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Mechanics of Materials

Mechanics of Solid
Strength of Materials
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies
Mekanika Kekuatan Bahan

Eng. Mechanics Statics

Mechanics of Materials

Model Rigid Bodies

Model Deformable Bodies

Forces, Length

Forces, Length, Section,


Mechanical Properties
of Materials

Mekanika kekuatan bahan

Stress Analysis
Analisa Tegangan

Deflection Analysis
Analisa Lendutan

Free-Body-Diagram, Internal Forces, Stress Formula,


Deflection Formula

Ilmuwan-Ilmuwan di bidang Mekanika

Konsep yang digunakan dalam


mekanika kekuatan bahan
Keseimbangan
Hukum Hooke
Kompatibilitas
Asumsi-Asumsi yang dipakai:
- Bahan homogen
- Bahan isotropis
- Deformasi relatif kecil

How Materials Carry Load


Basic modes of loading a material: Tension, compression and shear

Stress:
Loads applied on a material are distributed over a surface.
For example, the point load shown
in the following figure might actually be a uniformly distributed load
that has been replaced by its equivalent point load.

Stress is the load applied per unit area of the surface it is applied on.
Normal stress is the stress normal to a surface
and is denoted by the symbol " " (sigma).
In the above figure the normal stress is uniform over the surface of the bar
and is given by

Shear stress is the stress tangent to a surface. If in the following figure the shear stress
(tau) that results in the shear load V is uniformly distributed over the surface,
then the shear stress can be calculated by dividing the shear force by the area it is applied on.

Unit Stress

Basic modes of deformation of a material:


Extension, contraction, shearing

Bearing Stress

Strain:

Strain is the way engineers represent the distortion of a body.


Axial strain (normal strain) in a bar is a measure of the extension of a bar per unit length of the bar
before deformation. The following figure shows a bar of initial length lo that is extended by
the application of a load to the length l.

The axial strain, denoted by (epsilon)

Shear strain, denoted by (gamma),

Tensile Test
Uniaxial Testing
Machine:

Standard Tension Coupon

Engineering Stress-Strain Curve


for mild steel

Elastic Response
Hookes law:
Hookes law for extension:

Hookes law for shear:

E is the elastic modulus


G is the shear modulus

Elastic-Plastic Response

Poissons Ratio

The relation between the elastic moduli :

Generalized Hookes Law for Muliaxial Loading


isotropic materials

1
x ( y z )
E
1

y ( x z )
E
1

z ( x y )
E

Pure shear:

xy yx
xy yx

G
G
yz zy
yz zy

G
G
xz zx
xz zx

G
G

Volumetric strain during extension


Volumetric Strain (e):

Factor of safety (n)