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CHAPTER 1: SUBSTRUCTURE

1.2 Building foundation: types and


functions
1.2.1 Shallow Foundation

- strip footings , pad footing, raft


foundation.

1.2.2 Deep Pile/Foundation


- spun pile, micro pile, bakau pile, bore pile

and pile cap

1.3 Column stump, ground beam and ground


slab
1

Wind load

Wind load
Dead load

What is Substructure?
FOUNDATION is a part of SUBSTRUCTURE

components
foundation is the lowest portion of the building
structure. Extends from the bearing surface to the
main structure.)
Usually located below the ground level.
A foundation is a part of the structure which is in
direct contact with the ground to which the loads are
transmitted.
Foundations can be located at; below ground, at ground
level, or above ground level.

Shallow Foundation

Deep Foundation

Typical types of foundation

Main functions of the


foundations
To supports the weight of

structure and distribute the


load of the structure over a
greater area.
To transmit the load
uniformly under the
structure.
Anchors the structure to the
earth, providing a firm, level
and strong base over which
the superstructure may be
constructed.
8

Main functions of the


foundations
To avoid any settlement or

other movement that can


cause damage to any part of
the building (a stable
foundation should bear the
loads without sinking or
settling more than an inch at
the most).
To increase the stability of the
structure by preventing its
tilting or overturning against
winds, earthquakes and
uneven distribution of live
load (Lateral Stability).
9

Selection Criteria
Loading of the building,

big load need big


foundation such as raft
foundation or piling.
Types of soil such as peat
soil prefer piling or deep
foundation
Most economical but
capable to support
numbers of building or
storey (pad footing or
pilling?)
10

Selection Criteria
The loads that must be transferred from the structure

to the soil strata supporting it. This also should


evaluate the ability of the soil to support the ultimate
loads.
The capability of the structure that will safely
transfer the loads from the superstructure to the
foundation bed.
The possibility and extent of settlement of the soil
due to the presence of mines and quarries in the
vicinity.
The possibility of the underground water has sulfates
or other salts that can degrade the foundation
materials.
11

Factors That Need To Be


Considered in the Foundation
Design
Soil Investigation (S.I) is needed to determine the
subsoil includes the soil type, strength, soil
structure, moisture conditions and the presence of
roots.
Purpose of S.I-determine the bearing capacity,
seasonal volume changes and other possible
ground movements.
Common methods obtaining soil samples;
trial pits,
boreholes,
window sampling and
dynamic probe test.
12

Factors That Need To Be


Considered in the Foundation
Design
For more safety precaution use factor of
safety FOS = 3
Increase number of bore hole or
sufficient number of borehole so that the
result of the report is more accurate.
Choose the critical point load for borehole
Every end of the building
Supervise the S.I properly make sure no

mistake

13

Factors That Need To Be


Considered in the Foundation
Design
For the safety of the foundation design use
the lowest of bearing capacity value.
The engineer must have good enough data
for the S.I such as previous soil report,
cutting or filling area.
Engineer also must make sure the original
ground level and purposed level or
formation level while designing the
foundation.

14

Factors That Need To Be


Considered in the Foundation
Design

The correct parameter is

important to prevent from


foundation failure that may
occur causing building collapse.
It will cause a big loss of
material and even peoples life.

Highland TowersMalaysia
Shanghai-China
15

Overturning
residential building

Soil Quality Is The Key

Building rely on soil beneath to stay put. If the soil under the house moves up,

down, or sideway, the house is in trouble.


The soil profile may be varies as we move across from side to side, and when
we dig deeper downward.
Strong soil- weak soil type range from;

STRONG

Bedrock-gravel-course sand-fine sand-clay-silt-organic material.

WEAK

The following are the different types of soils on which foundations are constructed:
Soft soils - This soil is compressible and yields when loaded. Examples are
clayey soil and loam. Small buildings or ordinary structures can be built on
these types of soils.
Spreading soils - These are non-cohesive soils. Examples of this type of soil
are sand and gravel.
Hard or rocky soils - These are incompressible and strong soils. They can
withstand heavy loads without yielding. Multistoried buildings and water
reservoirs are designed on such soils.

16

Types of Foundation

17

SHALLOW
FOUNDATIONS
18

Strip Foundation
Most suitable, economical type of

foundation for small building on


compact soil.
Strip foundation should be
build/construct on soil with high
bearing capacity.
This type of foundation is also known

as wall foundation or continues spread


footing foundation.
Consist of continuous strip of steel-

reinforced concrete, from centrally


under load bearing walls.
The continuous strip serves as a level

base on which the wall is build and the


width is design to capable to support
the load without undue compaction.
19

Strip Foundation
The greater the bearing capacity of the

subsoil, the less the width of the


foundation.
Width of strip foundations depends on
the bearing capacity of the subsoil and
the load on the foundations.
Refer table 3.2 for minimum width of
strip foundations.
Types of strip foundations;
stepping strip,
wide strip and
narrow strip (trench fill or deep strip).

20

Characteristic of Spread/Strip
Footings
Low Cost
Ease of construction
For small-medium size structures with

moderate-good soil.
For large structures with exceptionally good
soil or shallow bedrock.
Spread/strip footing may be built in different
shapes and sizes to accommodate individual
needs.

21

Types of spread footings based on


size and shape
No

22

Types of Spread Footings

Applicable

Square

for a single centrally-located column

Rectangular

when large moment load are present

Circular

for light standards, flagpoles etc

Continuous

for bearing walls

(wall/strip footings)

Combined

when columns are close together

Ring

for walls of above-ground circular storage tanks

Strap (cantilever footing)

when very close to a property line/other structure

23

In both
situations shown
the thickness (T)
of the foundation
should be equal
to P or 150mm,
whichever is
greater
T=P or 150mm
(whichever
greater)

24

Foundation width
should not be less than
the appropriate
dimension in Table 3.2

Foundation width should be


not less than the
appropriate dimensions in
Table 3.2 plus offset
dimensions A1 and A2

The foundation fails


where tension is
exerted on the concrete

If P is greater than T, then the


foundation may shear at 45
reducing the width of the
foundation and bearing area.
P

T
Shear failure angle
45

Following the shear failure, the


load is concentrated on a smaller
area, the ground may consolidate
under the increased load
25

When strip foundation

used in sloping sitesstepped the foundation.


The full thickness of the
upper foundation should
overlap twice twice the
height of the step
(O=2xT), or 300 mm
whichever is greater.
The brickwork and
blockwork on the top of
the foundation should tie
in at the step to avoid the
needs of cutting
bricks/blocks and to avoid
STRIP the possibility of reducing
the stability of the wall.

STEPPING
FOUNDATIONS
26

WIDE STRIP FOUNDATIONS

Figure 8: Wide Strip


Foundation

Wide strip foundations distribute loads over a larger

27

area and reducing the load per unit area on the ground.
Wider strip foundation is most suitable for subsoil with
poor bearing capacity such as soft sandy clays.
Widening and deepening the concrete foundation (to
ensure the foundation does not shear) uneconomical.
Alternatively-form a strip of steel-reinforce concrete for
safe-economical wide strip foundation (figure 8).

NARROW STRIP
FOUNDATIONS

Also known as trench fill/deep strip

foundation.
Suitable for good bearing soil with
seasonal volume change soil/clay; e.g:
stiff clay.
The base of narrow/deep strip will
extend up to a depth where the clay soil
is unaffected by seasonal changes in
moisture content.
50-mm thick compressible sheet
material may needed to prevent lateral
pressure to the sides of the foundation
(saturated and dries out condition cause
expansion and contraction of soil at the
external face of the foundation)

28

Rectangular Spread
Footings
It have plan dimension of B x L, where L is the longest

dimension.
These are useful when obstructions prevent construction of
a square footing with a sufficiently large base area and
when large moment loads are present.

29

Circular Spread Footings


This foundation are

round in plan view.


These are more
frequently used as
foundation for light
standard, flagpoles, and
power transmission line.
If these foundation
extend to a large depth,
they may be have more
like a deep foundation.
30

Continuous Spread
Footings
This type of foundation is also known as wall

foundation or strip foundation.


It uses is to support bearing wall.

31

Ring Spread Footings


This footing are continuous

footing that been wrapped


into a circle.
This type of footing is
commonly used to support the
walls of above-ground circular
storage tanks.

32

Forces pushing
down must equal
the forces pushing
up - EQUILIBRIUM

33

Heave
If the forces pushing up is
greater than the forces
pushing down the building will
be pushed upwards HEAVE

Subsid
e
34

If forces pushing down is


greater than the forces
pushing up the building will
sink SUBSIDENCE

Problems if the rules are


not followed
(P>T)

35

The load spreads at


about 400 through the
foundation

Loads Acting on the


foundation has to bear more than just
Foundation The
the load of the superstructure.

A load can be defined as anything, which

exerts pressure or thrust on a structure.

The following are the different types of

loads that act on the building foundation:


Live Load (Qk) - A live load or imposed

load is a movable, temporary or


transferable load. This can include
moving vehicles, people walking or
children jumping.
Dead Load (Gk)- This load is permanent
and immovable. It is the non- transferable
load of the structure itself.
Wind Load (Wk) - This load is applicable
when the structure is tall.
Snow Load - This load is considered
when the structure is situated in snowy,
hilly areas.
36

37

Rock or soil

Typical bearing value


(kN/m2)

Massive igneous
bedrock
Sandstone
Shales and mudstone
Gravel, sand and gravel,
compact
Medium dense sand
Loose fine sand
Hard clay
Medium clay
Soft Clay

10,000
2,000 to 4,000
600 to 2,000
600

100 to 300
Less than 100
300 to 600
100 to 300
Less than 75

Typical allowable bearing values

38

PAD
FOUNDATION/FOOTING

Similar to continuous

footings accept for they are


usually lain under a single
pier/column.
Pad foundation spread the
load out (in a square) with
the column/pier sitting in
the middle of the square.
Can also be designed for
loads of the walls and the
buildings are transferred
through ground beams that
rest on the pad foundations.
The pad foundations the will
transfer the loads to a lower
level where soil of sufficient
load bearing strata exist.

39

Construction sequence of pad foundation

Marked out and excavate


ground to correct level.
Excavation level should up
to good load bearing
strata.

The clean and leveled


ground then poured with
50mm thickness lean
concrete.

Formwork for the footing


installed at the correct
position

After pad footing detailing


inspected and approved than
concrete can be poured and
leave the foundation to dry
(curing process)
40

Install reinforcement according


to construction detailing

PAD
FOUNDATION/FOOTING
The advantage of this

system of foundation is
that pockets of tipped
stone or brick and
concrete rubble that would
obstruct bored pile may be
removed as the pits are
excavated.
The nature of subsoil also
may be examined as the
pits are dug to select a
level of sound subsoil.
41

Square Footings
42

Combined Footing
Foundation
In this type, the two walls

These are usefull when


columns are located too
close together for each to
have its own footing.
43

or columns of a
superstructure are provided
with a single combined
footing.
This is designed so that the
center of gravity of the
supporting area is in
proportion to the center of
gravity of the tow column
loads.
These can be rectangular or
trapezoidal in shape.

RAFT FOUNDATION
Depending on its position

raft foundation also known


as Mat foundation in
floating position.
Sometimes also called as
Floating Foundation.
Used where heavily
constructed loads are to be
distributed over a large
surface area.
It is used where the soil is
marshy, clayey or soft,
with weak bearing
capacity.
44

RAFT FOUNDATION
This consists of

reinforced concrete
slabs covering the
entire area of
construction, like a
floor.
Always made of
reinforced
concrete.
45

SIMPLE RAFT FOUNDATION

RAFT FOUNDATION
If ground

pressures are
likely to be
excessive at
different seasons,
reinforcement
may be required;
this is known as
fabric when in
sheet mesh form.
REINFORCED RAFT FOUNDATION

46

Conditions for Raft/Mat Foundations


-Structural loads require large area to spread the load
-Soil is erratic and prone to differential settlements
-Structural loads are erratic
-Unevenly distributed lateral loads
-Uplift loads are larger than spread footings can
accommodate;
-Mat foundations are easier to waterproof

47

DEEP FOUNDATION

48

DEEP FOUNDATION
Reasons why Deep Foundation??

49

Main Components of Deep Foundation

50

DEEP FOUNDATION
Piles are long and slender members which transfer

the load to deeper soil or rock of high bearing


capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing
capacity.
The main types of materials used for deep piles
are wood, steel and concrete.
Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled
or jacked into the ground and connected to pile
caps.
Main functions of a pile;
i. to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground
ii. to resist vertical, lateral and uplift load
51

52

Factors Influencing
The Choice of Pile

Location and
Type of Structures

Ground Conditions

Over water

Durability

Ground containing
Boulders-

Cost

Concrete

Installation cost

On Land

clay with
ground heave

Steel

materials

Not causing vibration


to existing/nearby
Structures-

Loose water
bearing sand

Timber

time

Heavy Structure

Under-reamed bases

Existing Structure

Test load

Supervision

Organization,
overhead
and etc.
53

Factors Influencing the Choice of Pile


Location and type of structures
For structures over water, such as wharves and jetties,

54

driven piles or driven cast-in-place piles (in which the


shell remains in place) are the most suitable.
On land, driven cast-in-place types are usually the
cheapest for moderate loadings.
It is necessary for piles to be installed without causing
any significant ground heave or vibrations because of
their proximity to existing structures, the bored castin-place pile is the most suitable.
For heavy structures exerting large foundation loads,
large-diameter bored piles are usually the most
economical.
Jacked piles are suitable for underpinning existing
structures.

Factors Influencing the Choice of Pile


Ground conditions
Driven piles cannot be used economically in ground

containing boulders (large rocks), or in clays when


ground heave would be detrimental.

Bored piles would not be suitable in loose water-

bearing sand, and under-reamed bases cannot be


used in cohesion less soils since they are susceptible
to collapse before the concrete can be placed.

55

Factors Influencing the Choice of Pile


Durability
Most important criteria especially in the choice of

material. For example, concrete piles are usually


used in marine conditions since steel piles are
susceptible to corrosion in marine conditions .

timber piles is not the most suitable type under

marine conditions because it can be attacked by


boring molluscs .

On land, concrete piles are not the best choice,

especially where the soil contains sulphates or other


harmful substances.

56

Factors Influencing the Choice of Pile


Cost
Considerable important decision over the choice of pile.
The overall cost of installing piles includes:
the actual cost of the material,
the times required for piling in the construction plan,
test loading,
cost of the engineer to oversee installation and

loading
cost of organisation and overheads incurred between
the time of initial site clearance and the time when
construction of the superstructure can proceed.

57

Classification of Pile With Respect to Load


Transmission and Functional Behavior
End bearing

piles (point
bearing piles)
Friction piles
(cohesion piles )
Combination of
friction and
cohesion piles
58

END BEARING PILE

59

End bearing piles


Typical end-bearing piles are driven

through very soft soil, such as a loose siltbearing stratum underlying by


compressible strata.

This pile acts on the basic concept of

digging through the top soil (relatively


weak) to an underlying firmer rock to
anchor the foundation.

The piles transfer their load on to a firm

stratum located at a considerable depth


below the base of the structure.

60

This pile behaves as an ordinary column. In weak soil, this pile will
not fail by buckling

61

End bearing piles

End bearing piles-cast in place

62

End bearing piles - driven or jacking


(R.C or Steel Pile)

63

Piling Rig

64

Pile Driving
65

FRICTION PILE

66

Friction piles
Friction piles, also known as

67

floating pile foundations,


Commonly used in
construction to provide
underground support for
buildings, bridges, docks
and other structures.
They are often used when
end-bearing piles are not
suitable.
Friction piles rely
specifically on the friction
created between the soil
and the surface of the pile
material in order to provide
stability.
The combination of friction
and adhesion with the soil
causes them to stay in
place.

Friction piles
The load is transferred to

the adjoining soil by friction


between the pile and the
surrounding soil.
The load is transferred
downward and laterally to
the soil.
In order for friction piles
to be effective, the soil
surrounding the area must
be fairly uniform in type
and density.
For more complex
situations, construction
companies sometimes rely
on a combination of friction
and end-bearing piles.

68

Friction Pile Types

Placement
of pile

Installation
of Pile

Driven

Cast-in-situ
69

Repetition
process

SPUN PILE

70

Spun Pile
Standard Characteristics
Pre-stressed concrete spun pile (cast in the factory) and deliver

to site for installation.


Size : 250mm to 1000mm diameter
Lengths : 6m, 9m and 12m (Typical)
Structural Capacity : 45Ton to 520Ton
Material : Grade 60MPa & 80MPa Concrete
Joints: Welded
Installation Method :
Drop Hammer
Jack-In

71

Spun Pile

72

Spun Piles Vs. RC Square Piles


Spun Piles have
Better Bending Resistance
Higher Axial Capacity
Better Manufacturing Quality
Able to Sustain Higher Driving
Stresses
Higher Tensile Capacity
Easier to Check Integrity of Pile
Similar cost as RC Square Piles with
higher pile integrity

73

Advantages & Disadvantages of Spun Pile


No
1

Advantages
Best suited for use as friction piles that

Disadvantages
Expensive to splice and cut

don't meet refusal during driving


(refusal: pile can't be driven any further, so
it becomes necessary to cut off the portion)
2

Best suited for toe-bearing piles where the

Difficult to cut

required length is uniform and predictable


3

Less expensive than steel piles

Susceptible to damage during handling


or driving

74

Have a large load capacity

Not suited for hard driving conditions

BORE PILE

75

Bored piles
Foundation structure made of
reinforced concrete on site.
Used to carry heavy loads by
transmitting the load to a stable soil
strata.
Varies in diameter and depth.
Dimension varies from 450mm to
2000mm.
Designers will decide the size
according to the load requirement
and as well as the soil condition of
the site.
widely used and can be
constructed in most soil condition
and over water.

76

Bored Pile Construction


Bored piles is constructed

by first drilling a hole in


the ground until a
competent load bearing
layer is reached.
Once achieved, a
reinforcement steel cage
is lowered into the drilled
hole and the hole is filled
with concrete.
It is also known as cast in
place piles.

77

Bored piles
High flexibility and are widely used in

deep foundation for :

high rise buildings,


jetties,
bridge foundation and
as vertical retaining structures like a
retaining wall or sheet piles wall. (In this
case the bored piles is known as
contiguous bored pile wall).

Designed either as a point bearing piles

or friction piles.
If competent load bearing layer like
bed rock is present, then the bored
piles will be designed as an end-bearing
pile. This means that the load carrying
capacity of the piles is mainly derived
from the bearing capacity of the rock
layer at the toe of the pile.

78

Bored Piles
Bored pile-single pile

- pile groups.

79

can be inclined to a certain angle.

Angle bored piles also known as


raked piles (found in structures that
requires resistance to horizontal
load like in a retaining wall or bridge
and piers foundation).

80

When bored piles are


constructed close to one
another or overlapping slightly,
this is known as contiguous
bored piles wall or secant piles
wall.

Standard Bored Piles Characteristics

Considerations

Size : 450mm to 2000mm

Borepile Base Difficult to Clean

Lengths : Varies

Bulging / Necking

Structural Capacity : 80Ton to 2,300Tons


Concrete Grade : 20MPa to 30MPa
Joints : None
Installation Method : Drill then Cast-In-Situ

81

Collapse of Sidewall
Dispute on Level of Weathered

Rock

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

Advantages & Disadvantages


Bore Pile
No

Advantages

Less costs of mobilizing and demobilizing a drill rig

Dependent on contractor's skills

Less noise and vibration

Lower unit end bearing capacity

Soils excavated can be observed and classified

Expensive for full-scale load test

during drilling
4

Size of shafts can easily be changed during const.

Can penetrate soils with cobbles, boulders and


many types of bedrock

Possible to support each column with one large


shaft (no pile cap)

92

Disadvantages

MICROPILE

93

Micropiles
Size : 100mm to 350mm Diameter
Lengths : Varies
Structural Capacity : 20Ton to 250Ton
Material : Grade 25MPa to 35MPa Grout
N80 API Pipe as Reinforcement
Joints: None
Installation Method :

Drill then Cast-In-Situ


Percussion then Cast-In-Situ

94

Micropiles
Micropiles also known mini piles.
Application also for foundations of a wide variety of

construction projects such as highways, bridges and


even transmission towers.
Can be installed at varying angles i.e. from vertical to
obtuse (angle between 90-180 degree incline).
Highly capable of resisting both lateral and axial loads
due to the fact that they are made of steel with
varying diameters of between 70 to 200 mm.
Sheer ability to provide a combination of both tensile
and compressive resistance, micropiles tend to be
quite useful where there is a need for resistance to
uplift.
Very little or no vibration at all.
95

Technological process of carrying


out micropiles
2a) realization of
a borehole
with the rotary
technology
2b) pulling out
drilling tools
and filling the
hole with grout
2c) setting a
reinforcement
thick-walled
steel pipe
2d) grouting of
the micropile
root part
2e) finished
micropile
Pressure-grouted micropiles construction
96

Securing overburdens of underground works


(tunnels, galleries) with the use of a
micropile umbrella

Examples of underpinnings of existing


structures with the use of micropile space
piers or individual micropiles

97

Carrying out pipe micropiles to protect the driven


tunnel calotte, the New Connection in Prague

98

Cast in-situ micropile


construction

99

Timber/Bakau Pile
Timber is a hugely capable civil

engineering material, with the


additional advantage of being
sustainable.

Trees, in particular conifers, make

natural piles.

Timber foundations may be particularly

suitable for countryside structures


such as bridges, forest chalets and
activity centres, as well as post-andbeam timber buildings in waterfront or
flood prone locations.

Preservative treated softwood or

100

durable hardwood timber can be used


for the construction of retaining walls,
bank seats, and for foundation pads
and footings.

Timber/Bakau Pile
For many structures, timber piles are a highly suitable choice of

foundation, given appropriate ground conditions.

They are economical, easy to transport, handle, cut to length and

work with on site; and particularly suited for locations with access
difficulties, or where excavations and the delivery of concrete
would pose problems.

Short, driven timber piles can be the solution for foundations in

ground with a high water table, and where firm strata exists below
surface material of loose sand, soft clays, or organic soils.

101

Timber/Bakau Pile
In deep silt deposits, where the capacity of the pile is determined

by shaft friction, timber piles are especially suitable being tapered


and easy to splice.

Timber piles are suitable to be used below the water table, where

they have proved practically invulnerable to decay, and extended to


the surface using concrete sections.

They are resistant to acidic and alkaline soils, and soils with high

sulphate or free carbon dioxide content.

Timber piles can also be driven for ground improvement, to density

loose granular soils.

For the decay reason-treated with preservatives such as creosote

oil which impregnated into the wood (preventing dry-rotting and


against damage from most animal and plant attack)

102

Timber/Bakau Pile
The installation of timber piles is a process that involves dropping a

weight on top of the pile in order to drive the pile into the ground.

Timber piles have been used for centuries to support man-made

structures.

The equipment that is used to install timber piles includes a crane,

a boom, a set of leads, a hammer, a helmet, a pile gate, pile monkey,


and pile (see Figure).

103

Advantages & Disadvantages


Bakau pile
No

104

Advantages

Disadvantages

Low construction cost

Medium axial loads (100 - 400 kN)

Used as waterfront structures

Susceptible to decay

For light driving conditions

Susceptible to damage when driving

(in loose sands and soft to medium clays)

Piling Techniques
Damage during driving can be

controlled by using proper


technique.
Among the soultions are:Using lightweight hammers
Using steel bands near butt
Using a steel shoe on the toe
Pre-drilling
105

Drilled Equipments
Drilling Rigs

Truck-mounted

drilling rig
For usual
shaft,
d=500
1200mm and
H=6.24m
Specialized
rigs
A-Shaped
Frame Rigs

106

Drilling Tools

The helix-shaped flight auger

(most common used)


Effective in most sols and
soft rocks
Augers with hardened teeth
and pilot stingers
Effective in hardpan or
moderately hard rock
Spiral-shaped rooting tools
Help loosen cobbles and
boulders

107

Bucket augers
To collect cuttings in a cylindrical

bucket
Used in running sands
Belling buckets
To enlarge the bottom of the shaft
(bells or under reams)
Core barrels
To cut a circular slot creating a
removable core
Used in hard rock
Multi-roller percussion bits
To cut through hard rock
Cleanout buckets
To remove final cuttings from hole

Bucket augers

Belling bucket
108

Drilled Techniques
Drilling in Firm Soils
Using dry method (open-hole method)
Most common used: simple, economy and

good reability
Steps:
Holes usually advance using conventional flight

auger
Holes remain open without any special support
Check the open hole for cleanliness and
alignment
Insert steel reinforcing cage
Pour the concrete
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Drilling in Caving (Cave-in) or Squeezing Soils


Caving:
The side of a hole which is collapse before or during concrete

placement.
Usually in clean sands below the groundwater table.
Squeezing:
The sides of hole bulging inward during or after drilling
Usually in soft clays and silts or highly organic soils.
Most common techniques:
Using casing
Drilling fluid (slurry method) using bentonite clay or
attapulgite clay.

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PILE CAP

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PILE CAP

Pile Cap (BS 8004), a pile cap is


defined as a concrete block cast on
the head of a pile, or a group of piles,
to transmit the load from the
structure to the pile or group of
piles.
Pile cap transfers the load form the
structures to a pile / pile group, then
the load further transfers to from
soil.

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Pile caps are thus incorporated in


order to tie the pile heads together so
that individual pile movement and
settlement is greatly reduced. The
stability of the pile group is greatly
increased.

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Foundations relying on driven


piles often have groups of piles
connected by a pile cap (a
large concrete block into which
the heads of the piles are
embedded) to distribute loads
which are larger than one pile
can bear.
Pile caps and isolated piles are
typically connected with grade
beams to tie the foundation
elements together; lighter
structural elements bear on
the grade beams while heavier
elements bear directly on the
pile cap.
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Pile Arrangement below pile cap

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Pile cap

Function:

To distribute the structural loads to the piles.


To tie the piles together so they can act as a unit.
To laterally stabilise individual piles thus increasing overall

stability of the group


To provide the necessary combined resistance to stresses set
up by the superstructure and/or ground movement
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COLUMN STUMP

118

Column Stump
The stump is the simplest and most familiar

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footing used for the vertical support and the


transfer of building loads to the foundation.
Stumps are used to support timber-framed
houses for which they are currently the most
cost effective.
Three types of materials are commonly used for
stumps:
timber
concrete
steel.
Stumps must have a concrete or timber footing
placed underneath the base of the stump. This is
to spread the load transferred to the stump
from the building. This support beneath the
stump is called a 'pad' or 'soleplate'.
Usually concrete stumps are provided with
concrete pads poured in situ on the site. Timber
stumps are provided with timber soleplates.

GROUND BEAM

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2.1 GROUND BEAM AND SLAB


Beams and slab are normally named by

its location.
Ground beam refers to the structure of
beam located on the ground.
Ground Beams are designed to support
brick/blockwork or to form a permanent
shutter to the edge of in-situ concrete
floor slab.
The amount of reinforcement
introduced into the design will be used
to suit specific loading requirements
and the beams can be designed to
withstand any heave forces with the use
of void forming or compressible
materials.
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Ordinary Ground Beam


This type of ground beam is the most

used in building construction.


It is the beam which both its ends are
tied up at the column and lying between
the two column.
The beam fixes and holds fitly the
columns in order to stabilize it.
In addition, it also acts to bear all the
loads come from the wall which
constructed parallel with the beam.

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ORDINARY GROUND BEAM


A ground beam normally

should consist of following


items;
Reinforcements,
Concrete,
Linkers
The reinforcements can be
placed at center of that
beam.
The sizes of main
reinforcement play
important role in determine
the strength of a beam.
Ground beam usually does
not have secondary beam,
only has primary beam.

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ORDINARY GROUND BEAM

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GROUND CANTILEVER BEAM


The cantilever beam is same as the beam explained before but only
one end of cantilever beam is tied up at the column stump. The
other end is free without joint with any column.
The cantilever beam usually used for external structure such as
beam for corridor and also partition wall outside the building.
The functions of ground
cantilever beam are almost same
but it cannot bear the loading
such the ordinary beam. This is
because, one end of that beam
is not holding by any structure.
As a result, it does not achieves
the strength like the ordinary
beam
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Beam Construction Method


The ground beam construction will be started after a

column stump has finish. (After the column stump has


ingrained in foundation and has corpulent on level as
wanted).
Beam formwork will put and pointed stake set in the
ground with tidy so that look tough and strength.
Strength of formwork is important to ensure that
formwork not expand when a concrete will instill. If
formwork not good, its will give a problem and the
construction work have much time.
After that, link concrete is lain out on ground surface
into the formwork. The reinforcements will be putted
with spacer block on below and beside reinforcement.
Purpose that putted the spacer block is to protect the
reinforcement for avoid from rust
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R.C. BEAM CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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Ground Beam
The ground beam construction procedure (10 steps);
1. clearing the ground.
2. The span between the columns or piers is rammed and compacted.
3. A blinding layer is done with quarry dust.
4. The column or pier reinforcements should be left a foot high to join
with the beam.
5. The reinforcements are then tied and bent separately.
6. Once ready, they are carried and laid over the columns and blinding.
7. The reinforcement is laid straight with spacer blocks put at the
bottom.
8. Once the beam steel is in place, form work is erected to the sides.
These must be firmed into the ground and made very tight. This will
prevent the escape of the cement slurry when vibrating.
9. After the form work is complete, concrete is prepared and poured
into the forms. The process continues while vibrating to ensure the
concrete is well bonded with the steel.
10.The top is tamped to be smooth. The forms are removed after seven
days while curing.
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GROUND SLAB

129

Ground Slab
In construction, slab can be design in two conditions.

Non-suspended
slab

Suspended slab

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Ground Slab

131

Ground Slab
Function of ground slab:
To support column and stump
To received the load from the building
To reduce the pressure on the column and stump
The main base of construction to ensure that the

construction will done well


Create the easier job on floor finishes

The construction of a solid ground slab floor

should includes:
Hardcore
Binding

Concrete bed or slab


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Ground Slab
Hardcore
The purpose of hardcore is to fill in any small pockets that have
form during over site excavation, to provide firm base on which to
place a concrete bad and to help spread any point loads over the
greater area. It also acts against capillary action of moisture within
the soil. Hardcore is usually laid in 100-150 mm layers to the
required depth, and its is important that each layer is well
compacted, using a roller if necessary, to prevent any unacceptable
settlement beneath the solid floor.

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Ground Slab
Binding
This is used to even off the surface of hardcore if a dampproof membrane (DPM) is to be place under the concrete bed
or if a reinforced concrete bed is specified.
First, it will prevent the damp-proof membrane from being
punctured by the hardcore and, second, it will provide a true
surface from which the reinforcement can be positioned.
Blinding generally consists of a layer of sand 25-50 mm thick
or a 50-75 mm layer of week concrete (1:12 mix usually
suitable) if a true surface of a reinforced concrete is
required.

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Ground Slab
Concrete bed
Unreinforced or plain in-situ concrete, 100-150 mm thick;
Reinforce concrete, 150 mm minimum
Suitable concrete mixes are produced to BS EN 206-1:
The reinforcement used in concrete beds for domestic work is
usually in the form of welded steel fabric to BS4483.
Sometimes a light square mesh fabric is placed 25mm form the
upper surface of the concrete bed to prevent surface crazing and
limit the size of any cracking.
In domestic work the areas of concrete are defined by the room
sizes, and it is not usually necessary to include expansion or
construction joints the construction of the bed
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Concrete Reinforcement Mesh

136

Ground Slab
Other materials needed for ground slab:
(1) Damp Proof Membrane (DPM)
Water penetration is a prime cause of deterioration in
building structures and materials and the presence of
excess moisture encourages the growth of moulds and wood
rotting fungi. Because of this, building regulations require
that buildings are so designed that water neither damages
the fabric nor penetrates to the interior where it may
constitute a health hazard as well as spoiling decorations.

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Ground Slab
Other materials needed for ground slab:

(2) Damp Proof Course (DPC)


DPC is a physical barrier inserted into the fabric of a building
to stop water passing from one place to another. This can be on
a horizontal plane, stopping water rising up from the ground by
being sucked up by the dry masonry above, or vertically to stop
water passing from the outside of a building, though the
masonry, to the inside. DPC's have taken many forms through
the ages and one of the earliest forms was to use a layer of
slate in the construction. Slate is still used but the less
expensive plastic version ( below right ) is now more widely
used.

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END OF CHAPTER 1
Thank you

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