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Scientific Paper Validity


Faculty of Medicine Sriwijaya
University

Types of Medical
Writing

Editorial
Original Article
Review Articles
Short Papers
Case Reports
Letter to Editor
Personal Views
Special Communication

Dr MBA

Sci Paper Validity

The Basic Structure of


Article

TITLE
(S)Summary
(Structured Abstract)
(I) Introduction (What Question was asked?)
(M)Methods
(How was it Studied?)
(R)Results
(What was Found?)
(A)Analysis
(How data was analyzed?)
(D)Discussion (What Do the Findings mean?)
Acknowledgements
References
Dr MBA

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Title

Should be specific but comprehensive


Short but sufficiently descriptive
No abbreviations
Should be easy to catalogue

Dr MBA

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Structured abstract
Objective

Design
Setting
Patients and methods
Results
Conclusions
Key words

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Introduction
Existing state of knowledge
Gaps in knowledge which research will fill.
State what you Intend to do
Give pertinent references

Dr MBA

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Introduction
It does not

Review the history of the subject

Does not identify all the other gaps in


knowledge

Don not include methods, results and


discussion

Dr MBA

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Methods

What Subjects/patients/animals/specimens
techniques were used?

Reason for selecting the experimental design


of the study

Statistical methods used for analysis

The section should be called "Materiel and


Methods" only if inanimate specimens have
been used.
(continue)

Dr MBA

Sci Paper Validity

Methods
Patient/Animals/Specimens

Dr MBA

Numbers
How are they grouped (cases/controls)
Criteria
Informed consent obtained

Sci Paper Validity

Techniques

Give enough details for readers to assess


the validity of the results, and repeat the
study
If standard techniques is used, give
appropriate references, any modifications
should be clearly explained
If drug trial- clear description of trial

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Statistics
Clearly mention the statistical
methods used for appropriate
verification of reported results.
(consult a statistician before starting
the study)

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Results

Communication of facts, measurements,


and observations gathered by the author
Start with the results that are easier to
interpret
Results should be set out in tables and
figures
Do not duplicate illustrations

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Discussion

What gaps in knowledge remain to be


filled?

Main results should be summarised at


the beginning of discussion

Only mention previous results or


comments which illuminate or which are
illuminated by the present results.
(continue)

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Discussion
Final paragraph in which the message of the
article is firmly stated.
Point out where further gaps in knowledge could
usefully be filled instead of "further research is
needed".
Intention of author to explore the "Gaps" further.

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Acknowledgements (Silent
partners)
We wish to thank - all those who deserve
recognition for their contribution but who have
not made a significant intellectual contribution
and

are

therefore

not

included

as

authors

(Colleagues,Institutions, Organizations providing


financial help, laboratory and secretarial staff)

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References
1.Standard journal article
Vega K., Pina I., Krevisky B. Heart transplantation
is associated with an increased risk for
pancreaticobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996
Jun 1: 124(11): 980-3

2.Books and other monographs


Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke.
In: Laragh JH, Bremier BM, editors. Hypertension:
pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd
ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. P.465-78.
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References
3.Disertation
Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the
elderly's access and untilizaiion (dissertation]. St.
Louis (MO): Washington Univ: 1995.

4. Unpublished material
Leshner AL. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine. N
Engl J Med. In press 1996.

5. Electronic material
Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious
disease. Emerg Inftect Dis [serial online] 1995 JanMar (cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1): [24 screens].
Available from URL:
Dr MBAhttp:/www.cdc.gov/ncdod/EID/eid.htm
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Summing Up
In the words of Stephen Lock,
A good article has a definite structure. Make
its point and then shuts up

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VALIDITY AND
RELIABILITY
THE PRINCIPLES OF VALIDITY
AND RELIABILITY ARE
FUNDAMENTAL CORNERSTONES
OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

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WHAT IS RELIABILITY?

Any significant results must be more than a


one-off finding and be inherently repeatable.
Without this replication of statistically
significant results, the experiment, and
research have not fulfilled all of the
requirements of testability.
This prerequisite is essential to a hypothesis
establishing itself as an accepted scientific
truth.

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Reliability

Reliability = Repeatability =
Reproducibility = Consistency

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WHAT IS VALIDITY

Validity encompasses the entire experimental


concept and establishes whether the results
obtained meet all of the requirements of the
scientific research method.
For example, there must have been
randomization of the sample groups and
appropriate care and diligence shown in the
allocation of controls.

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Internal Validity

IV dictates how an experimental design is


structured and encompasses all of the
steps of the scientific research method.
Even if the results are great, sloppy and
inconsistent design will compromise your
integrity in the eyes of the scientific
community.
IV and reliability are at the core of any
experimental design.
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External Validity

EV is the process of examining the results


and questioning whether there are any
other possible causal relationships.
Control group and randomization will
lessen EV problems but no method can be
completely successful; this is why the
statistical proofs of a hypothesis called
significant, not absolute truth.

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Any scientific research design only puts


forward a possible cause for the studied
effect.
There is always the chance that another
unknown factor contributed to the results
and findings.
This extraneous causal relationship may
become more apparent, as techniques are
refined and honed.
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Conclusion

If a research have constructed its


experiment to contain validity and
reliability then the scientific community is
more likely to accept your findings.
Eliminating other potential causal
relationships, by using controls and
duplicate samples, is the best way to
ensure that your results stand up to
rigorous questioning.

Dr MBA

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Thank you very much for your


kind attention

Dr MBA

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