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PENELITIAN PERPAJAKAN

Agenda
1 Bidang Penelitian Perpajakan
2

Metodologi Penelitian

3 Perkembangan Penelitian Pajak terkini


4 Penelitian pajak di Indonesia

Penelitian Pajak
Penelitian pajak sebelum pertengahan 1980
menurut Shackelford dan Shevlin (2001)
dikategorikan menjadi:
legal research, mengevaluasi efek pajak pada
transaksi exogenous, dan biasanya dipublikasikan pada
jurnal hukum; dan
policy studies, mengevaluasi distribusi atau efisiensi
efek pajak, biasanya dipublikasikan di jurnal akuntansi
publik.

Riset banyak dijumpai dalam jurnal akuntansi


seperti TAR, JAR, JAE.
Riset pajak bersifat multidisipliner sehingga
dikaitkan dengan makro ekonomi, perilaku,
kebijakan publik National Tax Journal, Journal of3

Penelitian Pajak

Paper pajak dalam tiga jurnal akuntansi terkemuka.

Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak


Klasifikai penelitian pajak menurut Shevlin (1999)
Riset kebijakan bagaimana pajak
meningkatkan aktivitas ekonomi,
mendistribusikan kekayaan dan bagaimana
meningkatkan pajak. Evaluai atas kebijakan
pajak apakah dapat mencapai tujuannya. (JATA
& NTJ)
Perencanaan pajak bagaimana individu dan
perusahaan merespon peraturan pajak.
Kepatuhan pajak judgemnet and decision
making sehingg banyak dipengaruhi oleh
bidang psikologi
5

Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak


Klasifikasi penelitian pajak menurut Shacklelford
dan Shevlin (2001)
Trade off pajak dan non pajak Perencanaan pajak
mempengaruhi pilihan akuntansi keuangan dan
pertimbangan akuntansi keuangan mempengaruhi
perencanaan pajak (tidak independen)
Pelaporan keuangan (inventory, intertemporal income
shifting,
Agency cost

Pajak dan penilaian saham dampak pajak atas M&A,


capital structure, pengaruh pajak investor terhadap
harga saham
Multijurisdictional perusahaan multinasional dan
perusahaan multistate
6

Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak


Klasifikasi penelitian pajak menurut Hanlon dan
Heitzman (2010) :
peran informasi beban pajak penghasilan perbedaan
antara laba akuntansi dengan penghasilan kena pajak terkait
dan implikasinya terhadap pelaporan keuangan;
tax avoidance (penghindaran pajak) perusahaan;
efek pajak terhadap pengambilan keputusan
perusahaan termasuk investasi, struktur modal, dan bentuk
organisasi, serta kebijakan pajak mana yang efektif dilihat
dari implikasi nyatanya terhadap keputusan perusahaan.
pajak investor (investor level taxes) dan penilaian aset
(asset pricing) terkait riset mengenai dampak dari pajak
dividen untuk investor dan pajak atas capital gains

Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak


Klasifikasi penelitian akuntasi pajak menurut
Graham et al (2012) :
earnings management valuation allowance,
diskresi pelaporan beban pajak,pendapan
hubungan antara perbedaan nilai buku dengan
nilai pajak (book-tak differences) dengan
karakteristik/kualitas laba; dan
Pengaruh informasi pajak terhapda nilai saham

Metodologi Penelitian Pajak


Coyne (2010)

Analitis
Archival / empiris
Eksperimental
Metode lainnya
Klasifikasi lain
teoritis, normatif
Behavioral / judgement and decision making
Review / deskriptif
Survey; studi lapangan
9

Book Tax Different / Gap


PSAK

UndangUndang

AKUNTANSI

PAJAK

PERBEDAAN
Perman
en
Penelitian:
Book tax Gap
Eff Tax Rate
Tax
Avoidance

Tempore
r
Pajak Tangguhan:
Aktiva/utang
Beban/Pendapata
n

10

A Review of Tax Research


Michelle Hanlon and Shane Heitzman,
Journal of Accounting and Economics
(2010) (50) 127-178.

Review Tax Research


The
informational
role of
accounting for
income taxes

Taxes, book-tax
tradeoffs, and real
corporate
decisions

Review Tax
Research
corporate tax
avoidance

Taxes and asset


pricing

Introduction
Shackelford and Shevlin (2001) limit their review to
research published in accounting outlets and describe
the development of the relatively young archival,
microeconomic-based income tax literature that arose
from the Scholesand Wolfson framework.
Maydew(2001) emphasizes the need for tax researchers
in accounting to think more broadly and to incorporate
more theory and evidence from economics and finance.
Tax research has along history in many disciplines.
The goal in this paper is to integrate the theoretical and
empirical tax research from accounting, economics,
and finance, to summarize what is known and unknown,
and to offer suggestions for future research.

Informational role of AFIT

A taxonomy of the
literature and review
of the evidence
Inferences from booktax differences about
current and future
earnings.
Are earnings managed
through the tax
accounts?
Do changes in the
valuation allowance
reveal managers
private information
about future
performance?

Book-tax conformity

Sources of
differences
between book
and taxable
income

The
informational
role of
accounting for
income taxes
Summary and
suggestions for
the future

Tax Avoidance
Theory of corporate
tax avoidance

Measuring tax
avoidance
Effective tax rate
measures
Effective tax rate
measures
Long-run effective tax
rates
Book-tax differences
Discretionary or
abnormal measures
of tax avoidance
Unrecognized tax
Tax shelter firms
benefits (UTB)

Determinants of
tax avoidance

corporate tax
avoidance

The
consequences
of tax
avoidance
Summary and
suggestions for
the future

Pengukuran Tax Avoidance


Metode
Pengukuran
GAAP ETR

Cara Perhitungan

Keterangan

Total tax expense per


dollar of pre-tax book
income
Current ETR
Current tax expense per
dollar of pre-tax book
income
Cash ETR
Cash tax paid per dollar of
pre-tax book income
Long-run
Sum of taxes paid per
cash ETR
over n years divided by
the sum of pre-tax
earnings over n years
ETR
Statutory ETR- GAAP ETR
The differences of
Differential
between the statutory
ETR and the firms GAAP
ETR
DTAX
Error term from following regression : ETR
The unexplained portion
Sumber : Hanlon dan Heitzman
(2010)
differential
x Pre-tax book income = a +b x of the ETR differential
16
controls + e

Tax Avoidance
Metode
Cara Perhitungan
Keterangan
Pengukuran
Total BTD
Pre-tax book income ((U.S. CTE + Fgn CTE The total differences
between book and taxable
/ U.S. STR) (NOLt NOLt-1))
incomes
Temporary Deferred tax expense/ U.S. STR

BTD
Abnormal

A measure of unexplained
total BTD
total book-tax differences
Unrecogniz Disclosed ammount post-FIN-48
Tax liability accrued for
ed tax
taxes not yet paid on
benefit
uncertain positions
Tax shelter Indicator variable for firms accused of
Firms identified via firm
activity
engaging in a tax shelter
disclosures, the press, or
IRS confidential data
Marginal
Simultated marginal tax rate
Present value of taxes on
tax rate
an additional dollar
income
Sumber : Hanlon dan Heitzman (2010)

17

Tax & Corporate Decison

Investment
Theory of
investment and
taxes: a brief
background
Taxes and
investment: some
evidence
Investment in
intangibles
Investment
location decisions
The reinvestment
or repatriation
decision
Corporate
inversions to tax
havens
Summary and
thoughts for future
research

Capital structure
Estimating the tax
benefit of debt
Measuring leverage
Summary and thought
for the future
Payout policy

Taxes, book-tax
tradeoffs, and
real corporate
decisions

Taxes and other


dec: transfer
pricing,
aquistioan and
compensation
Transfer pricing
Merger and
aquisition
Executive
compensation
Executive trading
Organizational
form
The choice of
organizational form
Summary and
thought for future
research

Tax & Aset Pricing

Deviden taxation
The economic effects
of dividen taxation: a
brief introduction
Log-horizon returns:
the effect of
dividend yiled on
expected returns
Event study
predictions: the
valuation of dividend
tax rate change
Ex-devidend day
study
Evidence from
valuation models
Summary

Thoughts for
future research

Investor-level
taxes and
asset prices

Capital gains
taxation:
capitalization &
lock-in
Capital gains taxes
and expected return
Stock market
realization and lockin effect
Remaining issues
and Ques for future
research
How relevant the
marginal investor?
Are dividend taxes
priced differently
across firms
Asset pricing in the
open economy

Research in Accounting for Income Taxes


Earnings
management

The
association
between
book-tax
differences
Graham, et al. (2011)

Research in
Accounting for
Income Taxes

Earnings
characteristics,
and the equity
market pricing
of information in
the tax
accounts.

Tema Penelitian Pajak


Faktor yang mempengaruhi BTD/BTG value
relevant tax information
BTD Tax Avoidance
Agency ownership
Ethic governance, CSR

BTD Tax Management


Earning management

Tax sheltering
International Tax
Income shifting transfer pricing
Thin capitalization

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Overview Tax Research


A review of Tax Research, Michelle Hanlon and Shane Heitzman,
Journal of Accounting and Economics (2010) (50) 127-178.
Research in accounting for income taxes, John R.Graham, Jana
S.Raedy , Douglas A.Shackelford Journal of Accounting and
Economics (2011) Nov. 412-434.
The Future of tax Reserach: From an Accounting Proffessors
Perspective, Terry Shevlin, the Journal of the American Taxation
Association, Fall 2007; 87
Empirical tax research in accounting Douglas, A.Shackelford,
Terry Shevlin, Journal of Accounting and Economics (2001) 321387.

22

BTD & ETR

Determinants of the Variability in Corporate Effective Tax


Rates, Evidence from Longitudinal Data, Sanjay Gupta and
Kaye Newberry, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 16,
(1997), 1-34.
Tax Avoidance: Does Tax-Specific Industry Expertise Make a
Difference?, Sean T. McGuire, Thomas C. Omer, Dechun Wang,
The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2012, pp. 9751003.
Determinants of the variability in corporate effective tax rates
and tax reform: Evidence from Australia, Grant Richardson,
Roman Lanis, Journal of Accounting and Public Poliy, 26, 689704.

23

BTD & QUALITY OF INCOME


Tax Avoidance, Large Positive Temporary Book-Tax Differences, and
Earnings Persistence, Bradley Blaylock, Terry Shevlin, Ryan J. Wilson,
The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 1 (2012), pp. 91120
Taxable Income as a Performance Measure:The Effects of Tax Planning
and Earnings Quality, Benjamin C. Ayers, John Xuefeng Jiang and
Stacie K Laplante, Contemporary Accounting Research, Vo 26, No 1
(Spring 2009) pp. 15-54
The Persistence and pricing of earning accrual, and cash flows when
firms have large book tax difference, Michelle Hanlon, The Accounting
Review, Vol 80 No 1, (2005) pp 137-166.
The Persistence, Forecasting and Valuation Implication of Tax Change
Component of Earnings, Ancrew P. Shmidt, The Accounting Review,
May 2006:81
An uninteded consequence of book-tax conformity: A loss of earnings
informativeness, Michelle Hanlon, Edward L. Maydew, Terry Shevlin,
Journal of Accounting and Economics 46 (2008) 294-311.

24

BTD & ASET PRICING

Uday Chandra and Byung T. Ro, The Association between


Deferred Taxes and Common Stock Risk, Journal of
Accounting and Public Policy, 16, 311-333 (1997)

25

Tax Avoidance & Earning


Management

Can booktax differences capture earnings management and tax


Management? Empirical evidence from China, Tanya Tang, Michael
Firth, The International Journal of Accounting 46 (2011) 175204.
Tax Reporting Aggressiveness and Its Relation to Aggressive
Financial Reporting, Mary Margaret Frank, Luann J. Lynch, Sonja
Olhoft Rego, The Accounting Review, 2009, Vol 84 No 2 pp.467-496
Creating a Bigger Bath Using the Deferred Tax Valuation Allowance,
Theodore E. Christensen, Gyung H. Paik and Earl K. Stice,Journal of
Business Finance & Accounting, 35(5) & (6), 601625, June/July 2008.
Earning Management: New Evidence Based on Deferred Tax
Expense, John Philips and Porton Pincus, Sonja Ofhoft Rego, The
Accounting Review, Apr 2003:78.
Dhaliwal, D., C Gleason, dan L. Mills. (2004). Last chance earnings
management: using the tax expense to meet analysts forecasts,
Contemporary Accounting Research 21 (2): 431-457.

26

Tax Behavior
The impact of audit risk, materiality and severity on ethical decision
making: An analysis of the perceptions of tax agents in Australia, Rex
Marshall, Malcolm Smith, Robert Armstrong, Managerial Auditing Journal,
21 5, 2006, 497-519
Social responsibility, Machiavellianism and tax avoidance: A study of Hong
Kong, tax professionals, William E. Shafer, Richard S. Simmons,
Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 Iss: 5, (2008), pp.
695 720.
The importance of faith: Tax Morale and religiosity, Benno Torgler, Journal of
Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006:81-109
A Note on the Relation between Frames, Perceptions, and Taxpayer
Behavior, Scot B. Jackson and Richard C. Hatfield, Contemporary
Accounting Research Vol. 22 No. 1 (Spring 2005) pp. 145-64

27

Tax Avoidance, CG, CSR

Tax avoidance, tax management and corporate social


responsibility, Fariz Huseynov, Bonnie K. Klamn, Journal of
Corporate Finance, 18 (2012), 804-827
Minnick, Kristina dan Tracy Noga. (2010). Do Corporate
Governance Characteristics Influence Tax Management?.
Journal of Corporate Finance, 16, 703-718

28

International Tax

The determinants of thinly capitalized tax avoidance structures: Evidence


from Australian firms, Grantley Taylora, Grant Richardsonb, Journal of
International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation 22 (2013) 12 25.
The demand for tax haven operations, Mihir A. Desai, C. Fritz Foley, James
R. Hines Jr. Journal of Public Economics 90 (2006) 513 531.
International Corporate Tax Avoidance Practices: Evidence from Australian
Firms, Grantley Taylor and Grant Richarson, The International Journal of
Accounting, 47 (2012) 469496.
Cross-Jurisdictional Income Shifting by U.S. Multinationals: Evidence from
International Bond Offerings Kaye J. Newberry; Dan S. Dhaliwal Journal of
Accounting Research, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Dec., 2001), pp. 643-662.)

29

Book Tax Gap


The Persistence and pricing of earning accrual, and cash flows
when firms have large book tax difference, Michelle Hanlon,
The Accounting Review, Vol 80 No 1, (2005) pp 137-166.

30

Book Tax Gap


Tax Avoidance, Large Positive Temporary Book-Tax Differences,
and Earnings Persistence, Bradley Blaylock, Terry Shevlin, Ryan J.
Wilson, The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 1 (2012), pp. 91120
ABSTRACT: We investigate why temporary book-tax differences
appear to serve as a useful signal of earnings persistence (Hanlon
2005). We first test and show that temporary book-tax differences
provide incremental information over the magnitude of accruals for
the persistence of earnings and accruals. We then opine that there
are multiple potential sources of large positive book-tax differences.
We predict and find that firms with large positive book-tax differences
likely arising from upward earnings management (tax avoidance)
exhibit lower (higher) earnings and accruals persistence than do
other firms with large positive book-tax differences. Finally, we find
significant variation in current-period earnings and accruals response
coefficients and insignificant hedge returns in period t1, consistent
with investors being able to look through to the source of large
positive book-tax differences (earnings management and tax
31
avoidance), allowing them to correctly price the persistence of

Book Tax Confirmity


Atwood, T.J., Drake, M.S., & Myers, L.A. (2010). Book-tax conformity,
earnings persistence and the association between earnings and future
cash flows. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 50, 111125.

Calls for eliminating differences between accounting earnings and


taxable income in the US have been debated extensively. Proponents
of increased book-tax conformity argue that tax compliance will
increase and earnings quality will improve. Opponents argue that
earnings quality will decline. We examine whether the level of
required book-tax conformity affects earnings persistence
and the association between earnings and future cash flows.
We develop a comprehensive book-tax conformity measure
and find that earnings have lower persistence and a lower
association with future cash flows when conformity is higher.
Our evidence suggests that increased book-tax conformity
may reduce earnings quality.
32

Book Tax Confirmity


Home country tax system Characteristics and corporate tax avoidance:
international Evidence, T.J. Atwood, Michael S. Drake, James N. Myers
Linda A. Myers, The Accounting Review, ol 87, No 6 (2012) pp.1831-1860

We examine whether three tax system characteristicsrequired


book-tax conformity, worldwide versus territorial approach, and
perceived strength of enforcement impact corporate tax avoidance
across countries after controlling for firm-specific factors previously
shown to be associated with tax avoidance (i.e., performance, size,
operating costs, leverage, growth, the presence of multinational
operations, and industry) and for other cross-country factors (i.e.,
statutory corporate tax rates, earnings volatility, and institutional
factors). We find that, on average, firms avoid taxes less when
required book-tax conformity is higher, a worldwide approach is used,
and tax enforcement is perceived to be stronger. However, the
relations between tax avoidance and all three tax systems
characteristics are contextual and depend on the extent to which
management compensation comes from variable pay, including
33
bonuses, stock awards, and stock options.

Akuntan

TERIMA
KASIH

Profesi untuk
Mengabdi pada
Negeri
Dwi Martani
081318227080
martani@ui.ac.id atau d
wimartani@yahoo.com
http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/martani/