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CDM303

3D ANIMATION

CHAPTER 5
THE CAMERA & LIGHTING

PREPARED BY:

SARAIZA KHAIRUL IKRAM


SCHOOL OF MULTIMEDIA
FACULTY OF ART & DESIGN

TOPIC OUTLINE

5.1 Virtual Cameras.


5.2 Types of Camera Shots.
5.3 Lighting Strategies and Mood.
5.4 Types of Light Sources.
5.5 Lighting the Scene.

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5.1 Virtual Camera

The world of rendering 3-Dimensional scenes and character with computer software is
populated by most of the attributes of our visual realm where shapes of object are
revealed by light and obscured by shadow where color creates moods of subtle tranquility
or explosives happiness where textures are as delicate and lyrical as fine sand .

Each group of image making professionals has developed ways of doing things .Most
visual artist has to deal with few basic element during the image making or rendering
process . These element includes :
Composition
Lighting
Defining surfaces (Color & Texture)

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5.1 Virtual Camera

In 3-Dimensional computer graphics all of the object used in the scene are simply called
models. Once the model is built .they are be placed in virtual studio that exist in the
computer and arranged in a specific ways by using a combination of geometric
transformation.
All the light and the surface must be fine-tuned , then we will be able to make adjustment
to the placement and focusing of the camera.

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5.1 Virtual Camera


5.1.1 INTRODUCTION ON CAMERA

For over century we have used camera select and records our reality . Through the years
cinematographers have developed a variety camera techniques to prioritize the elements
in the frame as they relate to the flow of the storytelling.
When creating a virtual three-dimensional environment we use many of those cinematic
story-telling techniques.

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5.1 Virtual Camera


5.1.2 THE PYRAMID OF VISION

- The pyramid of vision , also called the cone vision,


-is define as the portion of the 3-dimensional environment that is seen through the
camera.
-It is define by several parameters that are essential for controlling the position and
characteristics of the camera. This numerical information includes the point of view , the
point of interest , the line of sight, the near and far clipping planes , the field of vision, the
viewing angle.

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5.1 Virtual Camera


5.1.2.1 POINT OF VIEW &
INTEREST

- The point of view It is a the location in the scene where the camera is placed. The point
of interest or center of interest is the location in space where the camera is focused.
5.1.2.2 CLIPPING PLANES

-The clipping planes are perpendicular to the line of sight. The far clipping plane ,also
called the yon plane , defines the most distant area that can be seen by the camera.
5.1.2.3 FIELD OF VISION

-The objects contained inside the field of vision are projected onto the images to create a
2-dimensional of image of the 3-dimensional environment. This projection is quite similar
to the way in which real scene is projected by the optical lens used in a photographic
camera into film that loaded inside the camera.

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5.1 Virtual Camera


5.1.2.4 FOCAL LENGTH

- The focal length of a camera controls the way in which 3-dimensional objects are seen
by the camera. The focal length of a virtual camera is defined by the relation between the
near clipping planes and the far clipping planes
5.1.2.2 DEPTH OF FIELD AND FOCUS

-The focal plane of a lens is the plane perpendicular to the camera that is resolved into
sharp image. Depth Of fields and focus are used to direct the viewers attention to the
relevant areas of the framed image.

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5.1 Types Of Shots

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5.1 Types Of Shots

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5.1 Types Of Shots

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5.1 Types Of Shots

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5.3 Lighting Strategies and Mood.


LIGHTING STRATEGIES & MOOD

There are as many philosophies of lighting as there are disciplines that require lighting.
This would include performing arts , dramatic theater, musical theater dance ,opera which
may take place both indoors and outdoors.
VISUALIZING LIGHT

Effective lighting design starts with visualization of the effect of lights in a specific
environment. Fortunely,3-Dimensional rendering programs are capable of actually
simulating for us specific lighting arrangements.
An easy way to visualize lighting consist of starting with a dark space, turning the
spotlights first, you can focus on their lighting effects because much scene will still be
quite dark.
ANIMATING LIGHT

These techniques include the use of parameter curves and motion paths. A wide variety
of lighting effects the mood of a scene can also created by animating the intensity of light
source as well as its color , cone angle and fall-off.
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5.4 Type Of Light Source

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5.4 Type Of Light Source

Distant Lights
Distant lights have sharp-edged shadows and the light has no set radius, so
it essentially lights everything that lies in its path equally.
The position of the light is irrelevant, so you can place it anywhere in your
scene. It is only the direction of the light that matters.
The advantages that distant lights offer is that they do a relatively decent
simulation of sunlight and they render quickly.

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5.4 Type Of Light Source

Spotlights
The second type of light that we have is the highly versatile spotlight.
These lights are extremely useful as they can be used to create a number of
effects, and they can imitate other lights such as area lights and point lights
and even distant lights with a few tweaks of their settings.
One of the most useful things about spotlights is that they can produce both
sharp-edged shadows as well as soft, fuzzy shadow maps.

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5.4 Type Of Light Source

Point Lights
Point lights, often also called omni lights, cast light in all directions (omni
directionally) from a single, non dimensional point in 3D space.
The most common use of point lights is simply for creating some ambient
illumination in your scene, usually with the shadows switched off.

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5.4 Type Of Light Source

Area Lights
Area lights look great and they create very cool-looking shadows. As they
are more physically accurate than any of the other light types in LightWave,
they are capable of producing very realistic lighting.
One of the best things about area lights is that their size is adjustable, which
makes them extremely useful for any type of lighting source that needs
physical dimension.

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5.4 Type Of Light Source

Linear Lights
Lastly, we have linear lights, which are similar to area lights in the sense that
they appear to have dimension.
While an area light is essentially like a two-dimensional rectangular array of
ray-traced point lights, a linear light is like an adjustable one-dimensional
row of point lights.
Linear lights are useful for things such as fluorescent lighting tubes

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5.4 Lighting The Scene

One of the most neutral and efficient lighting setups for this process is a studio
style setup, such as would be used in any photographic studio. This type of
lighting rig is often called three-point lighting, as it usually consists of three
lights, or three areas of illumination:

Key light.
Fill light.
Back Light

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5.4 Lighting The Scene

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5.4 Lighting The Scene

The Key Light


The key light is the primary source of illumination. It can consist of a single light
or a number of lights, depending on your scene.
This light is usually placed above your subject (although it can actually be
placed anywherethere is no hard and fast rule about its placement in a
scene), and generally provides illumination for approximately three-quarters of
your subject.
This light is typically the brightest point of illumination in the scene.

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5.4 Lighting The Scene

The Fill Light


The purpose of the fill light is to provide illumination in the shadow areas not
illuminated by the key light, so that there are no areas that are totally black.
Generally the fill lighting is of a fairly low intensity.

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5.4 Lighting The Scene

The Backlight
Also called a rim light, a kicker light, the highlight, and a variety of other names,
the backlight is simply there to create highlights on a surface so that the object
stands out from its background.
This light often casts no shadows.

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REFERENCES

Dan Ablan, Inside Lightwave 9, New Riders, 2009


Arnold Gallardo, 3D Lighting, Charles River Media Inc, 2005.
Isaac Victor Kerlow, The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and Imaging,2009

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LAB ACTIVITY

CLICK HERE FOR YOUR LAB ACTIVITY.


GOOD LUCK
AND
TRY YOUR BEST

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ACTIVITIES

LIGHTWAVE PART 5

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NEXT SESSION PREVIEW

InInthe
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LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Dan Ablan, Inside Lightwave 9, New Riders, 2009


2. Arnold Gallardo, 3D Lighting, Charles River Media Inc, 2005.
3. Isaac Victor Kerlow, The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and
Imaging

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APPENDIX

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End of slide show, click to exit.

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