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DAM 21102

ENGINEERING MATERIALS SELECTION


WEEK 12 :
SELECTION OF FERROUS MATERIALS
En. Muhammad Hanafi Bin
Asril Rajo Mantari

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015

CONTENT
1. Introduction
2. Designation, Classification &
specification for Steel
3. Procurement & Specification

Introduction
Ferrous metals & alloys irons with carbon
added to them
Alloys < 2% C STEEL
Alloys > 2% C CAST IRON

Fe-C Phase Diagram

Cast Iron

Steel

Metal Alloy
Ferrous
Nonferrous
Steel
Cast Iron
High Alloy
Grey Iron
Tool
Ductile(Nodular) Iron
Stainless
White Iron
Low Alloy
Malleable Iron
Low Carbon
Plain
High strength, low alloy
Medium Carbon
Overview
Plain
Heat treatable
High Carbon
Plain
Tool

Low-Carbon Steels

Medium-Carbon
Steels

High-Carbon Steels

Example
of
Product
Cast Irons

Stainless Steels

Designation, Classification, and


Specifications for Steels
Designation:
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Standard E 527 The Unified Numbering System (UNS)
of Metals and Alloys.

Classification according to:


Composition
Strength
Product Shape, Finish Processing and Quality Descriptors

Designation
UNS of Nonferrous Metals & Alloys

A00001 A99999
C00001 C99999
E00001 E99999
& alloys
L00001 L99999
M00001 M99999
N00001 N99999
P00001 P99999
R00001 R99999
alloys
Z00001 Z99999

: Al & Al alloys
: Cu & Cu alloys
: rare earth & rare earth like metals
:
:
:
:
:

low melting metals & alloys


misc. nonferrous metals & alloys
Ni & Ni alloys
precious metals & alloys
reactive & refractory metals &

: Zn & Zn alloys

UNS of Ferrous Metals & Alloys

D00001 D99999
: specified mechanical properties
steels
F00001 F99999 : cast irons and cast steels
G00001 G99999
: AISI and SAE carbon & alloy steels
H00001 H99999
: AISI H-steels
J00001 J99999 : cast steels (except tool steels)
K00001 K99999
: misc. steels & ferrous alloys
S00001 S99999
: heat & corr. Resistant (stainless)
steels
T00001 T99999: tool steels

AISI-SAE vs ASTM vs ASME


Designations
ASTM designation is an arbitrarily chosen number
prefixed by the letter A, which is designated for
ferrous materials AXYZ
ASTM designation are also adopted by ASME* and
prefixed by letter S SAXYZ
ASME = American Society for Mechanical
Engineers

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Classification According to Composition


Carbon Content

Alloy Content

Low Carbon: < 0.25%

Plain Carbon no alloying


element except Mn up to
1.65%

Medium Carbon: 0.25


0.55%
High Carbon: > 0.55%
Tool steels and stainless
steels

Low Alloy total alloy


content < 5%
High Alloy total alloy
content > 5%

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Classification According to
Composition
Plain carbon and low alloy steels
coded according AISI SAE* system
AISI American Iron and Steel
Institution
SAE Society for Automotive
Engineering

AISI-SAE system of designations for carbon and low alloy steels

Carbon Steels
10XX or 10XXX
First two digits (10) type of alloy
addition
XX / XXX indicates % carbon when
divided by 100
Eg: 1010 0.1% C; 10100 1%C
Exceptional for 9XX (SAE grades XX
indicates minimum yield strength in ksi)

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Classification According to Strength

Start with properties of structural quality plain C


steels with low yield strength generally < 40 ksi
Common materials used for construction
buildings, bridges and ships
Low strength : < 40 ksi
Hot rolled

High strength : 40 120 ksi

Up to 80 ksi Hot rolled with ferrite-pearlite or reduced


pearlite microstructures; Low alloy additions (HSLA) eg.
SAE 9XX steels
Excess 80 ksi fine structure of lower bainite, and/or
quenched and tempered martensite

Ultra-high strength : min. 200 ksi

All quenched and tempered medium carbon, low alloy


steels or aged high-alloy steels and low-carbon maraging
steels
Used as aerospace and defense industry structural

ASTM Specifications for structural quality carbon steel


plates
Spec. Steel Type and condition
C Steel
A36Carbon steel plates, bars and shapes
A131
ships

Carbon and HSLA steel plates, bars, shapes and rivets for

A283

Carbon steel plates of low or intermediate tensile strength

A284 C-Si steel plates of low or intermediate tensile strength for


machine
parts & general construction
A440

C steel plates, bars & shapes of high tensile strength

A529 C steel plates, bars, shapes & sheet piling with 290 MPa (42
ksi) min. yield point
A573 C steel plates for applications requiring toughness at
atmospheric temperature.

Classification According to Product Shape,


Finish Processing and Quality Descriptors

Product Shape
According to thickness and width

Bars include
Round, square, hexagon and similar cross
section 9.52 mm ( in) and greater across
Small angels, channels, tees and other
standard shapes less than 76 mm (3 in)
across
Concrete-reinforcing bars

Product classification of flat-rolled carbon and low-alloy


steels according to size, width and thickness
Specified Width (in)
Thickness (in)

0.230
0.229
0.203
0.179

and above
0.204
0.180
and below

To 3.5

More
than 3.5
to 6

More
than 6 to
8

More
than 8 to
12

More
than 12
to 28

More
than 48

Bara
Bara
Strip
Strip

Bara
Bara
Strip
Strip

Bara
Strip
Strip
Strip

Platea
Strip
Strip
Strip

Platea
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet

Platea
Platea
Platea
Sheetb

Subject to certain conditions, these dimensions are sold as carbon sheet or strip as well
as bars or plate
a

These products classifications for hot-rolled sheet are based on the median point of the
minimum thickness ordered plus full published thickness tolerances
b

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Classification According to Product Shape,


Finish Processing and Quality Descriptors

Finish processing:
Signify the last processing the steel has
undergone hot-rolled, cold-rolled,
annealed, hot-dip galvanizing etc.

Quality descriptors
Indicate product suitability for certain
applications or fabrication processes

Classification According to Product Shape,


Finish Processing and Quality Descriptors

Quality Descriptors Certain mechanical


and physical attributes of products due to:

Degree of internal soundness


Relative uniformity of chemical compositions
Relative freedom from surface imperfections
Relative size of discard cropped from ingot
Extensive testing during manufacturing
Number, size, shape and distribution of
nonmetallic inclusions (ie. Cleanness or
inclusion rating of steel)
Relative hardenability requirements

Procurement & Specifications


Procurement
A materials procurer usually writes a
summary of the companys need to the
material supplier or vendor by writing a
specification

Specification
Written document of the technical and
other requirement that a product must
meet
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Procurement &
Specifications
Adequate specification contains:
SCOPE

Classification (size, condition, processing)

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Well-recognize designation or specification

QUALITY

Quality descriptors

QUANTITATIVE

Composition, physical/mechanical properties range

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

Special tolerances, surface preparation, edge & finish on


flat rolled products etc. 26

Procurement & Specification


ASTM codes specifications
AISI-SAE designation part of spec.
Terms (interchangeably):
Grade
Chemical composition

Type
deoxidation practice (killed, semikilled or rimmed)

Class
Other attributes (ie strength, surface finish)
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Carbon & Low-Alloy


Structural Steel
Low carbon low alloy steel & low plain carbon
steel used for civil engineering structures
Alloy addition in low carbon low alloy steel to
increase corrosion resistance or strength
In various form (eg. bars, plates, strips)
construction industries
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High carbon low alloy Steel

Low carbon low alloy steel

Cutting Tool

Plain low
carbon

Plain high
carbon

High strength
low alloy (HSLA)

Medium carbon low alloy Steel


Heat
treatabl
e
Plain
mediu
m
carbon
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......FINISH ......
THank you

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015

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