load F
without buckling

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Case Study 1
Materials for table legs
Luigi Tavolino, furniture designer, conceives of a
lightweight table of daring simplicity: a flat sheet of
toughened glass supported on slender, unbraced,
cylindrical legs (Figure 1). The legs must be solid (to
make them thin) and as light as possible (to make the
table easier to move). They must support the table top
and whatever is placed upon it without buckling. What
materials could one recommend?

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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Materials Selection

Figure 1: A lightweight
table with slender
cylindrical
legs.
Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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Design requirements for table legs


Function
Objective
Constraints

Materials Selection

Column (supporting compressive


loads)
a) Minimize the mass
b) Maximize slenderness
(a) Length, l specified
(b) Must not buckle under design
loads
(c) Must not fracture if
accidentally struck

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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Model
This problem has two objectives: weight is to be minimized, and
slenderness maximized.
There is one constraint: resistance to buckling. Consider
minimizing weight first.
The weight is minimized by selecting the subset of materials
with the greatest value of the material index.

The thinnest leg is that made of the material with the largest
value of the material index

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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The selection
We seek the subset of materials which have high values
of E 1/2 /p and E. Figure 2 shows the appropriate chart:
Young's modulus, E, plotted against density, p.
A guideline of slope 2 is drawn on the diagram; it
defines the slope of the grid of lines for values of of E 1/2
/p. The guideline is displaced upwards (retaining the
slope) until a reasonably small subset of materials is
isolated above it;
it is shown at the position M I = 6GPa'/*/(Mg/m').
Materials above this line have higher values of

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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M1

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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M2

M1

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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The selected material is CFRP

Materials Selection

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2013

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......FINISH ......
THank you

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015

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