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CHAPTER 6: INTEGRAL CALCULUS

In Chapter 5, we discussed about the derivatives of functions f, f .


In this chapter we will discuss how to go from f to f.

6.1 ANTI- DIFFERENTIATION

Given f, we find f :

DIFFERENTIATION

Given f, we find f :

ANTI- DIFFERENTIATION

Anti-differentiation is the inverse of differentiation


Example:

Another example:

In general:

Next we want to see the basic rules of integration.


All the basic rules of integration can be easily be derived
by using the inverse relationship between differentiation
and integration.
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BASIC RULES OF INTEGRATION

Note
that:

Example 1: Indefinite Integrals


Find the following integral

6.2 Integration of Linear Function With Power

Our goal in this section is to integrate a function of the form


The expression in the bracket must be linear.

Example 1: Integration of linear with power

6.3 SUBSTITUTION RULE

Our goal in this section is to expand our ability to compute


antiderivatives through a useful technique called
integration by substitution.
As we have already seen, we need the chain rule to
compute derivatives of many functions. Integration by
substitution gives us process for helping to recognize when
an integrand is the result of a chain rule derivative.
Integration by substitution consists of the following general
steps:

Choose an expression for u.


A common choice is the innermost expression or inside
term of composition of functions.
Example:

Why?

Compute du/dx and find du.

Replace all terms


in the original integrand with
expressions involving u and du.
Example:

Evaluate the resulting u integral as usual.


If you cant evaluate the integral, you may need to try a
different choice of u.
Example:

Replace each occurrence of u in the antiderivatives with


the corresponding
expression
in x.

Example:

Example 1: Integration by Substitution


Evaluate the following integration

Solution:

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6.4 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f is continuous on
the closed interval [a, b], then f is
integrable on [a, b].Thus
the integral of f from x=a to x=b
denoted by

is called a definite
integral and is defined by

where a is the lower limit of the integral and b is the upper


limit
of the integral.
NOTE:
Need to integrate as usual using the rules, then substitute

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Example 1: Definite Integral


Evaluate the following integration.

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