Anda di halaman 1dari 25

STEAM TURBINE VERSES SLOW SPEED

DIESEL ENGINE
STEAM TURBINE

DIESEL ENGINE

Has low thermal efficiency.


Turbine can be accurately
balanced and has minimum
vibrations.
There are no internal rubbing
parts, thus no need for
internal lubrication. Feed
water remains pure.
It has less components, thus
mechanism is very simple.
Can be considerably
overloaded with slight
reduction in efficiency.
Requires separate astern
stages.

Thermal efficiency is high.


Difficult to balance
completely, thus vibrations
are more, requires heavy
foundation.
There are various internal
rubbing parts requiring
internal lubrication to
reduce wear of these parts.
Many parts make the
mechanism complicated.
Overload rating is less and
for short duration.
It is easily reversible.

MOHD ANWAR

STEAM TURBINE VERSES SLOW SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE
STEAM TURBINE

DIESEL ENGINE

Due to high RPM, turbine


develops high power for
same size.
For the same power, the
size is much smaller.
Power developed is
uniform, thus turbine does
not require a flywheel.
For propulsion purposes,
turbine RPM has to be
reduced for better
propulsion efficiency.
Steam turbine requires
long preparation for
starting.
Requires less maintenance.

RPM is low, thus the power


developed is also low for
the same size.
Requires more space for
the same power.
Torque produced is of
pulsating nature, for which
a large flywheel is a must.
Slow speed diesel engine
runs at optimum RPM and
gives good propulsion
efficiency.
Diesel engine can be
started at very short
notice.
Needs heavy maintenance.

MOHD ANWAR

STEAM TURBINE VERSES MEDIUM SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE
DIESEL ENGINE
STEAM TURBINE

Has low thermal efficiency.


Turbine can be accurately
balanced and has minimum
vibrations.
There are no internal
rubbing parts, thus no need
for internal lubrication. Feed
water remains pure.
It has less components, thus
mechanism is very simple.
Steam turbine can carry
considerable load with
slight reduction in
efficiency.
Requires reduction gear for
better propulsion efficiency.

Thermal efficiency is high.


Difficult to balance
completely, thus vibrations
are more, requires heavy
foundation.
There are various internal
rubbing parts requiring
internal lubrication to
reduce wear of these parts.
Many parts make the
mechanism complicated.
Overload rating is less and
for short duration.

CPP is quite suitable


without the need to start
MOHD ANWAR
and stop

STEAM TURBINE VERSES MEDIUM SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE
STEAM TURBINE

Due to high RPM, turbine


develops high power for
same size.
For the same power, the
size is much smaller.
Power developed is
uniform, thus turbine does
not require a flywheel.
For propulsion purposes,
turbine RPM has to be
reduced for better
propulsion efficiency.
Steam turbine requires
long preparation for
starting.
Requires less maintenance.

DIESEL ENGINE

RPM is low, thus the power


developed is also low for
the same size.
Requires more space for
the same power.
Torque produced is of
pulsating nature, for which
a large flywheel is a must.
Slow speed diesel engine
runs at optimum RPM and
gives good propulsion
efficiency.
Diesel engine can be
started at very short
notice.
Needs heavy maintenance.

MOHD ANWAR

GAS TURBINE VERSES SLOW SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE
GAS TURBINE

DIESEL ENGINE

Has low thermal efficiency


Thermal efficiency is high
and higher mechanical
but mechanical effiency.
efficiency
Difficult to balance
Turbine can be accurately
completely, thus vibrations
balanced and has minimum
are more, requires heavy
vibrations.
foundation.
There are no internal rubbing
internal lubrication is
parts, thus no need for
necessary to reduce wear
internal lubrication.
of internal parts.
It has less components, thus
Many parts make the
mechanism is very simple.
mechanism very
Can be considerable
complicated.
overloaded with slight
Overload rating is less and
reduction in efficiency.
for short duration.
Requires separate astern
This engine is easily made
stages which is idle during
reversible.
ahead.
MOHD ANWAR
5

GAS TURBINE VERSES SLOW SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE

GAS TURBINE
DIESEL ENGINE
Due to high RPM, turbine
RPM is low, thus the power
develops high power for
developed is also low for
same size.
the same size.
Requires more space for
For the same power, the
the same power.
size is much smaller.
Torque produced is of
Power developed is
pulsating nature, for which
uniform, thus turbine does
a large flywheel is a must.
not require a flywheel.
Slow speed diesel engine
For propulsion purposes,
runs at optimum RPM and
turbine RPM has to be
gives good propulsion
reduced for better
efficiency.
propulsion efficiency.
Needs heavy maintenance.
Requires less
Operating pressure is
maintenance.
usually higher.
Gas turbine operates at
low working pressure. MOHD ANWAR
6

MATERIALS USED FOR STEAM


TURBINES

MOHD ANWAR

STEAM TURBINE VERSES SLOW SPEED


DIESEL ENGINE
STEAM TURBINE

DIESEL ENGINE

Thermal efficiency is low.


Turbine can be accurately
balanced and has minimum
vibrations.
There are no internal rubbing
parts, thus no need for
internal lubrication. Feed
water remains pure.
It has less components, thus
mechanism is very simple.
Steam turbine can carry
considerable load with slight
reduction in efficiency.

Thermal efficiency is high.


Difficult to balance
completely, thus vibrations
are more, requires heavy
foundation.
There are various internal
rubbing parts requiring
internal lubrication to
reduce wear of these parts.
Many parts make the
mechanism complicated.
Overload rating is less and
for short duration.

MOHD ANWAR

METHODS OF BLADES FIXING


Turbine blades are made of
corrosion resistance steel with
integral root and integral tenon for
the shroud.
Blades may have various types of
root fastenings which include
serrated root, straddle T , inverted
T, fir tree or straddle fir tree, multi
root etc. Blades may be mounted in
segments or individually.
In case of segmental blading, 8~12
blades are assembled together with
distance pieces and shroud before
fitting them on the rotor. Number of
blades are determined as per
vibration
consideration.
MOHD ANWAR
9

AXIAL ENTRY BLADING

In case of integral blading,


each blade is an entity, it has
its own root and are fitted
singly.

Circumferentially
mounted blades are
inserted through
gateway into machined
The blades are secured in the
groves on the wheel.
grooves, machined in the rotor
Closing blade is fitted
to complement the shape of
into gate is riveted
the root.
into position by an
axial pin through root
Due to high centrifugal forces,
and rotor.
root design is very complex.
The tips of the adjacent blades
are usually attached by a
shroud in groups of 6~8 to
provide stiffness to blade
against vibration.
MOHD ANWAR
10

TURBINE ROTORS
Turbine rotors may be solid,
hollow, built up or gashed.
Gashed rotors are mainly
used in modern turbines
although some IP turbines
utilize built up construction.
For built up rotor, the shaft
is stepped down from
middle on either side and
wheels are shrunk on with
keys.
Gashed rotors are solid,
allow expansion of rotor
and casing and maintain
closer axial clearance.

MOHD ANWAR

11

DOUBLE CASING ARRANGEMENT

Use of high temperature and pressure steam causes


problems in design, this arrangement is a solution to these
problems.
The outer casing has to be thick to resist high pressures
and acts as main support MOHD
girder
for turbine rotor.
ANWAR

12

DOUBLE CASING ARRANGEMENT


(CONTINUED)

The inner casing is made to expand freely and has


ability to absorb thermal stresses due to large
expansion caused by the high temperature steam.
The inner casing is fully supported by the outer
casing which acts as a support cradle.

The outer casing is subjected to exhaust steam


pressure and temperature and maintain concentricity
and alignment irrespective of expansions.
Exhaust steam between the casings acts as a steam
jacket and reduces heat losses from the surfaces
which improve thermal efficiency.
MOHD ANWAR

13

DIAPHRAGMS

MOHD ANWAR

14

DIAPHRAGMS (CONTINUED)
Diaphragms provide separations between the discs and
hold either nozzles or fixed blades.
Allowance for expansion must be provided for
diaphragms such that they also maintain the shaft
gland clearance to a minimum.
Lower half of diaphragm is supported in lower casing by

two lugs resting in casing and recessed in diaphragm.


Upper half is supported by two plates slotting into
upper joint and recessed into diaphragm. Centering
being done by radial keys.
Present day diaphragms are of all welded construction.
Nozzles are positioned by close fitting bands which are
then welded together to form a continuous structure.
MOHD ANWAR

15

GLAND SEALING
ARRANGEMENT

In order to prevent steam leakage, most steam


turbines use labyrinth packing where the shaft is
coming out from casing.
MOHD ANWAR
16
The inward pointing circumferential
ridges on the

GLAND SEALING ARRANGEMENT


(CONTINUED)

Thus the packing does not completely stops leakage but


limits it to tolerable amount.

As steam is forced out of the casing under pressure,


each ridge produces an obstacle to the flow of steam
and thereby dropping its pressure available for
subsequent ridge.
In large turbines , leak off steam along-with leaked -in
air is led to recovery condenser.
A single ring of labyrinth packing is used as inter-stage
packing in the diaphragm of impulse turbines.

MOHD ANWAR

17

GEARING IN MARINE USE


Gearing is used on marine turbines for combining the
power of HP, IP and LP turbines and to transmit power to
propeller at low revolutions.
Turbines operate at high RPM at which propeller
efficiency is low. In order to improve propeller efficiency,
RPM of output shaft is maintained between 90~150 by
reduction gearing.
Helical spur gears are used which offer better
distribution of load, quite and smooth operation. Single
helical gear introduce axial thrust but double helical
gearing overcomes this difficulty by canceling the axial
thrust on each other.
Various arrangements of gearing are used in marine
field.
MOHD ANWAR

18

EPICYCLIC GEARING
In parallel shaft gears, the axis
are fixed whereas in the
epicyclic at least one axis moves
relative to another fixed axis.
An epicyclic gear consists of a
sun wheel on the central axis, a
internally toothed ring called the
annulus, planet or star wheel
carrier and planets or star
wheels which revolve on
spindles attached to the carrier.

Main difference
between parallel
shaft gears and
epicyclic is of the

This arrangement can give


speed reductions of 3:1 to 12:1
depending upon relative gear
wheel dimensions.
MOHD ANWAR
19

DOUBLE REDUCTION GEARING

Double reduction gearing is commonly


used where turbine speeds go upto 7000
RPM.
Articulated gearing allows easier removal
of individual trains and gives greater
flexibility in carrying out alignment.
Interleaved design is an alternative
arrangement where the primary wheels
straddle the secondary wheels and this
design is more compact. A typical double
reduction gear could give speed ratio of
66:1.
Where large slow turning propeller is
used, triple reduction gearing would be
employed for turbine speed of 6000 RPM
or more.
MOHD ANWAR
20

LUBRICATION OF STEAM TURBINE


Modern trend of steam turbine lubrication is by pressure system
which reduces size of gravity tank, length of piping and reduction in
oil quantity leading to considerable economy.
A safeguard must be provided to ensure that the bearings are not
run out in the event of oil pump failure. With gravity system, this is
simple as the oil from gravity tank will flow until turbine to rest.
With pressure system, an auxiliary pump could start automatically,
but this would not be satisfactory in the event of total electrical
blackout.
A small gravity tank at a lower level may prove to be a better and
safer arrangement.

MOHD ANWAR

21

GRAVITY LUBRICATION SYSTEM

MOHD ANWAR

22

GRAVITY LUBRICATION SYSTEM


(CONTINUED)

Oil is drawn from the sump via a suction/magnetic filter


by pump and discharged via filter and cooler to
pressure distribution piping.
Some amount of oil is continuously fed to gravity tanks
which keep overflowing to sump, thus keeping the
gravity tanks filled up at all the time.
In the event of pump failure, standby pump will
automatically take over. In case of blackout, oil will flow
to the distribution points through non return valve at
1.7 bar pressure for about three minutes as emergency
supply. Usual supply pressure being 3.1 bar
Oil inlet temperature is maintained at about 46.5 oC
MOHD ANWAR

23

PRESSURE LUBRICATION SYSTEM

MOHD ANWAR

24

PRESSURE LUBRICATION SYSTEM


(CONTINUED)
Oil is drawn up from sump by independent pumps.
When turbine is started, attached pump starts building
up pressure and independents pumps are cut off.
A small gravity tank in the top of gear case is kept
always full.
When turbine is stopped then one of the two
independent pumps will start automatically.
In the event of a black out when turbine RPM reduces,
gravity tank supplies oil through non return valve for
about 30 minutes till then operator can start auxiliary
pump or stop the machinery,
MOHD ANWAR

25