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Chapter 10:

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force


Method

Structural Analysis 7th Edition in SI Units


Russell C. Hibbeler

Statically Indeterminate Structures


Advantages & Disadvantages
For a given loading, the max stress and
deflection of an indeterminate structure are
generally smaller than those of its statically
determinate counterpart
Statically indeterminate structure has a
tendency to redistribute its load to its
redundant supports in cases of faulty designs
or overloading
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Statically Indeterminate Structures


Advantages & Disadvantages
Although statically indeterminate structure
can support loading with thinner members &
with increased stability compared to their
statically determinate counterpart, the cost
savings in material must be compared with
the added cost to fabricate the structure
since often it becomes more costly to
construct the supports & joints of an
indeterminate structure
Careful of differential disp of the supports as
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7 Edition
well
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Statically Indeterminate Structures


Method of Analysis
To satisfy equilibrium, compatibility & forcedisp requirements for the structure

Force Method
Displacement Method

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
From free-body diagram, there would be 4
unknown support reactions
3 equilibrium eqn
Beam is indeterminate to first degree
Use principle of superposition & consider the
compatibility of disp at one of the supports
Choose one of the support reactions as
redundant & temporarily removing its effect
on the beam
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
This will allow the beam to be statically
determinate & stable
Here, we will remove the rocker at B
As a result, the load P will cause
B to be displaced downward
By superposition, the unknown
reaction at B causes the beam
at B to be displaced upward
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
Assuming +ve disp act upward, we
write the necessary compatibility
eqn at the rocker as:
0 B ' BB
' BB B y f BB
' BB upward disp at B
B y unknown reaction at B
f BB linear flexibility coefficient
sub second eqn into first eqn , we get :

0 B B y f BB

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
Using methods in Chapter 8 or 9 to solve for
B and fBB, By can be found
Reactions at wall A can then be determined
from eqn of equilibrium
The choice of redundant is arbitrary

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
The moment at A can be determined directly
by removing the capacity of the beam to
support moment at A, replacing fixed
support by pin support
The rotation at A
caused by P is A
The rotation at A
caused by the
redundant MA at
A is AA

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General


Procedure
Similarly, ' AA M A AA
Compatibility requires :
0 A M A AA

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Maxwells Theorem of Reciprocal


Disp: Bettis Law
The disp of a point B on a structure due to a
unit load acting at point A is equal to the
disp of point A when the load is acting at
point B

f BA f AB

Proof of this theorem is easily demonstrated


using the principle of virtual work
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Maxwells Theorem of Reciprocal


Disp: Bettis Law
The theorem also applies for reciprocal
rotations
The rotation at point B on a structure due to
a unit couple moment acting at point A is
equal to the rotation at point A when the
unit couple is acting at point B

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 10.1
Determine the reaction at the roller support B of the
beam. EI is constant.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Principle of superposition
By inspection, the beam is statically indeterminate to the
first degree. The redundant will be taken as By. We
assume By acts upward on the beam.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility equation

( ) 0 B B y f BB eqn(1)
B and f BB are easily obtained using standard table.
9000kNm 3
576m 3
B
; f BB
EI
EI
Sub into eqn (1) :
9000
576
0
By
B y 15.6kN
EI
EI
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 10.4
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. EI is
constant. Neglect the effects of axial load.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Principle of Superposition
Since axial load is neglected,
the beam is indeterminate to the
second degree. The 2 end
moments at A & B will be
considered as the redundant.
The beams capacity to resist
these moments is removed by
placing a pin at A and a rocker at B.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
Reference to points A & B requires

0 A M A AA M B AB

eqn (1)

0 B M A BA M B BB

eqn (2)

The required slopes and angular flexibility coefficients


can be determined using standard tables.
151.9
118 .1
A
; A
EI
EI

AA

2
2
1
; BB
; AB BA
EI
EI
EI

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
Sub into eqn (1) and (2)gives :
0

151.9
2
1
M A

B
EI
EI
EI

118 .1
1
2
M A

B
EI
EI
EI

M A 61.9kNm; M B 28.1kNm,

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Composite Structures
Composite structures are composed of some
members subjected only to axial force while
other members are subjected to bending
If the structure is statically indeterminate,
the force method can conveniently be used
for its analysis

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 10.10
The beam is supported by a pin at A & two pin-connected
bars at B. Determine the force in member BD. Take E =
200GPa & I = 300(106)mm4 for the beam and A =
1800mm2 for each bar.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Principle of superposition
The beam is indeterminate to the first degree. Force in
member BD is chosen as the redundant. This member is
therefore sectioned to eliminate its capacity to sustain a
force.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
With reference to the relative disp of the cut ends of
member BD, we require

0 BD FBD f BDBD

(1)

The method of virtual work will be used to compute BD


and fBDBD

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
For BD we require application of the real loads and a
virtual unit load applied to the cut ends of the member
BD. We will consider only bending strain energy in the
beam & axial strain
L Mm energy
nNLin the bar.
BD
dx
0 EI
AE

3 (30 x 3.333 x 3 )(0) dx

EI
(0)(1)(1.8 / cos 45o )

AE
0

(69.3)(0.816)(1.8 / cos 30 o )

AE

0.326mm
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
For fBDBD we require application of a real unit load & a
virtual unit load at the cut ends of member BD.
f BD

m2
n2L
dx
EI
AE

3 (0 2 ) dx

EI

(0.816) 2 (1.8 / cos 30 o ) (1) 2 (1.8 / cos 45o )

AE
AE

1.092(10 5 )m / kN
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Compatibility eqn
Sub into eqn (1) yields

0 BD FBD f BD BD
0 0.0003264 FBD (1.092)(10 5 )
FBD 29.9kN (C )

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Additional remarks on the force


method of analysis
Flexibility coefficients depend on the
material and geometrical properties of the
members and not on the loading of the
primary structure
For a structure having n redundant
reactions,
we
can
write
n
compatibility
eqn
f R f R ...... f R 0
1

11 1

12

1n

2 f 21 R1 f 22 R2 ...... f 2 n Rn 0

n f n1 R1 f n 2 R2 ...... f nn Rn 0
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Additional remarks on the force


method of analysis
BD are caused by both the real loads on the
primary structure and by support settlement
& dimensional changes due to temperature
differences or fabrication errors in the
members
The above eqn can be re-cast into a matrix
form or simply: fR
Note that fij=fji
Hence, the flexibility matrix will be
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
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Symmetric Structures
A structural analysis of any highly
indeterminate structure or statically
determinate structure can be simplified
provided the designer can recognise those
structures that are symmetric & support
either symmetric or antisymmetric loadings
For horizontal stability, a pin is required to
support the beam & truss.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Symmetric Structures
Here the horizontal reaction at the pin is zero,
so both these structures will deflect & produce
the same internal loading as their reflected
counterpart
As a result, they can
be classified as being symmetric
Not the case if the fixed support
at A was replaced by a pin since
the deflected shape & internal
loadings would not be the same
on its left & right side
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Symmetric Structures
A symmetric structure supports an
antisymmetric loading as shown
Provided the structure is
symmetric & its loading is
either symmetric or
antisymmetric then a
structural analysis will only
have to be performed on half the members
of the structure since the same or opposite
results will be produced on the other half
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Symmetric Structures
A separate structural
analysis can be performed
using the symmetrical
& antisymmetrical loading
components & the results
superimposed to obtain
the actual behaviour of
the structure

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
For statically determinate beams, the
deflected shapes will be a series of straight
line segments
For statically indeterminate beams, curve
will result
Reaction at A
To determine the influence line for the
reaction at A , a unit load is placed on the
beam at successive points
At each point, the reaction at A must be
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis
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Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
Reaction at A
A plot of these results yields the influence
line
The reaction at A can be determined by the
force method
The principle of superposition is applied
The compatibility eqn for point A is:

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
Reaction at A
A plot of these results yields the influence
line
The reaction at A can be determined by the
force method
The compatibility
A is:
0 f AD Ay f AA eqn
Ayfor
point
f AD / f AA
of
1 reciprocal disp
By Maxwells
theorem

f
f f
A
AD

DA

f
AA

DA

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
Shear at E
Using the force method & Maxwells theorem
of reciprocal disp, it can be shown that

f DE
VE
f EE

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
Moment at E
The influence line for the moment at E can be
determined by placing a pin or hinge at E
Applying a +ve unit couple moment, the
beam then deflects to the dashed position
Using the force method & Maxwells theorem
of reciprocal disp, it can be shown that

f DE
M E
EE
Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Influence lines for Statically


Indeterminate Beams
Moment at E
The influence line for the moment at E can be
determined by placing a pin or hinge at E
Applying a +ve unit couple moment, the
beam then deflects to the dashed position
Using the force method & Maxwells theorem
of reciprocal disp, it can be shown that

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Qualitative Influence lines for Frames


The shape of the influence line for the +ve
moment at the center I of girder FG of the
frame is shown by the dashed lines
Uniform loads would be placed only on
girders AB, CD & FG in order to create the
largest +ve moment at I

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 10.11
Draw the influence line for the vertical reaction at A for
the beam. EI is constant. Plot numerical values every 2m

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The capacity of the beam to resist reaction Ay is removed.
This is done using a vertical roller device. Applying a
vertical unit load at A yields the shape of the influence
line. Using the conjugate beam method to determine
ordinates of the influence line.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
For B' , since no moment exists on the conjugate beam at B'

B M B' 0
For D' ,

M D' 0
D M D'

18
1 2
2 34.67

(2)
(2)
EI
2 EI
EI
3

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
For C' ,

M C' 0
18
1 4
4 61.33
C M C '
(4)
(4)
EI
2 EI
EI
3
For A' ,

72
A M A'
EI

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Since a vertical 1kN load acting at A on the beam will
cause a vertical reaction at A of 1kN, the disp at A, A
should correspond to a numerical value of 1 for the
influence line ordinate at A.
Thus dividing
theAother computed disp by this factor, we
x
y
obtain

A
C
D
B

1
0.852
0.481
0

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method


Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd