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Anda di halaman 1dari 64

Dr. Ashfaq Ahmed

Course

Outline

Review of Math

Basics of Optimization

Review of Matlab

Examples of Optimization in Computer, Telecom and Power applications

Graphical Optimization

Optimization Types Constraint and Unconstraint

Optimization Problem Types Linear NonLinear etc

Linear Optimization

Non Linear Optimization

Integer and Mixed integer programming

Complexity Analysis

2

Set Theory

Sets

Subset

A={1,3,5,7,9},

A B

equal to B, i.e., there exists at least one element of B which is not an

element of A

A B x[ x A x B ]

CB

C is a subset of B.

A B x[ x A x B ]

x[ x A x B]

For the set S = {1,2,3} this means:

P(S) = {0, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2,3} }

|S|=n then |P(S)| = 2n

3

Set Theory

Conceptually, sets may be infinite (i.e., not finite, without end).

Symbols for some special infinite sets:

N = {0, 1, 2, }

R = The real numbers, such as 374.1828

For real numbers a,b with a<b

[ a, b] {x R | a x b} closed interval

( a, b) {x R | a x b} open interval

[ a, b) {x R | a x b} half-open interval

( a, b] {x R | a x b} half-open interval

4

Set Theory

For real numbers a,b with a<b

[ a, b] {x R | a x b} closed interval

( a, b) {x R | a x b} open interval

[ a, b) {x R | a x b} half-open interval

( a, b] {x R | a x b} half-open interval

xS (x is in S) is the proposition that object x is an element or member

of set S.

e.g. 3N, a{x | x is a letter of the alphabet}

Can define set equality in terms of relation:

S,T: S=T (x: xS xT)

Two sets are equal iff they have all the same members.

xS : (xS)

x is not in S

5

Function

A function from X into Y is a relation that associates with each element of

X exactly one element of Y.

Domain: In a set of ordered pairs, (x, y), the domain is the set of all xcoordinates.

Range: In a set of ordered pairs, (x, y), the range is the set of all ycoordinates.

Example:

f (x)

x5

Range: {y: y0}

Example:

f ( x) x 2 5

Function

A function from X into Y is a relation that associates with each element of

X exactly one element of Y.

Domain: In a set of ordered pairs, (x, y), the domain is the set of all xcoordinates.

Range: In a set of ordered pairs, (x, y), the range is the set of all ycoordinates.

Example:

f (x)

x5

Range: {y: y0}

f ( x) x 2 5

Example:

Domain: All Real

Range: {y: y-5}

For n a natural number,

n! = n(n - 1)(n - 2)...321

0! = 1

n! = n(n - 1)!

1! = 1

2! = 2

3! = 6

4!= 3!*4 = 24

What about 10! =

leaving 7 choices for the second slot, 6

choices for the third slot and so on.

The number of different orderings is

8(7)(6)(5)(4)(3)(2)(1)=8! =40,320

In a permutation, the order of the books is important.

Each different permutation is a different arrangement.

The arrangement ABC is different from the arrangement CBA, even

though they are the same 3 books.

The number of r-permutations of a set S with n=|S| elements is

P(n,r) = n(n1)(nr+1) = n!/(nr)

8

There are some problems where the order of the items is NOT

important. These are called combinations.

You are just making selections, not making different arrangements.

Example: A committee of 3 students must be selected from a group of 5

people. How many possible different committees could be formed?

Lets call the 5 people A,B,C,D,and E.

Suppose the selected committee consists of students E, C, and A. If

you re-arrange the names to C, A, and E, its still the same group of

people. This is why the order is not important.

Because were not going to use all the possible combinations of ECA, like EAC,

CAE, CEA, ACE, and AEC, there will be a lot fewer committees. Therefore instead of

using only 5x4x3, to get the fewer committees, we must divide

5x4x3

3x2x1

Answer:

10 committees

factorial of the number of

digits on top of the fraction.)

9

The number of r-combinations C(n,r) of a set with

n=|S| elements is

n

n!

C ( n, r )

r !(n r )!

r

Essentially unordered permutations

P ( n, r ) C ( n , r ) P ( r , r )

Note that C(n,r) = C(n, nr)

n

P (n, r ) n! /( n r )!

n!

C (n, r )

P(r , r )

r!

r!(n r )!

r

10

Linear Algebra

Algebra means, roughly, relationships.

Linear Algebra means, roughly, line-like relationships.

If 3 feet forward has a 1-foot rise, then going 10x as far should give a 10x

rise (30 feet forward is a 10-foot rise)

Think of a vector as a directed line segment y

direction)

Basic idea: convert geometry in higher

dimensions into algebra!

Once you define a nice basis along

each dimension: x-, y-, z-axis

Vector becomes a 1 x N matrix!

v = [a b c]T

v

x

a

v b

c

11

Linear Algebra

Vector in Rn is an ordered

1

6

3

4

e.g. v = (1,6,3,4) is in R4

(1,6,3,4) is a column

vector:

as opposed to a row vector:

each entry fill with a real

number:

6 3 4

1 2 8

4 78 6

9 3 2

12

Linear Algebra

use the head-to-tail method

to combine vectors

Line equation: y = mx + c

Matrix equation: y = Mx + c

A

B

C

B

A

A B ( x1 , x2 ) ( y1 , y2 ) ( x1 y1 , x2 y2 )

Scalar Product: A+B

av a( x1 , x2 ) (ax1 , ax2 )

av

v

Matrix operation (Av) can change length, direction and also dimensionality!

13

Linear Algebra

Vectors: Magnitude (Length) and Phase (direction)

v ( x , x , , x )T

1 2

n

n

v x2

i

i 1

If v 1, v is a unit vector

Alternate representations:

Polar coords: (||v||, )

Complex numbers: ||v||ej

y

||v||

phase

14

Linear Algebra

Vector norm: afunction that assigns a strictly positive length

orsizeto each vectorin avector space [wikipedia]

Forann-dimensionalvector x [ x1

thevectornorm: x p x

x2 ... xn ]

p

@ xi

i

1/ p

; p 1, 2,...

Specialcase : x @max xi

i

Example: v = (1, 2,

Name

Symbol value

3)

L1 norm

|v|1

L2 norm

|v|2

14 3.74

L3 norm

|v|3

361/33.3

L norm

|v|

1/2

Properties:

1. x 0whenx 0; x 0iff x 0

2. kx k x scalark

3. x y x y

15

Linear Algebra

5 0 1

5

0 5 1

5

0 1 1

1

1 0 1

1

0 1 1

0

1 0 0

1

1 0 1

1

0 0 1

0

1 c x

x cy

y

0 1 y

(stretching)

(rotation)

(reflection)

(projection)

(shearing)

16

Linear Algebra

Matrices as sets of constraints

x y z 1

Special matrices

2x y z 2

a 0 0

0

b

0

0 0 c

diagonal

a b

0 d

0 0

e

f

upper-triangular

a 0

b c

d e

0

f

lower-triangular

0

0

x

1 1 1

1

y

2 1 1

2

z

1 0 0

0

1

0

0 0 1

Denoted by A or AT. AT = [aji]

AT =

1

2

5

6

Symmetric Matrix: AT = A

Identity Matrix: A square matrix whose diagonal elements are all 1 and off-

Null Matrix: A matrix whose all elements are zero.

17

Linear Algebra

Determinants

Example

of

3 5

A

1

2

3 5

det A

(3)(2) (5)(1) 6 5 1

1 2

Def: Minors

Let A =[aij] be an nxn matrix . The ijth minor of A ( or the minor of

aij) is the determinant Mij of the (n-1)x(n-1) submatrix after you

delete the ith row and the jth column of A.

Example

Find

M 23 , M 32 , M 33 ,

1 0 2

A 4 3 1

3 5 1

18

Linear Algebra

Def: Cofactors

Let A =[aij] be an nxn matrix . The ijth cofactor of A ( or the

cofactor of aij) is defined to be Aij ( 1) i j M ij

Example

1 0 2

A 4 3 1

3 5 1

signs

19

Linear Algebra

0 2 1

A 3 1 2

4 0 1

Find all the minors and cofactors of A, and then

find the determinant of A.

Sol:

1 2

3 2

3 1

M 11

1, M 12

4

4 1

4 0

C13 4

C11 1

C12 5

M 21 2, M 22 4, M 23 8, C21 2, C22 4, C23 8,

M 31 5, M 32 3, M 33 6. C31 5, C32 3, C33 6.

0

5,

M 13

a21C21 a22C22 a23C23 3(2) (1)(4) 2(8) 14

a11C11 a21C21 a31C31 0(1) 3(2) 4(5) 14

20

Linear Algebra

Principal Minor

Principal minor of order k: A sub-matrix obtained by deleting any n-k

rows and their corresponding columns from an n x n matrix Q.

Consider

1 2 3

Q 4 5 6

7 8 9

Principal minors of order 2 are

1 2 1 3

5 6

4 5 , 7 9 and 8 9

21

Linear Algebra

Leading Principal Minor

The leading principal minor of order k of an n x n matrix is obtained

by deleting the last n-k rows and their corresponding columns.

1 2 3

Q 4 5 6

7 8 9

Leading principal minor of order 2 is

1 2

4 5

22

Linear Algebra

An nxn matrix M is said to be positive definite if zTMz is positive for all

non-zero column vectors z. Matrix M is symmetric.

Tests for positive definite matrices

All diagonal elements must be positive.

All the leading principal determinants must be positive (z>0).

All diagonal elements are non-negative (z>=0).

All the principal determinants are non-negative.

Test the negative of the matrix for positive definiteness or positive

semi-definiteness.

23

Linear Algebra

24

Linear Algebra

25

Linear Algebra

Eigenvalues

If the action of a matrix on a (nonzero) vector changes its magnitude but

not its direction, then the vector is called an eigenvector of that matrix.

Each eigenvector is, in effect, multiplied by a scalar, called the eigenvalue

corresponding to that eigenvector. The eigenspace corresponding to one

eigenvalue of a given matrix is the set of all eigenvectors of the matrix with

that eigenvalue

Given a linear transformation A, a non-zero vector x is defined to be an

eigenvector of the transformation if it satisfies the eigenvalue equation

AX X

for some scalar . In this situation, the scalar is called an eigenvalue of

A corresponding to the eigenvector x.

26

Linear Algebra

Computation of eigenvalues, and the characteristic equation

When a transformation is represented by a square matrix A, the

eigenvalue equation can be expressed as

AX IX 0

Solve

det(A I) = 0.

27

Linear Algebra

28

Linear Algebra

29

Linear Algebra

30

Linear Algebra

31

Differential Calculus

The derivative, or derived function of f(x) denoted f`(x)

is defined as

f ( x h) f ( x)

f `( x) lim

h 0

h

y

Q

f ( x h) f ( x )

P

h

x

mPQ

x+h

f ( x h) f ( x )

h

dy

y

Leibniz Notation: f `( x) lim

ho x

dx

32

Calculus

The Product Rule

If k ( x) f ( x).g ( x) , then:

k `( x) f `( x) g ( x) g `( x) f ( x)

dy df

dg

.g ( x ) . f ( x )

dx dx

dx

OR

dy

f `g g ` f

dx

1. Differentiate y x 2 sin x

f ( x) x 2

g ( x) sin x

f `( x) 2 x

g `( x) cos x

dy

f `g g ` f

dx

2 x sin x x 2 cos x

33

Calculus

The Quotient Rule

dy f `g g ` f

dx

g2

d x3

1. Find

dx sin x

f ( x) x3

g ( x) sin x

f `( x) 3 x 2 g `( x) cos x

dy f `g g ` f

3x 2 sin x x3 cos x

2

dx

g

sin 2 x

34

Calculus

A secant line is a straight line joining two points on a function

A tangent line is a straight line that touches a function at only one point.

The tangent line represents the instantaneous rate of change of the

function at that one point. The slope of the tangent line at a point on the

function is equal to the derivative of the function at the same point.

35

35

Calculus

A stationary point is an input to a

function where the derivative is zero

Stationary points (red circles) and

inflection points (blue squares).

The stationary points in this graph

are all relative maxima or relative

minima.

a point on a curve at which the curvature

or concavity changes sign from plus to

minus or from minus to plus.

A critical point of a function is

any point (a, f(a)) where f `(a) =

0 or where f `(a) does not exist.

f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3 is differentiable everywhere

f(x) = x2/3 is defined for all x and differentiable

for x 0, with the derivative f(x) = 2x1/3/3.

36

Calculus

Consider the

function:

x2 2 x 1

f ( x) x

1 x 2

1

x 1 2 x 4

2

y

5

Domain [ 2, 4)

2x

f `( x) 1

1

2 x 1

1 x 2

2 x 4

37

Calculus

Local extrema

43215 21

321 321

Local extreme values occur either at the end points of the function, turning

points or critical points within the interval of the domain.

y

x2 2x

3 x 1

f ( x) x3

1 x 1

2 x 2 8 x 5 1 x 3

Domain [ 3,3)

-1 is the local minimum value

If extrema occurs at end points then they are end point maximums or end

point minimums.

(i) Local maximum / minimum turning points

(ii) End point values

(iii) Critical points

39

Calculus

The Nature of Stationary Points.

If f `(a) = 0 then a table of values over a suitable interval centred at a

provides evidence of the nature of the stationary point that must exist at a.

A simpler test does exist.

It is the second derivative test.

f `( x ) 0 and f ``( x ) 0 then maximum turning point.

f `( x ) 0 and f ``( x ) 0 then draw a table of signs.

If the second derivative test is easier to determine than making a table of

signs then this provides an efficient technique to finding the nature of

stationary points.

40

Calculus

100

Orig

1st Derv.

2nd Derv.

80

60

y = x 4-4x 3+5

40

dy = 4 x. 3 - 12*x 2

d2y = 12 x 2 - 24 x

20

0

-20

-40

-60

x = -2:0.001:4;

y = x.^4 - 4*x.^3 + 5;

dy = 4 * x.^3 - 12*x.^2;

d2y = 12 * x.^2 - 24*x;

-80

-2

plot(x,dy,'b','LineWidth',2); hold on;

plot(x,d2y,'k','LineWidth',2); hold on;

legend('Orig','1st Derv.','2nd Derv.')

-1

1

x

41

Graph Theory

Network = graph

Informally a graph is a set of nodes joined

by a set of lines or arrows.

Nodes and edges

G(V, E)

Undirected graph

Directed graph

V:={1,2,3,4,5,6}

E:={{1,2},{1,5},{2,3},{2,5},{3,4},{4,5},{4,6}}

Many problems can be stated in terms of a graph

The properties of graphs are well-studied

Many algorithms exists to solve graph problems

Many problems are already known to be intractable

Graphs are excellent structures for storing, searching, and retrieving large

amounts of data

Graph theoretic techniques play an important role in increasing the

storage/search efficiency of computational techniques.

42

Graph Theory

Undirected graph

loop

Directed graph

loop

G=(V,E)

isolated vertex

multiple

edges

adjacent

degree of a vertex: number of edges incident to it

Nodes of a digraph can also be said to have an indegree and an

outdegree

adjacency: two vertices connected by an edge are adjacent

43

Graph Theory

x

example path: a-b-c-d-e

trail: no edge can be repeated

example trail: a-b-c-d-e-b-d

walk: no restriction

example walk: a-b-d-a-b-c

closed: if starting vertex is also ending

vertex

length: number of edges in the path, trail,

or walk

d

c

cycle: closed path (ex: a-b-c-d-a)

44

Graph Theory

simple graph: an undirected graph with no loops or multiple edges

multi-graph: any graph that is not simple

connected graph: all vertex pairs are joined by a path

disconnected graph: at least one vertex pairs is not joined by a path

complete graph: all vertex pairs are adjacent

Kn: the completely connected graph with n vertices

Simple graph

b

K5

d

c

Disconnected graph

with two components

d

c

45

Graph Theory

tree: a connected, acyclic graph

directed acyclic graph (DAG): a digraph with no cycles

weighted graph: any graph with weights associated with the edges

b

5

8

-3

2

e

10

46

MathTerminologies

A Theorem is a major result

A Corollary is a theorem that follows on from another theorem

A Lemma is a small results (less important than a theorem)

Example: Here is a Theorem, a Corollary to it, and also a Lemma!

Theorem:

If m and n are any two whole numbers and

a = m2 n2

b = 2mn

c = m 2 + n2

then a2 + b2 = c2

Proof:

a2 + b2 = (m2 n2)2 + (2mn)2

= m4 2m2n2 + n4 + 4m2n2

= (m2 + n2)2

= c2

47

MathTerminologies

A Theorem is a major result

A Corollary is a theorem that follows on from another theorem

A Lemma is a small results (less important than a theorem)

Example: Here is a Theorem, a Corollary to it, and also a Lemma!

Theorem:

Corollary

If m and n are any two whole numbers and

a, b and c, as defined above, are

2

2

a=m n

a Pythagorean Triple

b = 2mn

Proof:

c = m 2 + n2

From the Theorem a2 + b2 = c2, so

then a2 + b2 = c2

a, b and c are a Pythagorean Triple

Proof:

(That result "followed on" from the

previous Theorem.)

a2 + b2 = (m2 n2)2 + (2mn)2

= m4 2m2n2 + n4 + 4m2n2

= (m2 + n2)2

= c2

48

MathTerminologies

In a nutshell

A Theorem is a major result

A Corollary is a theorem that follows on from another theorem

A Lemma is a small results (less important than a theorem)

Example: Here is a Theorem, a Corollary to it, and also a Lemma!

Theorem:

Corollary

If m and n are any two whole numbers and

a, b and c, as defined above, are

2

2

a=m n

a Pythagorean Triple

b = 2mn

Proof:

c = m 2 + n2

From the Theorem a2 + b2 = c2, so

then a2 + b2 = c2

a, b and c are a Pythagorean Triple

Proof:

(That result "followed on" from the

previous Theorem.)

a2 + b2 = (m2 n2)2 + (2mn)2

= m4 2m2n2 + n4 + 4m2n2

= (m2 + n2)2

= c2

Pythagorean triple 3, 4 and 5

Proof: If m = 2 and n = 1, then

a = 22 12 = 4 1 = 3

b=221=4

c = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 = 5

(That was a "small" result.)

49

MathTerminologies

Proposition a proved and often interesting result, but generally less

important than a theorem. if x is odd then x2is odd.

Conjecture a statement that is unproved, but is believed to be true.

Every even number larger than 2 can be written as a sum of two

primes.

Axiom/Postulate a statement that is assumed to be true without proof.

These are the basic building blocks from which all theorems are proved.

One of the axioms of arithmetic is that a + b = b + a. You cant prove that,

but it is the basis of arithmetic and something we use rather often.

50

MATLAB

MATLAB is an interactive environment

Commands are interpreted one line at a time

Commands may be scripted to create your own functions or

procedures

Variables are created when they are used

Variables are typed, but variable names may be reused for different

types

Basic data structure is the matrix

Matrix dimensions are set dynamically

Operations on matrices are applied to all elements of a matrix at

once

Removes the need for looping over elements one by one!

Makes for fast & efficient programmes

51

MATLAB

Worksp

ace

Command

Window

Command

History

52

Variables

Names

MATLAB

with numbers and underscores but it must begin with a

letter

Reserved names are IF, WHILE, ELSE, END, SUM,

etc.

Names are case sensitive

Value

This is the data the is associated to the variable; the

data is accessed by using the name.

Variables have the type of the last thing assigned to them

Re-assignment is done silently there are no warnings

if you overwrite a variable with something of a different

type.

equal symbol =

>> A = 32

To find out the value of a variable simply

type the name in

53

MATLAB

54

MATLAB

A MATLAB matrix is a rectangular array of numbers

Scalars and vectors are regarded as special cases of matrices

MATLAB allows you to work with a whole array at a time

>> A = zeros(2, 4)

>> A = zeros(5) or >> A = zeros(5, 5)

>> rand(rows, columns)

Columns

55

MATLAB

The colon : is actually an operator, that generates a row vector

This row vector may be treated as a set of indices when accessing a

elements of a matrix

The more general form is

[start:stepsize:end]

>> [11:2:21]

11 13 15 17 19 21

>>

Stepsize does not have to be integer (or positive)

>> [22:-2.07:11]

56

MATLAB

Mathematical Operators:

Add: +

Subtract: Divide: ./

Multiply: .*

Power: .^ (e.g. .^2 means squared)

Note that preceding the symbol / or * or ^ by a

. means that the operator is applied between

pairs of corresponding elements of vectors of

matrices

57

MATLAB

Combining this with methods from Accessing Matrix Elements

>> results = zeros(3, 5)

>> results(:, 1:4) = rand(3, 4)

>> results(:, 5) = results(:, 1) + results(:, 2) + results(:, 3) +

results(:, 4)

or

>> results(:, 5) = results(:, 1) .* results(:, 2) .* results(:, 3) .*

results(:, 4)

58

MATLAB

Logical Operators:

Greater Than: >

Less Than: <

Greater Than or Equal To: >=

Less Than or Equal To: <=

Is Equal: ==

Not Equal To: ~=

For example, you can find data that is above a certain limit:

>> r = results(:,1)

>> ind = r > 0.2

Boolean Operators:

AND: &

OR: |

NOT: ~

59

MATLAB

There are a number of special functions that provide useful

constants

pi = 3.14159265.

i or j

= square root of -1

Inf = infinity

NaN

= not a number

Passing a vector to a function like sum, mean, std will calculate the property within

the vector

>> sum([1,2,3,4,5])

= 15

>> mean([1,2,3,4,5])

=3

>> max([1,2,3,4,5])

=5

60

MATLAB

The plot function can be used in different ways:

>> plot(data)

>> plot(x, y)

>> plot(data, r.-)

Colour: r, b, g, c, k, y etc.

Point style: . + * x o > etc.

Line style: - -- : .-

1

0.8

A basic plot

>> x =

[0:0.1:2*pi]

>> y = sin(x)

>> plot(x, y,

r.-)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

61

MATLAB

>> x = [0:0.1:2*pi];

>> y = sin(x);

>> plot(x, y, 'b*-')

y

0.5

>> axis([0 6.2 -2 2])

sin(x)

2*sin(x)

1.5

>> hold on

Sin Plots

0

-0.5

-1

>> xlabel(x);

-1.5

>> ylabel(y);

>> hold of

-2

3

x

62

MATLAB

For command

Use a for loop to repeat one or more statements

The end keyword tells Matlab where the loop finishes

You control the number of times a loop is repeated by defining the

This uses the colon operator again, so index values do not need

to be integer

For example

>> for i = 1:4

a(i) = i * 2

end

63

MATLAB

The counter can be used to index different rows or columns

E.g.

end

..although you could do this in one step

m = mean(results);

64

MATLAB

The if command is used with logical operators

Again, the end command is used to tell Matlab where the statement

ends.

For example, the following code loops through a matrix performing

calculations on each column

>> for i = 1:size(results, 2)

m = results(:, i)

if m > 1

do something

else

do something different

end

end

65

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