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# CHAPTER 6: INTEGRAL CALCULUS

## In Chapter 5, we discussed about the derivatives of functions f, f .

In this chapter we will discuss how to go from f to f.

## 6.1 ANTI- DIFFERENTIATION

Given f, we find f :

DIFFERENTIATION

Given f, we find f :

ANTI- DIFFERENTIATION

Example:

Another example:

In general:

## Next we want to see the basic rules of integration.

All the basic rules of integration can be easily be derived
by using the inverse relationship between differentiation
and integration.
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Note
that:

## Example 1: Indefinite Integrals

Find the following integral

## Our goal in this section is to integrate a function of the form

The expression in the bracket must be linear.

## Our goal in this section is to expand our ability to compute

antiderivatives through a useful technique called
integration by substitution.
As we have already seen, we need the chain rule to
compute derivatives of many functions. Integration by
substitution gives us process for helping to recognize when
an integrand is the result of a chain rule derivative.
Integration by substitution consists of the following general
steps:

## Choose an expression for u.

A common choice is the innermost expression or inside
term of composition of functions.
Example:

Why?

## Replace all terms

in the original integrand with
expressions involving u and du.
Example:

## Evaluate the resulting u integral as usual.

If you cant evaluate the integral, you may need to try a
different choice of u.
Example:

## Replace each occurrence of u in the antiderivatives with

the corresponding
expression
in x.

Example:

## Example 1: Integration by Substitution

Evaluate the following integration

Solution:

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## 6.4 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f is continuous on
the closed interval [a, b], then f is
integrable on [a, b].Thus
the integral of f from x=a to x=b
denoted by

is called a definite
integral and is defined by

## where a is the lower limit of the integral and b is the upper

limit
of the integral.
NOTE:
Need to integrate as usual using the rules, then substitute

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## Example 1: Definite Integral

Evaluate the following integration.

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