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DIRECT FILLING GOLD

CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION
GOLD FOIL
ELECTROLYTIC PRECIPITATE
POWDER GOLD
MANIPULATION OF DIRECT FILLING GOLD
DESORBING OR DEGASSING
COMPACTION
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

INTRODUCTION

Pure gold can be used as an restorative


material.
Most noble metal, rarely tarnishes in oral
cavity
Cold welding property
Applications
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pits and small class I restorations


For repair of casting margins
For Class II and Class V restorations
Repair of cement vent holes in gold crowns

CLASSIFICATION

GOLD FOIL

Oldest
Manufacture:A cast ingot of 15 mm
thickness is beaten to a submicroscopic
thickness of 15 or 25 m
Supplied as:FIat square sheets of
varying thickness.
No. 4 wt. 4 grains (0.259 gram) 0.51 m
thick.
No. 3 wt. 3 grains (0.194 gram) 0.38 m
thick.

Preformed foils:
Ropes & cylinders available in preformed
shapes.
Made from No. 4 foil that has been
carbonized or corrugated

Platinized Foil
Pure platinum foil sandwiched b/w two
sheets of pure gold
Bonded by cladding process
Increases hardness
Available in No. 4 sheet form

Cohesive & Non-Cohesive Gold

Cohesive:
o

For cold welding gold should have a clean


surface
Gold attracts gases and any absorbed gas
film prevents cohesion of individual
increments of gold
Cohesive gold is supplied free of
contaminants

Non-Cohesive:
o

o
o
o

Gold is subjected to volatile agent such as


ammonia, which is absorbed on surface
Acts as a protective film
Volatile film readily removed by heating
Rarely used nowadays

ELECTROLYTIC PRECIPITATE

Crystalline gold powder is formed by electrolytic


precipitation. Powder is formed into shapes by
sintering(heat fusion).
Available as: mat, mat foil & alloyed
Mat gold:
Crystalline
Formed in strips
Easy to build up the internal bulk, more easily compacted &
adapted
Results in pitted external surface, so covered with a veneer of
foil gold

Mat foil:

Sandwich of electrolytic precipitated gold powder b/w sheets


of No.3 gold foil

Done to eliminate the need to veneer the


restoration with a layer of foil
No longer marketed

Alloyed Electrolytic Precipitate:


Newest form is Electraloy RV
Alloy of gold & calcium (0.1 to 0.5% by wt)
Calcium produce stronger restoration by
dispersion strengthening
Alloy sandwiched b/w two layers of gold

POWDER GOLD

Gold powder is enclosed in a No.3 gold foil


Manufacture:
Fine powder is formed by chemical precipitation or atomizing the
metal
Pellets mixed with soft wax, burned off later & wrapped in gold foil

Available as:
Foil acts as an effective container and matrix for the powdered
metal
Powdered gold pellet increases cohesion & reduces time required
for placing it, because each pellet contain more metal by volume
tan same sized pellet of gold foil
Powdered gold pellets have cylindrical or irregular shape &
diameter of 1 2mm
Ratio of gold foil to powder varies from 1 to 3 for small pellets to 1
to 9 for largest

MANIPULATION OF DIRECT FILLING


GOLD

There are two process involved


1.
2.

Degassing
Compaction

DESORBING OR DEGASSING

During storage & packing of cohesive gold,


they absorb gasses from atmosphere
Prevents it from fusing
Removed by heating- DEGASSING
Heating done in two ways
1.
2.

In bulk on a tray, by gas-flame or electricity


Piece by piece, in a well adjusted alcohol flame

Totally dry cavity needed to allow complete


cohesion

COMPACTION

The gold may be compacted by


1.
2.
3.

Hand mallet
Pneumatic vibratory condenser
Electrically driven condensers

PROPERTIES OF COMPACTED GOLD

STRENGTH:Greatest strength-most dense area


Weakest part- porous area
In DFG failure occurs from incomplete cohesion, thus
transverse strength is a measure of cohesion

HARDNESS
Indicates overall quality
Indicates presence of porosity

DENSITY

Density of pure gold is 19.3gm/cm

DFG density less than pure gold because it is not possible to


eliminate voids completely during compaction

EFFECT OF VOIDS
Amount of voids estimated by apparent density of compacted
gold
Voids on surface, increase susceptibility to corrosion and
deposition of plaque
Voids at the restoration-tooth interface cause gross leakage
and secondary caries development

TARNISH & CORROSION

Resistance to tarnish and corrosion is good if compacted well

BIOCOMPATIBILITY
Pulpal response is minimal if compacted well
This procedure causes a certain amount of trauma to the tooth
and supporting structures
Mechanical condensor causes less trauma than the manual
technique

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
Tarnish and corrosion resistant
Good mechanical properties
Good biocompatibility

DISADVANTAGES
Poor esthetics
High coefficient of thermal expansion
Manipulation is difficult

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