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The Halogen Family

The

Halogens

•The halogens are a group of non- metals in


the periodic table
•They all have seven electrons in their outer
shell this makes them all really reactive;
they only have to gain one more electron to
fill their outer shell.
•Unlike Group One the elements get less
reactive as you go down the group.
Fluorine 2,7

Name: Fluorine
Symbol: F
Atomic Number: 9
Atomic Mass: 18.998404 amu
Melting Point: -219.62 °C
Boiling Point:-188.14 °C
Number of Protons/Electrons: 9
Number of Neutrons: 10
Colour: Greenish
Chlorine 2,8,7

Name: Chlorine
Symbol: Cl
Atomic Number: 17
Atomic Mass: 35.4527 amu
Melting Point: -100.98 °C
Boiling Point: -34.6 °C
Number of Protons/Electrons: 17
Number of Neutrons: 18
Colour: green
Bromine 2,8,18,7

Name: Bromine
Symbol: Br
Atomic Number: 35
Atomic Mass: 79.904 amu
Melting Point: -7.2 °C
Boiling Point: 58.78 °C
Number of Protons/Electrons: 35
Number of Neutrons: 45
Colour: Red
Iodine 2,8,18,18,7

Name: Iodine
Symbol: I
Atomic Number: 53
Atomic Mass: 126.90447 amu
Melting Point: 113.5 °C
Boiling Point: 184.0 °C
Number of Protons/Electrons: 53
Number of Neutrons: 74
Colour: blackish
Astatine
2,8,18,32,18,7

Name: Astatine
Symbol: At
Atomic Number: 85
Atomic Mass: (210.0) amu
Melting Point: 302.0 °C
Boiling Point: 337.0 °C
Number of Protons/Electrons: 85
Number of Neutrons: 125
Colour: Unknown
Uses of Fluorine

The main use of fluorine


is toothpaste even though
it isn’t as fluorine
itself but instead as
fluoride, a compound of
fluorine.
Uses of Chlorine

Chlorine is used
mostly to kill
bacteria or as a
bleach. Chlorine
bleaches a piece of
universal indicator
paper white.
Uses of Bromine

Bromine is one of the


main ingredients in
camera films (as silver
bromide).
Uses of Iodine

When dissolved in water,


iodine can be used as a
strong antiseptic or as a
test for starch.
Representative
Representative Elements
Elements
Group 17 — The Halogen Group

•All the elements in Group 17 are nonmetals


except for astatine, which is a radioactive
metalloid.
•These elements are called
halogens, which means
“salt-former.”

•All of the halogens form


salts with sodium and
with the other alkali
metals.
Representative
Representative Elements
Elements

Group 17—The Halogen Group

•Chlorine is less reactive than fluorine,


and bromine is less reactive than chlorine.
•Iodine is the least reactive of the four
nonmetals.
Displacement reactions
To put it simply, a MORE reactive halogen will displace a LESS reactive
halogen from a solution of its salt.

Potassium Potassium Potassium


F chloride bromide iodide KI (aq)
Decreasing reactivity

KCl(aq) KBr(aq )

Cl Chlorine
Cl2
Br Bromine
Br2
I
Iodine
I2
Properties of the Halogens
Colour State

INCREASING DENSITY
Yellow Gas

MOLECULAR SIZE

DECREASING
REACTIVITY
Cl Green

INCREASING
Gas

Br
Orange Liquid
I
Grey/black
At Solid
Black Solid
Uses of the Halogens

Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine


Toothpaste Water Photographic Disinfectant
disinfection film Halogen
Water
treatment Hydrochloric Tear gas lamps
acid X ray
Extraction of Flame
Aluminium Plastics retardants diagnosis
Non stick Bleaches Pharmaceutic Salt additive
coatings als Thyroid
Enrichment treatment
of Uranium Cancer
treatment
Reactions of the Halogens ( 1 )

All of the halogens will react with Alkali metals to produce


ionic compounds

ALKALI METAL + HALOGEN METAL HALIDE

Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl


Complete these equations

Lithium + Bromine Lithium Bromide


Potassium + Iodine Potassium Iodide
Reactions of the Halogens ( 2 )
All of the halogens will react with Hydrogen to produce gasas

HYDROGEN + HALOGEN HYDROGEN HALIDE

Hydrogen + Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride

H2 + Cl2 2HCl

Complete these equations

Hydrogen + Bromine Hydrogen Bromide


Hydrogen + Iodine Hydrogen Iodide

Follow the pattern to write the balanced chemical equations


Reactions of the Halogens ( 3 )
All of the halogens will react with water to produce 2 acids
WATER + HALOGEN ACID 1 + ACID 2

Water + Chlorine Hydrochloric + Hydrochlorus


Acid Acid

H2O + Cl2 HCl + HOCl

This also happens with Bromine and Iodine and the acids formed are

much stronger!
Thank you
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Ashish Kumar