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Some basic concepts review

What is the Internet?


Terdiri dari jutaan perangkat computing :

hosts, end-systems

pcs workstations, servers

phones, toasters

Yang menjalankan network applications

communication links

fiber, copper, radio, satellite

routers: memforward paket data melalui


jaringan

What is the Internet?

protocols: mengendalikan pengiriman dan


penerimaan messages

mis : TCP, IP, HTTP, FTP, PPP

Internet: network of networks

loosely hierarchical

public Internet versus private intranet

Internet standards

RFC: Request for comments

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force

What is the Internet: a service view


Suatu infrastruktur komunikasi yang

memungkinkan adanya aplikasi terditribusi:

WWW, email, games, e-commerce, database,

more?

Layanan komunikasi yang disediakan:

connectionless

connection-oriented

What is a protocol?
Semua aktivitas komunikasi di Internet diatur oleh

protokol
Protokol : Aturan-aturan dan perjanjian yang
mengatur pertukaran informasi antar komputer di
jaringan

Protokol mendefinisikan : format, urutan


message yang dikirim dan yang diterima oleh
entitas jaringan, serta tindakan (action)
yang harus diambil bila mengirimkan atau
menerima message
- mendefinisikan syntax dan semantic
5

What is a protocol?
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:
Hi

TCP connection
req.

Hi

TCP connection
reply.

Got the
time?

Get http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/index.htm

2:00

<file>
time

Struktur jaringan
network edge:

hosts

applications

network core:

routers

network of networks

access networks, physical media:

communication links

The network edge:


end systems (hosts):

Menjalankan program aplikasi


mis: WWW, email
at edge of network

client/server model

client host mengirimkan request ke server, dan


menerima layanan (service) dari server
mis : WWW client (browser)/server; email
client/server

peer-peer model:

Interaksi antar host yang simetri


mis: teleconferencing

Network edge: connection-oriented service

Goal: Transfer data antar end systems:


Didahului proses

handshaking

Pembentukan koneksi sebelum transfer data


dilakukan

Contoh :

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol

Internets connection-oriented service

Network edge: connection-oriented service


TCP service [RFC 793]

reliable, in-order byte-stream data


transfer

flow control:

loss: acknowledgements and retransmissions


sender wont overwhelm receiver

congestion control:

senders slow down sending rate when network


congested
1

Network edge: connectionless service

Goal: transfer data antar end systems

no handshaking!

Contoh : UDP - User Datagram Protocol

[RFC 768]: Internets connectionless


service
unreliable data transfer
no flow control
no congestion control

Network edge
Apps using TCP:
HTTP (WWW), FTP (file transfer), Telnet

(remote login), SMTP (email)

Apps using UDP:


streaming media, teleconferencing,

Internet telephony

The Network Core


Interkoneksi berbentuk mesh dari sejumlah

routers

Pertanyaan mendasar: bagaimana data


ditransfer melalui jaringan ?

circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call:


telephone net

packet-switching: data dikirimkan dalam


bentuk paket-paket

Network Core: Circuit Switching


End-end resources reserved for call
link bandwidth, switch capacity
dedicated resources: no sharing
circuit-like (guaranteed) performance
call setup required

Network Core: Circuit Switching


network resources (mis.
bandwidth) dibagi-bagi
Setiap bagian dialokasikan

untuk suatu call


Suatu bagian resource akan
idle jika tidak digunakan oleh
pemiliki (call) bagian tersebut
(no sharing)
Cara membagi bandwidth dari
suatu link
frequency division
time division

Network Core: Packet Switching


Setiap aliran data end-to-end
dikirimkan dalam bentuk paket
Paket dari user A dan B memakai
secara bersama (share) network
resources
Setiap paket menggunakan
bandwidth link secara penuh
resources hanya digunakan jika
perlu
Bandwidth division into pieces
Dedicated allocation
Resource reservation

Karakteristik
resource contention:

Permintaan pemakaian
resource dapat melebihi
jumlah resource yang
tersedia
store and forward: paket
dikirimkan per hop
transmit over link
wait turn at next link
congestion: ada antrian
paket

Network Core: Packet Switching


10 Mbs
Ethernet

A
B

statistical multiplexing

1.5 Mbs
queue of packets
waiting for output
link

45 Mbs

Network Core: Packet Switching


Packet-switching:
store and forward behavior

Packet switching versus circuit switching


Packet switching memungkinkan lebih banyak user yang
menggunakan jaringan!

Misalkan sejumlah user


terhubung kepada suatu link 1
Mbit. Bila sedang aktif,
setiap user mengirimkan
informasi dengan kecepatan
100 Kbps. Setiap user aktif N
selama 10% dari waktu
Pada circuit-switching:

users
1 Mbps link

N=10 users

Pada packet switching:

Dengan N= 35 users, peluang


> 10 user aktif lebih kecil
daripada .004

Packet switching versus circuit switching


Jadi packet switching adalah sang juara ?
Cocok untuk bursty data

resource sharing
no call setup
Memiliki kemungkinan terjadinya kongesti:
mengakibatkan ter-delay-nya paket atau bahkan
menyebabkan hilangnya paket (loss)
Dibutuhkan protokol congestion control untuk
reliable data transfer,
Masalah : Bagaimana menyediakan kualitas seperti
pada circuit-switching?

Packet-switched networks: routing


Goal: mentransfer paket antar router dari source ke
destination
Pada datagram network:

destination address determines next hop


routes may change during session

Pada virtual circuit network:


each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag
determines next hop
fixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed
through the call
routers maintain per-call state

Access networks and physical media


Bagaimana cara menghubungkan end systems ke edge
router?
residential access nets
institutional access networks (school, company)
mobile access networks

Important issues:
bandwidth (bits per second) of access network
shared or dedicated

Residential access: point to point access


Dialup via modem

up to 56Kbps direct access to router


(conceptually)

ISDN: integrated services digital network: 128Kbps

all-digital connect to router

ADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber line

FDM

up to 1 Mbps home-to-router

up to 8 Mbps router-to-home
2

Residential access: cable modems


HFC: hybrid fiber coax

cable modems

asymmetric: up to 10Mbps
upstream, 1 Mbps
downstream

network of cable and fiber

attaches homes to ISP


router

shared access to router


among houses

issues: congestion,
dimensioning

Institutional access: local area networks


company/univ local area network (LAN) connects

end system to edge router


Ethernet:

shared or dedicated cable connects end system


and router

10 Mbs, 100Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet

Wireless access networks


wireless access network connects end
system to router

shared

wireless LANs:

radio spectrum replaces wire

e.g., Lucent Wavelan 10 Mbps

wider-area wireless access

CDPD: cellular digital packet data

wireless access to ISP router via cellular network

GPRS

Physical Media
physical link:
transmitted data bit propagates across link
guided media:

signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber

unguided media:
signals propagate freely, e.g., radio

Physical Media: twisted pair


Twisted Pair (TP)
two insulated copper wires
Category 3: traditional phone wires, 10 Mbps
Ethernet
Category 5 TP: 100Mbps Ethernet

Physical Media: coax, fiber


Coaxial cable:

Fiber optic cable:

wire (signal carrier)

glass fiber carrying

within a wire (shield)

baseband

broadband

bidirectional
common use in 10Mbs

Ethernet

light pulses
high-speed operation:

100Mbps Ethernet
high-speed point-to-point
transmission (e.g., 5 Gps)

low error rate

Physical media: radio


signal carried in

electromagnetic
spectrum
no physical wire
bidirectional
propagation
environment effects:

reflection
obstruction by objects
interference

Radio link types:


microwave
e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels
LAN (e.g., waveLAN)
one to tens of Mbps
wide-area (e.g., cellular)
e.g. CDPD, 10s Kbps
satellite
bandwidth in the Gbps range
270 Msec end-end delay

Delay in packet-switched networks


Paket-paket mengalami
delay pada saat
menempuh perjalanan
end-to-end
Ada empat sumber
delay pada setiap hop
(lihat gambar)
transmission

nodal processing:
check bit errors
determine output link
queueing
time waiting at output
link for transmission
depends on congestion
level of router

propagation

nodal
processing

queueing

Delay in packet-switched networks


Transmission delay:
R=link bandwidth (bps)
L=packet length (bits)
time to send bits into
link = L/R

transmission

Propagation delay:
d = length of physical link
s = propagation speed in
medium (~2x108 m/sec)
propagation delay = d/s
Note: s and R are very
different quantitites!

propagation

nodal
processing

queueing

Queueing delay
R=link bandwidth (bps)
L=packet length (bits)
a=average packet

arrival rate

traffic intensity = La/R


La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small
La/R -> 1: delays become large
La/R > 1: more work arriving than can be

serviced, average delay infinite!

Protocol Layers
Networks are complex!
many pieces:
hosts
routers
links of various
media
applications
protocols
hardware,
software

Question:
Is there any hope of
organizing structure of
network?

Organization of air travel


ticket (purchase)

ticket (complain)

baggage (check)

baggage (claim)

gates (load)

gates (unload)

runway takeoff

runway landing

airplane routing

airplane routing
airplane routing

a series of steps

Organization of air travel: a different view


ticket (purchase)

ticket (complain)

baggage (check)

baggage (claim)

gates (load)

gates (unload)

runway takeoff

runway landing

airplane routing

airplane routing
airplane routing

Layers: Setiap layer menerapkan layanan


Melalui tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan pada layer itu sendiri
Mengandalkan layanan yang disediakan oleh layer yang ada dibawahnya

Layered air travel: services


Counter-to-counter delivery of person+bags
baggage-claim-to-baggage-claim delivery
people transfer: loading gate to arrival gate
runway-to-runway delivery of plane
airplane routing from source to destination

ticket (purchase)

ticket (complain)

baggage (check)

baggage (claim)

gates (load)

gates (unload)

runway takeoff

runway landing

airplane routing

airplane routing

arriving airport

departing airport

Distributed implementation of layer functionality

intermediate air traffic sites


airplane routing

airplane routing

airplane routing

Why layering?
Untuk menanggulangi masalah pada sistem
yang kompleks:

Struktur yang eksplisit memungkinkan identifikasi

hubungan antara bagian-bagian pada sistem yang


kompleks
Modularitas memudahkan maintenance dan
updating sistem
Perubahan implementasi layanan pada suatu
layer transparan terhadap komponen sistem
yang lain

mis., perubahan kebijakan pada prosedur pemeriksaan


di airport gate tidak mempengaruhi komponen sistem
airline yang lain

Open System Interconnection (OSI)


Reference Model
Dikembangkan oleh International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) pada tahun 1984


Model referensi OSI adalah suatu model
konseptual yang terdiri atas tujuh layer, masingmasing layer mempunyai fungsi tertentu
Setiap layer adalah self-contained fungsi yang
diberikan ke setiap layer dapat diimplementasikan
secara independent Updating fungsi suatu layer
tidak akan mempengaruhi layer yang lain

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Upper layers application issues


pada umumnya diimplementasikan
secara software
Application oriented

Lower layers data transport issues


Layer 1 & 2 :h/w & s/w implemented
Layer 3 dan 4 : s/w implemented
Network oriented

Model OSI dan komunikasi antar sistem

Sistem A

Proses
aplikasi

Application

Proses
aplikasi

Peer-to-peer communications

Presentation

Session

Transport

Data Link
Physical

Application
Presentation

Session

Network

Sistem B

Transport

Network
Data Link
Physical

Network
Data Link
Physical

Intermediate node (repeater, bridge, router)

Interaksi antar layer OSI:


Interaksi dengan layer di atasnya
Interaksi dengan layer di bawahnya
Interaksi dengan layer peer di sistem yang berbeda

Application
Presentation

Sistem
A

Session
Transport

Application

N+1
N
N-1

Presentation
Session

Sistem
B

Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

Layer dan pertukaran informasi

Sistem B

Sistem A
7
6
5

7
6
5

Protocol Data Unit = PDU


Header 4

Data

enkapsulasi
3

3
Header 3

2
1

Header 2

Data

Data
Data

2
1

Network

Internet (TCP/IP) protocol stack


application: mendukung aplikasi jaringan

ftp, smtp, http

transport: transfer data antar aplikasi

tcp, udp

network: merutekan datagrams dari sumber

ke tujuan

ip, routing protocols

link: transfer data antar elemen jaringan

ppp, ethernet

physical: pengiriman bit-bit pada medium

transmisi

application
transport
network
link
physical

Host A

Host B

Application

identical
message

Application

Transport

identical
packet

Transport

Router R
Internet

identical
datagram

N-Interface
identical
frame

Physical Net 1

Internet

N-Interface

identical
datagram
identical
frame

Internet

N-Interface

Physical Net 2

Layering: logical communication


Setiap layer:
terdistribusi
Setiap entitas
menerapkan
fungsi layer
pada setiap
node
Setiap entitas
melakukan
pertukaran
messages
dengan peernya

application
transport
network
link
physical
application
transport
network
link
physical

network
link
physical

application
transport
network
link
physical

application
transport
network
link
physical

Layering: logical communication


Mis.: transport
Menerima data

dari aplikasi
Menambahkan
pengalamatan, dan
mekanisme
pengujian sehingga
terbentuk
datagram
Mengirimkan
datagram ke peer
layer
Menunggu ack dari
peer

data
application
transport
transport
network
link
physical
application
transport
network
link
physical

ack
data

network
link
physical

application
transport
network
link
physical

data
application
transport
transport
network
link
physical

Layering: physical communication


data
application
transport
network
link
physical
application
transport
network
link
physical

network
link
physical

application
transport
network
link
physical

data
application
transport
network
link
physical

Protocol layering and data


Setiap layer menerima data dari layer yang berada di atasnya
Menambhakan header untuk membentuk unit data baru
Mengirimkan unit data baru ke layer yang ada dibawahnya

source
M
Ht M
Hn Ht M
Hl Hn Ht M

application
transport
network
link
physical

destination
application
Ht
transport
Hn Ht
network
Hl Hn Ht
link
physical

message

segment

M
M

datagram
frame

TCP/IP & OSI


Dalam terminologi model referensi OSI, TCP/IP

protocol suite meliputi network dan transport layers


TCP/IP dapat diterapkan pada bermacam data-link
layers (mampu mendukung bermacam implementasi
hardware jaringan)
TCP/IP

OSI

Application

6 Presentation
5

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Application

3
2

Transport
IP

1 Network inteface

Host A

Host B

Application

Application
identical
message

Transport

Transport
identical
packet

Internet Protocol

Internet Protocol

identical
datagram
Net. Interface

identical
frame

Net. Interface

Physical Net
5

Internet structure: network of networks


roughly hierarchical
national/international

local
ISP

backbone providers (NBPs)

e.g. BBN/GTE, Sprint,


AT&T, IBM, UUNet
interconnect (peer) with
each other privately, or at
public Network Access Point
(NAPs)

regional ISPs
connect into NBPs
local ISP, company
connect into regional ISPs

regional ISP

NBP B
NAP

NAP
NBP A

regional ISP
local
ISP

National Backbone Provider


e.g. BBN/GTE US backbone network

ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode nets


Internet:
todays de facto
standard for global
data networking
1980s:
telcos develop ATM:
competing network
standard for carrying
high-speed voice/data
standards bodies:

ATM Forum
ITU

ATM principles:
small (48 byte payload, 5

byte header) fixed length


cells (like packets)

fast switching
small size good for voice

virtual-circuit network:

switches maintain state for


each call
well-defined interface
between network and
user (think of telephone
company)

ATM layers
ATM Adaptation

Layer (AAL):
interface to upper
layers

end-system
segmentation/rea
ssembly

ATM Layer: cell

switching
Physical

application
TCP/UDP
IP
AAL
ATM
physical
application
TCP/UDP
IP
AAL
ATM
physical

Wheres the application?


ATM: lower layer
functionality only
IP-over ATM: later

ATM
physical
application
TCP/UDP
IP
AAL
ATM
physical

application
TCP/UDP
IP
AAL
ATM
physical