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Figure26.

Digestive Tract

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
the main idea/major functions

Obtain nutrients for cells


Nutrients are needed/used for:

Energy source (break down of nutrients can generate ATP)


Building materials for:

Cell Growth
Cell Repair
Cell Maintenance
Production of hormones, enzymes, etc.

Elements for normal cell function

Coenzymes, ions, etc

Digestive System Specific


Events/Processes

Ingestion: brining food into the stomach


Propulsion: movement of food through the alimentary canal
peristalsis

Mechanical Digestion: breaking large into small without chemical


change
mastication (mixing, i.e., churning & segmentation)

Chemical Digestion: breaking chemical bonds w/ enzymes:


large molecules smaller absorbable molecules

Secretion: release of substances into the alimentary canal that aid


digestive system function
Enzymes for chemical digestion
Mucus and other substances to neutralize acidity
Mucus for lubrication

Absorption: movement of substances out of the digestive tract into


circulation (blood or lymph)
Elimination: digestive wastes exiting the body as feces
defecation

Macromolecules and their Components

Carbohydrates :
Enzyme = amylase
Polysaccharides monosaccharides
Disaccharides monosaccharides

Proteins:
Enzyme = protease
amino acids

Lipids (e.g., triglycerides)


Enzyme = lipase
Fatty Acids + Glycerol/monoglycerides

Figure26.2

Peristalsis
how material is
moved/propelled through
the digestive tract
requires both a circularly
and a longitudinally
arranged layer of muscle

Digestive Tract
12. jejunum

1. mouth
2. oral cavity

salivary
glands

13. ileum

3. fauces

14. ileocecal valve

4. oropharynx

15. ascending colon

5. laryngopharynx

16. hepatic flexture

6. upper esophageal sphincter

17. transverse colon

7. esophagus
8. lower esophageal sphincter
(cardiac)
9. stomach

18. splenic flexture


19. descending colon
20. sigmoid colon

10. pyloric sphincterliver/gallbladder 21. rectum


22. anal canal
11. duodenum
pancreas

Digestive Tract: epithelium


12. jejunum

2. oral cavity

13. ileum

4. oropharynx
5. laryngopharynx
6. upper esophageal sphincter
7. esophagus
8. lower esophageal sphincter
(cardiac)
9. stomach
10. pyloric sphincter
11. duodenum

simple
columnar

14. ileocecal valve


15. ascending colon
16. hepatic flexture
17. transverse colon

simple
columnar

3. fauces

stratified squamous

1. mouth

18. splenic flexture


19. descending colon
20. sigmoid colon
21. rectum
22. anal canal
stratified squamous

Figure26.2

= movement/propulsion

= mechanical digestion

Figure26.3

Oral Cavity
Lined with stratified
squamous
Mechanical digestion by teeth
Chemical Digestion by
salivary and intrinsic enzymes
and
salivary amylase & lipase

approximate pH ~ 7
Sensation: taste and texture
Propulsion (with tongue)

Figure26.5

Teeth
Mechanically Digest
Know parts as per lab
Incisors: snip/clip/cut
Canines: tear
premolars: crush and
grind
molars: better crushers
and grinders

Figure26.4

Salivary Glands and Saliva


3 Salivary Glands + intrinsic glands
Mucus Cells: mucinmucus
lubricates and binds material
Serous Cells: salivary amylase & lipase
chemical digestion
antimicrobial components
95% water; dissolves chemical to
enhance taste sensations
Lysozyme: antibacterial
Dual innervation by ANS, but PD
signals stimulate increases gland
activity
cranial nerve VII/facial (subs)
cranial nerve
IX/glossopharyngeal (parotid)
Sight, smell, though, or taste of food
stimulates

Digestive Tract
12. jejunum

2. oral cavity

13. ileum

4. oropharynx
5. laryngopharynx
6. upper esophageal sphincter
7. esophagus
8. lower esophageal sphincter
(cardiac)
9. stomach
10. pyloric sphincter
11. duodenum

simple
columnar

14. ileocecal valve


15. ascending colon
16. hepatic flexture
17. transverse colon

simple
columnar

3. fauces

stratified squamous

1. mouth

18. splenic flexture


19. descending colon
20. sigmoid colon
21. rectum
22. anal canal
stratified squamous

Figure26.3

Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx


Function:
Propulsion
with skeletal muscle mostly innervated by cranial
nerves
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) & vagus (CNX)
nerve

Structure:
Lined with stratified squamous
Pharyngeal constrictor muscles (skeletal
muscles) along posterior wall for swallowing

Figure26.9

LAYERS OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT WALL

Layers of digestive Tract Wall


Mucosa:
inner-most layer in contact with ingested material
Lined with epithelial tissue (stratified squamous or simple columnar)
Lamina propria containing loose CT, capillaries, nerves, lymph capillaries

Submucosa
Dense CT, larger vessels,
nerves/submucosal plexus that innervates/regulate mucosa and submucosa

Muscularis (muscularis externa)


muscle (mostly smooth) that propells
Produces peristalsis
circular and longitudinal layers
myenteric plexus (innervates/controls muscularis)

Serosa OR adventitia
outer most layer
serosa = visceral peritoneum
adventitia=dense CT

DIGESTIVE TRACT WALL

Figure26.10

Esophagus

Soft, muscular tube; propells bolus to


stomach
passes through esophageal hiatus of
diaphragm
Mucosa
stratified squamous

submucosa
glands that produce mucous that
lubricates

Muscularis
inner circular layer
transitions from skeletal to smooth

Adventitia
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
poorly defined muscular thickening at
end of esophagus
reinforced by diaphragm
prevents movement of stomach
contents back into esophagus

Figure26.12

Stomach
Processes
Mechanical digestion

churning
involves inner oblique layer
Denaturing proteins by acids
Kills pathogens with acidity

Chemical Digestion
proteins by enzymes

pH ~2.5-4.5
minimal absorption
alcohol and some lipid soluble
substances

soupy mixture/contents of
stomach = chyme

Figure26.12

Stomach
Mucosa:
Simple Columnar

in body and fundus abundant

Surface mucus cells


Secrete protective alkaline mucous
Renew every 7 days
gastric pitsgastric glands

Rugae

allow expansion

Submucosa
unnotable
Muscularis
inner oblique layer
intermediate circular
outer longitudinal layer
Serosa
Unnotable
Pyloric Sphincter
well defined sphincter at junction with
duodenum
Controls emptying of stomach

Stomach is lined by surface mucus cells/simple columnar and inward projection that form
gastric pits gastric glands
Figure26.13

Figure26.13

Gastric Glands: produce gastric juice


Parietal Cells
HCl
activates pepsinogen
kills pathogens
denatures/breaks some bonds

Intrinsic factor
absorption of B12

Chief Cells
pepsinogen
inactive enzyme

HCl + pepsinogen => pepsin


(chemically digests proteins)
Stretch and pH of stomach main
stimulators of secretion
Enteroendocrine Cells

(gastroendocrine)
gastrin (released due to pH)
chemical regulation of digestive function
E.g., Increased parietal and chief cell secretion
E.g., Increased gastric motility

Acid Reflux and Hiatal Hernias


Failure of the L.E.S. to work correctly can lead to
acid reflux
Displacement of the L.E.S. relative to the
diaphragmhiatal hernia--promotes acid reflux
because the diaphragm no longer reinforces the
L.E.S.
Can also cause breathing difficulty in some settings

Acid reflux is uncomfortable, diminishes quality


of life, can cause histological changes in
esophagus, increases likelihood of esophageal
cancer, can cause airway congestions and even
cause pneumonia if acids are aspirated

Figure26.14

The 3 regions of the small intestine

Small Intestine

Main Functions:

chemical digestion (primary site)


absorption (primary site)
propulsion
(mechanical digestion in form of segmentation)

pH ~8 due to secretions of duodenal glands and pancreas

Structure:
3 regions:
doudenum (10, retroperitonealnot surrounded by peritoneum)
jejunum ~ 8, most absorption and digestion; has serosa
ileum ~ 12, has serosa

bile and pancreatic secretions enter duodenum through duodenal papilla


Specializations for absorption (increase S.A. of S.I. ~600x)
1. Length
2. plicea circulares/circular folds
3. villi

Contains with lacteal and capillaries to receive absorbed nutrients

4. microvilli

Figure26.15

Figure26.15

Small Intestine
Mucosal epithelium
Simple columnar
thin enough to pass through, large enough to be active
absorptive cells
intrinsic enzymes for chemical digestion
absorption

goblet cells
lubricating mucus that protects against acidic chyme

(entero)endocrine cells
regulatory hormones

intestinal crypts:
source of new columnar cells
Also produce alkaline mucus
Neutralizes acidic chyme from stomach

External to Mucosa
capillaries and lacteals within mucosa accept absorbed nutrients
Lymphatic tissue to protect again harmful microorganisms

Small Intestine Regulation of Gallbladder and Pancreas


Acidic chyme stimulates duodenal mucosa to
release secretin
Secretin stimulates production of bicarbonate by
pancreas

Fatty acids and triglycerides stimulate duodenal


mucosa to release CCK
CCK stimulates production of lipases by pancrease
CCK stimulates release of bile by gallbladder
CCK relaxes hepotopancreatic sphincter

Small Intestine Absorption

Small Intestine Trends


Duodenum has poorly developed plicae and
villi.
Jejunum has well developed plicae and villi,
but these absorptive features decline
distally and eventually dissapear
Lymphatic tissue increase in prevalence
as you move from duodenum to ileum

Figure26.16

Large Intestines
Includes:

cecum
colon
rectum
anal canal

Main Functions:
re-absorbs water to consolidate chyme into feces
but NOT main site of water absorption

houses normal flora/bacteria


produce vitamin K and some B vitamins
influence regularity, immune function (including allergies and
autoimmune), and evidence for influencing fat
metabolism/deposition, neurological development, etc
produce flatusfartsthe gas weall-pass

Store feces until defecation


Propulsion/defecation

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Ingestion
(2 L)

Salivary gland secretions


(1 L)

Gastric
secretions
(2 L)

Pancreatic
secretions
(1.2 L)
Bile
(0.7 L)
Small intestine
secretions
(2 L)

92%
absorbed in the
small intestine
6 7%
absorbed in the
large intestine
Ingestion or
secretion
Absorption

1% in
feces
(Water in feces = ingested + secreted absorbed)

Figure26.17

Large Intestines
Structure:
Mucosa: simple columnar

absorptive cells
mucus cellspredominate
to lubricate the solidifying mass of material
invaginated glands; crypts
With many mucus cells

muscularis
longitudinal layer concentrated into the 3 teniae coli
muscle tone (partial contraction) causes L.I. to gather and produce
haustra

Ascending and descending colon are retroperitoneal

Rectum
Last 6 of digestive tract
Mucosa of simple columnar that transitions to stratified
squamous by beginning of anus (the opening out of rectum)
Submucosa and lamina propria rich in blood vessels
hemorrhoids

thick muscular layer


For defecation
circular layer forms internal anal sphincter

retroperitoneal
Anus
Passageway out of rectum

Peritoneum and Mesentery


Abdominal wall is lined by parietal peritoneum
Peritoneum covering surface of abdominal organs
is visceral peritoneum
double layer of peritoneum with no abdominal
organ between is mesentary
Mesentery does house blood vessels and is site of
adipose tissue deposition
there are many specific mesentaries (see next
page)
Organs which are posterior to the peritoneum and
have it covering only a single surface are
retroperitoneal

Figure26.7

Peritoneum and Mesentery


FUNCTION:
Reduce friction
suspend organs from the body wall by mesentary
influence movements of organs they surround

STRUCTURE
Parietal peritoneum lines the body wall
Visceral peritoneum covers surface of many abdominal organs

MESENTERY
Mesentery is a the visceral peritoneum folded back on itself with
no organ in between.
contain blood vessels
site for adipose tissue deposition

Organs not surrounded by peritoneum are retroperitoneal


(will have peritoneum on one or more surface).

duodenum pancreas, ascending Colon, descending colon,


rectum, kidneys/adrenal gland and urinary bladder

Mesenteries
NOTE: dont memorize these unless study guide says to.

Lesser omentum: hold stomach and duodenum to liver and


diaphragm
Greater omentum: greater curvature to transverse colon
coronary ligament: liver to diaphragm
falciform ligament: liver to anterior body wall
mesentary proper: connectes to small intestine
mesocolon: connects the colon
mesoapendix: appendix
Unusual mesentaries can cause
torsion/obstruction/infection.
Ascending colon, gallbladder

Figure26.8

Pancreas
Figure26.20

Pancreas
Digestive Function:
Pancreatic Juice
Created by acini cells of pancreas
Contains enzymes that break down:
carbohydratespancreatic amylase
proteinsproteases
lipidslipases
Nucleasesnucleic acids
Enters the duodenum via duodenal papilla
pancratic ducthepatopancreatic ampullar sphincter/duodenal papilla

Regulated by hormones:
Secretin--from
Cholecytokinin (CCK)--from

endocrine function
releases insulin (reduces blood sugar and encourages cells to store away nutrients)
releases glucagon (increases blood sugar and encourages cells to release stored energy)

Figure26.18

Liver

Liver Functions
Stores and Releases glucose (only organ/tissue that can
release glucose)
to stabilize blood glucose

Synthesizes and stores lipids (chlosterol, ..) also


regulates circulating lipids
foie gras anyone?

Amino Acid interconversion and breakdown


(gluconeogenisis)
Detoxify absorbed toxins
Removes old RBCs
Produces Bile
bile emulsifies fat (mechanically breaks it up and allows it to mix
with water)
eliminates cholesterol and bilirubin

Bile is stored in gallbladder and enters duodeum through a


system of ducts (biliary ducts)

Lobules of Liver (microscopic units)


Figure26.19

Inferior vena
cava

Aorta

Heart

Hepatic veins

Central vein
3
Hepatic cords
composed
of hepatocytes
Hepatic duct
Hepatic portal
vein
Hepatic artery

Liver lobule

Portal
triad

Bile
canaliculi

Hepatic
sinusoid

Hepatic
duct branch

Hepatic portal
vein branch

Hepatic
artery branch

Hepatic
ducts

Hepatic portal
vein

Hepatic
artery

Hepatic duct
Porta
of liver

Hepatic portal vein


Hepatic artery

2
Bile

Inferior vena cava

Nutrient-rich,
oxygen-poor,
blood

1
Oxygen-rich
blood

Inferior view
Oxygen-rich
blood
Small
intestine

Portal
triad

Liver Related Topics


Juandice (obstructive)
Gallstones
Hepatic Portal Hypertension

Bile
Produced by liver
Stored in Gallbladder
lined by smooth muscle
absorbs water/concentrates bile (5-10x more concentrated)

Bile Function and Movement


Bile emulsifies fat breaks large droplets into smaller dropplets
that remain mixed with water.
Bile salts

Bile is also used to excrete cholesterol and bilirubin (from


hemoglobin breakdownbile pigments) from body.
Enters the duodenum via duodenal papilla
Common bile ducthepatopancreatic ampullar sphincter/duodenal
papilla

Gallbladder releases bile in response to CCK

Figure26.21

Bile flow

Hepatocytes
bile canaliculi
hepatic ducts
L&R hepatic ducts
common hepatic duct
common bile duct
duodenum

Cystic duct

Cranial Nerves and Digestive Function

Swallowing involves use of:


hypoglossal nerve
tongue movements

Glossopharyngeal nerve
tongue & pharyngeal muscles

Vagus Nerve
Pharynx & esophagus

Vagus Nerve: is mostly PD and is widely


involved with stimulation of digestive organs
esophagus, stomach, intestines

Table26.1

Table26.3

Table26.4