Anda di halaman 1dari 25

PENGANTAR

ILMU EKONOMI

Berpikir sebagai
seorang ahli
ekonomi

BERPIKIR SEBAGAI SEORANG


EKONOM
Ilmu ekonomi mengantarkan kita untuk :
Berpikir atas berbagai alternatif yang
memungkinkan untuk ditempuh
Mengevaluasi biaya atas alternatif yang diambil
baik individu maupun sosial
Melatih dan memahami bagaimana yang
sesungguhnya terjadi dan isu berkaitan

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

AHLI EKONOMI ADALAH


SEORANG ILMUWAN

Ilmu Ekonomi adalah cara berpikir yang :


Melibatkan pemikiran analitik dan objective
Menggunakan metode ilmiah

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Metode Ilmiah: Observasi, Teori dan


Observasi lebih lanjut
Menggunakan model
(abstraksi=penyederhanaan) untuk membantu
menjelaskan kompleknya kondisi yang nyata
Membangun teori, mengumpulkan dan
menganalisis data untuk mengevaluasi teori
kembali

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Peranan Asumsi dalam mempelajari Ilmu


Ekonomi
Seorang ahli ekonomi menggunakan asumsi
untuk memudahkan pemahaman atas aspek
yang diamati
Seni dalam berpikir secara ilmiah dalam ilmu
ekonomi adalah keputusan untuk menggunakan
yang mana asumsi yang digunakan.
Seorang ekonom menggunakan asumsi yang
berbeda untuk menjawab masalah yang berbeda
Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Economic Models
Ahli ekonomi menggunakan model untuk
menyederhanakan realitas sebagai upaya
memahami dunia ini dengan lebih baik.
Dua model dasar dalam ilmu ekonomi adalah :
Diagram alir sirkuler
Batas kemungkinan produksi

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Model Pertama : The Circular-Flow Diagram

The circular-flow diagram is a visual model of the


economy that shows how dollars flow through
markets among households and firms.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Figure 1 The Circular Flow

MARKETS
FOR
GOODS AND SERVICES
Firms sell
Goods
Households buy
and services
sold
Revenue

Wages, rent,
and profit

Goods and
services
bought

HOUSEHOLDS
Buy and consume
goods and services
Own and sell factors
of production

FIRMS
Produce and sell
goods and services
Hire and use factors
of production

Factors of
production

Spending

MARKETS
FOR
FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
Households sell
Firms buy

Labor, land,
and capital
Income
= Flow of inputs
and outputs
= Flow of dollars

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007


Copyright 2004 South-Western

Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram


Firms
Produce and sell goods and services
Hire and use factors of production

Households
Buy and consume goods and services
Own and sell factors of production

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram


Markets for Goods and Services
Firms sell
Households buy

Markets for Factors of Production


Households sell
Firms buy

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram


Factors of Production
Inputs used to produce goods and services
Land, labor, and capital

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Our Second Model: The Production


Possibilities Frontier
The production possibilities frontier is a graph that
shows the combinations of output that the
economy can possibly produce given the
available factors of production and the
available production technology.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Figure 2 The Production Possibilities Frontier


Quantity of
Computers
Produced

3,000

D
C

2,200
2,000

A
Production
possibilities
frontier

1,000

300

600 700

Quantity of
Sosek Fakultas
Pertanian
Universitas Brawijaya, 2007
Cars
Produced
Copyright2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning

1,000

Our Second Model: The Production


Possibilities Frontier
Concepts Illustrated by the Production
Possibilities Frontier

Efficiency
Tradeoffs
Opportunity Cost
Economic Growth

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Figure 3 A Shift in the Production Possibilities Frontier


Quantity of
Computers
Produced
4,000

3,000

2,100
2,000

E
A

Quantity of
0

700 750

1,000 Cars Produced


Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007
Copyright 2004 South-Western

Microeconomics and Macroeconomics


Microeconomics focuses on the individual parts

of the economy.
How households and firms make decisions and how
they interact in specific markets
Macroeconomics looks at the economy as a

whole.
Economy-wide phenomena, including inflation,
unemployment, and economic growth
Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

THE ECONOMIST AS POLICY


ADVISOR
When economists are trying to explain the
world, they are scientists.
When economists are trying to change the
world, they are policy advisor.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE


ANALYSIS
Positive statements are statements that attempt to

describe the world as it is.


Called descriptive analysis
Normative statements are statements about how

the world should be.


Called prescriptive analysis

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE


ANALYSIS
Positive or Normative Statements?

An increase in the minimum wage will cause a


decrease in employment among the least-skilled.
POSITIVE
Higher federal budget deficits will cause interest
rates to increase.
POSITIVE

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE


ANALYSIS
Positive or Normative Statements?

Kesejahteraan masyarakat merupakan tujuan yang


pokok dari pelaksanaan semua kegiatan
pembangunan.
NORMATIVE

Pabrik rokok harus mencantumkan akibat negatif


pada kesehatan atas penggunaan rokok tersebut.
NORMATIVE

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE


They may disagree about the validity of
alternative positive theories about how the
world works.
They may have different values and, therefore,
different normative views about what policy
should try to accomplish.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Summary
Economists try to address their subjects with a
scientists objectivity.
They make appropriate assumptions and build
simplified models in order to understand the world
around them.
Two simple economic models are the circular-flow
diagram and the production possibilities frontier.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Summary
Economics is divided into two subfields:
Microeconomists study decisionmaking by
households and firms in the marketplace.
Macroeconomists study the forces and trends that
affect the economy as a whole

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Summary
A positive statement is an assertion about how
the world is.
A normative statement is an assertion about
how the world ought to be.
When economists make normative statements,
they are acting more as policy advisors than
scientists.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007

Summary
Economists who advise policymakers offer
conflicting advice either because of differences
in scientific judgments or because of
differences in values.
At other times, economists are united in the
advice they offer, but policymakers may choose
to ignore it.

Sosek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 2007