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Ch.

1
Sec. 2
The
Skeletal
System

(cranium)

Skeleton model

Functions of Skeletal System


1. Provides shape & support
2. Enables movement
3. Protects internal organs
4. Produces blood cells
5. Stores certain materials
until body needs them

1. Provides shape & support

vertebrae= 26 bones
that make up
backbone
(vertebra- singular)
Newborn- 275 bones
Adult- 206 bones

2. Enables you to move


Muscles pull on bones

3. Protects internal organs


Skull protects brain
Ribs protect heart & lungs

4. Produces blood cells

made
by
bone
marrow

5. Stores certain materials until


your body needs them

calcium & phosphorus

Bones- strong & living


Hard b/c made of Ca & P
Contain cells & tissues
Form new bone tissue as you grow

Structure of bones
outer membrane= covers
bone, except @ endscartilage (connective tissuemore flexible than bone)
compact bone= hard & dense
spongy bone= lightweight but
strong

Structure of bones
marrow=
soft, connective tissue
found in spaces in bone
2 types:
1. red bone marrow- produces
most blood cells
2. yellow bone marrow- energy
reserve

Bone Structure

infant- skeleton mostly


cartilage

How Bones Change As We Grow


[04:43]

healthy
bones
well
balanced
diet

exercise

Ca & P

wear
safety
equipment

osteoporosis

condition where
bodys bones
become weak &
break easily due
to mineral loss
more common in
women than men

ACTIVITY "HOLLOW STRENGTH"


1) Students will roll up a sheet of paper (8 1/2 x 11) about 1 in wide into a cylinder.
They will make 3 of these (paper bones).
2) Students will stand the bones up on their ends, placing a paper plate on top of the
bones.
3) Teacher will ask students to tell what is happening - the hollow rolls will support the
plate.
4) Students will begin to add weights (wooden blocks) to the plate.
5) Students will count how many blocks the plate can hold before it collapses the
bones.
6) Students will roll 3 more sheets of paper as tightly as they can so that there is no
hollow section.
7) Students will stand these "bones" up as before placing the same plate on top of
them.
8) Students will place weights on top of the plate until they collapse.
9) Students will deduce what happened. Teacher will explain that hollow bones were
able to support more weight. Teacher will also explain that having a hollow center
gave the bones a better design and made them stronger. Teacher will continue
explaining that the large bones in our body are also hollow, which makes them
strong so they can support more weight, but light, so it takes less energy to move
them.

joint
place where 2 bones come
together

2 kinds of joints:
1. immovable joint- little or no
movement
eg: skull bones
2. movable joints

ball & socket joint


greatest range of motion
shoulder & hips

hinge joint
forward or backward motion
knee & elbow

pivot joint
bone rotates around another
neck

gliding joint
1 bone slides over another
wrist, ankle, vertebra

Video-Bone Joints

Skills Activity-pg. 15
Perform these activities.
Determine which type of movable joint or joints is
involved in performing each activity. Give a reason
to support your classifications.
1. Move your arm in a circle.
2. Push open a door.
3. Lift a book from a desk.
4. Kneel down.
5. Wave your hand.
6. Twist your head from side to side.

pivot
joint

immovable
joint
ball & socket
joint

gliding
joint

hinge joint

ligament
tissue that holds bones in
movable joints together

Bone

Label your bodys framework with the scientific name for each bone.

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