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SECONDARY METALLURGY OF BRASS

Rifqi Aulia Tanjung


| 2711
Mifta Ulul Azmi
| 2712
Mega Lazuardi Umar
| 2712
Alfian Pangestu
| 2712
Gabriel Februando
| 2711
Orlando Banjarnahor
| 2713
Yudhistira Surya Andika
| 2713
Budi Christofer Manik
| 2713

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Jumat, 04 Desember 2015 @MT101 | Jurusan Teknik Material dan Metalurgi FTI ITS

What is brass?

Brass
atau Kuningan adalah logam yang
merupakan campuran dari tembaga (Cu) dan seng
(Zn) dengan komposisi :

Warna kuningan bervariasi dari coklat kemerahan


gelap hingga ke kuning keperakan tergantung
pada jumlah kadar Zn

Mechanical Properties
1. Dapat merekayasa kekerasan dengan mengatur proporsi Cu dan Zn. (High Range of
Hardness/soft to hard)
2. sangat mudah dibentuk. (High Malleability and Easy to Cast)
3. konduktor panas yang baik. (Thermal Conductor)
4. tahan terhadap korosi. (corrosion-resistant)
5. Titik didih relatif rendah. (relatively low melting point)
6. Bukan termasuk logam magnet. (Non-Ferromagnetic)
kebanyakan digunakan untuk membuat pipa, tabung, sekrup, radiator, alat musik,
aplikasi kapal laut, dan casing cartridge untuk senjata api

How its made?

How its made?


1. Melting
2. Hot Rolling
3. Annealing and Cold
Rolling
4. Finish Rolling

How its made?


1. Melting
Jumlah dari copper alloy scrap ditimbang dan dimasukkan kedalam tanur listrik
dimana ia mencair sekitar 1.920 F (1.083 C), kemudian disesuaikan dengan
jumlah copper didalam scrap lalu seng dimasukkan setelah copper mencair. Sejumlah
kecil seng tambahan, sekitar 50% dari total zinc yang diperlukan, untuk
mengkompensasi seng yang menguap selama operasi peleburan. Jika ada unsur lain
yang diperlukan untuk pembuatan brass tertentu, bisa ditambahkan unsur lain apabila
dalam scrap tidak ada.

Setelah itu, logam cair dituangkan ke dalam cetakan dengan ukuran sekitar 8 x 18
x 10 ft di (20 cm x 46 cm x 3 m) dan dibiarkan mencair menjadi lembaran yang disebut
cake. Dalam beberapa operasi, pencairan dan menuangkan dilakukan semi-kontinyu
untuk menghasilkan lembaran yang sangat panjang. Setelah dingin cake dikeluarkan
dan dipindahkan dimana mereka akan dirolling

How its made?


2. Hot Rolling
Cake ditempatkan dan dipanaskan kembali dalam reheating furnace. Setelah memenuhi
temperatur yang diinginkan kemudian di rolling dengan serangkain roll baja untuk
mengurangi diameternya dan menambah lebarnya. Proses ini sering disebut breakdown
rolling.

3. Annealing dan Cold Rolling


Proses selanjutnya disebut annealing dan cold rolling, untuk mencapai sifat brass yang
diinginkan, proses ini sering dilakukan berkali kali.

4. Finish Rolling
Tahap yang terakhir adalah finish rolling untuk memperbaiki ukuran atau mentoleransi
ukuran serta menghasilkan permukaan yang baik. Pada tahap ini bisa dilanjutkan
pemotongan untuk selanjutnya didistribusikan ke kostumer.

Type of Brass

Type of Brass

Phase Diagram

10

Melting Point

11

Influence of Alloy
To improve machinability

To improve strength and wear resistance

To improve corrosion resistance

for other special reasons

12

Influence of Zn

ASISTENSI 2
Crusible for Brass and Material for Die Casting of Brass

Crucible for Brass Recycling


A crucible holds the molten metal while it is in the furnace. For brass alloys, a
graphite crucible may be the best option owing to its durability and ability to be
heated quickly.Crucibles made from other materials are available, but make sure they
can withstand the high temperature required.
Setting up Brass Recycling
- Separate out your brass items for
melting.You may already have brass items
ready for melting, but if you want more raw
material, thrift stores and yard sales are often
treasure troves. Failing that, you can try
contacting local scrap yards. Remove the
brass from other materials, especially
non-metallic objects such as glass,
plastic, paper, and cloth.
- Before using a new graphite crucible, heat it to
200F (95C) for 20 minutes and let cool. This
removes excess moisture that can cause
spattering

How to Design Crusible


The capacity, dimensions and type of your furnace
The specific alloy or range of alloys you melt
The melting and/or holding temperatures you maintain
The temperature change rate the crucible will experience
How the crucible is charged
The fluxes or additions used
Degassing or refining processes
How slag or dross is removed
How the crucible is emptied.

Crusible Design
So many standartof crusible
design that we found in market.
Based on a furnace size and type
of furnace.
An example is A, B and other
type crucible furnace.
Type A is melt for up to 2000 F
(1093C) and B is 2750 F (1510
C). They will handle zinc,
aluminum, brass / bronze, silver
and gold alloys. The
manufacturer states they can be
used for cast iron

Material die Casting for Brass


Die casting is a metal casting process that
is characterized by forcing molten metal
under high pressure into a mold cavity.
The mold cavity is created using two
hardened tool steel dies which have been
machined into shape and work similarly to
an injection mold during the process
The most important material properties for
the dies are thermal shock resistance and
softening at elevated temperature; other
important properties include hardenability,
machinability, heat checking resistance,
weldability, availability (especially for
larger dies), and cost.

Typical Material and Hardness Die Casting of


Brass
Cast metal

Die component

Tin, lead & zinc


Material

Cavity inserts

Aluminium & magnesium

Hardness

Material

Copper & brass

Hardness

Material

Hardness

P20

290330HB

H13

4248HRC

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

H11

4650 HRC

H11

4248 HRC

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

H13

4650 HRC

H13

4652 HRC

H13

4448 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4248 HRC

Cores

Core pins

H13

4852 HRC

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

H13

4852 HRC

H13
DIN 1.2367

4648 HRC
4446 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4246 HRC

Nozzle

420

4044 HRC

H13

4248 HRC

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

H13[note 2]

4650 HRC

H13

4650 HRC

Plunger shot
sleeve

H13

4650 HRC

H13[note 2]
DIN 1.2367[note 2]

4248 HRC
4248 HRC

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

4140 prehard

~300 HB

4140 prehard

~300 HB

Cavity Insert, Cores, Cores Pin, Sprue Parts, Nozzle, Plunger Shot
Sleeve
Cast metal
Die component

Copper & brass


Material

Hardness

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

Core pins

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

DIN 1.2367

4246 HRC

Nozzle

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

Plunger shot
sleeve

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

Cavity inserts

Cores

DIN 1.2367 (Chrome-Molybdenum-Vanadium


Alloyed Tool Steel)
Use and characteristics: High-quality die inserts
and dies, heavy-duty tools in the Screws, nuts,
rivets and bolts production.

Cavity Insert
Cast metal
Die component

Copper & brass


Material

Hardness

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

Core pins

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

DIN 1.2367

Nozzle

Cavity inserts

Cores

H20 Tool Steel


Applications
Extrusion dies for long production runs,
Hot piercing punches, Extrusion mandrels operated
without cooling, Hot forging dies and inserts,
Special structural steel for springs operating at
elevated
Element temperatures.
Content (%)
Tungsten, W

9-10

Chromium, Cr

1.80-2.20

4246 HRC

Vanadium, V

0.4-0.6

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

Carbon, C

0.25-0.35

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

Silicon, Si

0.10-0.75

Plunger shot
sleeve

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

Manganese, Mn

0.10-0.4

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

H21 Tool Steel (Tungsten Hot-Work Steel)

Cavity Insert
Cast metal
Die component

Copper & brass


Material

Cavity inserts

Hardness

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

Cores

Applications
The H21 tungsten hot-work tool steels are mainly
used for hot-working dies and toolings, e.g., die
casting, extrusion and hot-forming of parts.
Element

Content (%)

0.26-036

Mn

0.15-0.40

Si

0.15-0.50

Cr

3.00-3.75

Ni

0.3

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

DIN 1.2367

4246 HRC

8.50-10.00

Nozzle

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

0.30-0.60

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

Cu

0.25

Plunger shot
sleeve

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

0.03

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

0.03

Core pins

Nozzle, Ejector Pins, Plunger Shot Sleeve


Cast metal
Die component

Copper & brass


Material

Cavity inserts

H13 Tool Steel (Chromium Hot-Work Steels)

Hardness

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

Element

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

Chromium, Cr

4.75-5.50

Molybdenum, Mo

1.10-1.75

Silicon, Si

0.80-1.20

Vanadium, V

0.80-1.20

Carbon, C

0.32-0.45

Nickel, Ni

0.3

Copper, Cu

0.25

Manganese, Mn

0.20-0.50

Phosphorus, P

0.03

Sulfur, S

0.03

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

Cores

Core pins

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

DIN 1.2367

4246 HRC

Nozzle

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

Plunger shot
sleeve

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

Content (%)

Nozzle, Ejector Pins, Plunger Shot Sleeve


Cast metal
Die component

Copper & brass


Material

Cavity inserts

4140 (Chromium-Molybdenum Steel)

Hardness

DIN1.2367

3844 HRC

Element

H20, H21, H22

4448 HRC

0.38-0.43

Mn

0.75-1.00

0.035 (max)

0.04 (max)

Si

0.15-0.30

Cr

0.80-1.10

Mo

0.15-0.25

DIN 1.2367

4046 HRC

Cores

Core pins

DIN 1.2367
prehard

3740 HRC

Sprue parts

DIN 1.2367

4246 HRC

Nozzle

DIN 1.2367
H13

4044 HRC
4248 HRC

Ejector pins

H13

4650 HRC

Plunger shot
sleeve

DIN 1.2367
H13

4246 HRC
4246 HRC

Holder block

4140 prehard

~300 HB

Content (%)

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