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UNIT 5: ENERGY, EXERCISE AND COORDINATION


TOPIC 7 Run for your life
7.1 Support, movement and locomotion
7.2 Energy transfer
7.3 Maintenance of the body at rest, and in activity
7.4 Exercise its effects on body performance
TOPIC 8 Grey matter
8.1 The nervous system and sense organs
8.2 The brain and learning
8.3 Plants and sensitivity
8.4 Developments in modern genetics
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Unit 5 Paper Structure


This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper,
which carries 90 marks, lasts 1 hour 45 minutes.
One question will relate to a previously released scientific article
that students will have studied during the course.
The article may draw on knowledge and understanding from any
of the four units 1, 2, 4, and 5. A different article will be provided
each year and the examination questions will change to reflect
this.
This question carries a third of the marks of this unit, i.e. 30
marks.

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7.1 SUPPORT, MOVEMENT


AND LOCOMOTION

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Objective

Recall the way in which muscles, tendons,


the skeleton and ligaments interact to
enable movement, including antagonistic
muscle pairs, extensors and flexors.

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Joint movement what are joints?


A joint is a place where two or
more bones meet.
Without joints, our bodies
would not be able to move.
Joints, along with the skeleton
and muscular system, are
responsible for the huge range
of movement that the human
body can produce.
There are several different
types of joint, each producing
different types and amounts of
movement.
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Different types of joint


There are 3 different types of joint:
1. Immovable (or fixed) joints

2. Slightly movable joints

3. Movable (or synovial) joints

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1. Fixed or immovable joints


There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body.
They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the
bones are held together by tough fibres.
Immovable joints can be found
in the skull and pelvis, where
several bones have fused
together to form a rigid
structure.

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2. Slightly movable joints


Slightly movable joints are
sometimes called cartilaginous
joints.
bone
cartilage
bone
ligaments

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The bones are separated by a


cushion of cartilage. The joints
between the vertebrae in the
spine are cartilaginous joints.
The bones can move a little bit,
but ligaments stop them moving
too far. This is why we can bend,
straighten and rotate through the
back, but not too far.

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3. Freely movable or synovial joints


90% of the joints in the body are
synovial joints. They are freely
movable.
Synovial joints contain synovial
fluid which is retained inside a
pocket called the synovial
membrane. This lubricates or Synovial
fluid
oils the joint.
All the moving parts are held
together by ligaments.
These are highly mobile joints,
like the shoulder and knee.

Synovial
membrane
Knee

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Different types of joint

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Connective tissues
Connective tissues are vital to the functioning of joints.
There are 3 types of connective tissue:
Tendons connect
muscles to bones.

Ligaments are
tough, elastic
fibres that link
bones to bones.

Cartilage prevents the ends


of bones rubbing together at
joints. Its slippery surface also
helps to lubricate the joint.

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Tendons and ligaments


Ligaments are responsible for holding joints
together. They prevent bones moving out of
position during the stresses of physical activity.
If they are pulled or twisted too far by extreme
physical movements, ligaments can tear and
the joint may dislocate.
Tendons anchor muscles to bones, allowing the muscles
to move the skeleton. Tendons are not very elastic
if they were, then the force produced by muscles
would be absorbed instead of creating movement.
Tendons can also be torn if subjected to too much force.
Ligaments and tendons are strengthened by training.
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Freely movable (synovial) joints


The joint capsule is an outer
sleeve that protects and
holds the knee together.

Synovial
fluid

The synovial membrane


lines the capsule and secretes
synovial fluid a liquid
Cartilage
which lubricates the joint,
allowing it to move freely.
Smooth coverings of cartilage at
the ends of the bones stops them
rubbing together and provide some
shock absorption.

Femur

Tibia

Synovial
membrane
Joint capsule

Ligaments hold the bones together and keep them in place.


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Types of synovial joints


In ball and socket joints, the
rounded end of one bone fits
inside a cup-shaped ending
on another bone.
Ball and socket joints allow movement
in all directions and also rotation.
The most mobile joints in the body are
ball and socket joints.

Hip

Examples: Shoulders and hips.

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Types of synovial joints


Pivot joints have a ring of bone
that fits over a bone protrusion,
around which it can rotate.
These joints only allow rotation.

Atlas

Examples: The joint between the


atlas and axis in the neck which
allows you to shake your head.
Axis
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Types of synovial joints


In saddle joints, the ends of the two
bones fit together in a special way,
allowing movement forwards and
backwards and left to right, but not
rotation.
Examples: The thumb is the only one.
Hinge joints as their name
suggests only allow forwards
and backwards movement.
Examples: The knee and elbow.

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Elbow

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Types of synovial joints


Condyloid joints have an oval-shaped
bone end which fits into a
correspondingly shaped bone end.
They allow forwards, backwards,
left and right movement, but not
rotation.
Examples: between the
metacarpals and phalanges in the hand.
Gliding joints have two flat faces
of bone that slide over one another.
They allow a tiny bit of movement
in all directions.
Examples: between the tarsals in the ankle.
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The structure of the knee joint (hinge)


The knee is a very large and complex joint.
You need to know the details of how it works.
The femur is hinged on the
tibia so that the leg can be
Femur
bent (flexion) and
straightened (extension).
Cruciate ligaments bind the
bones together by crossing
inside the joint.
Other ligaments act to stabilise
the joint.

Patella

Cruciate
ligament

Tibia

The patella increases the


leverage of the thigh muscle.
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The structure of the elbow joint (hinge)


The elbow is another complex
Humerus
hinge joint. The hinge between the
humerus and ulna allows the arm
Radius
to bend and straighten.
The elbow also has a pivot joint
between the ulna and radius which
allows us to rotate the lower arm
while keeping the upper arm still.
A gliding action occurs between the
humerus and radius.

Ligaments

Ulna

The whole joint is encased in a


synovial capsule and held together
by ligaments.
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The structure of the hip joint (ball and socket)

Pelvis
Femur

The hip joint is a large ball and


socket joint.
The head of the femur (long
bone), which is shaped like a
ball, fits into the socket (shaped
like a cup) of the pelvis.

The bones are covered in


cartilage and reinforced
with ligaments.

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The structure of the shoulder joint (ball and socket)


The head of the humerus
is shaped like a ball and
fits into the cup-shaped
socket of the scapula.

Scapula
Humerus

The bones are covered in


cartilage and held together
with ligaments.
Ball and socket
come apart

The shoulder joint has more


freedom to move than the hip
joint and is capable of a greater
variety of movement.
However, this means it can
dislocate more easily.
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Synovial joints sporting examples


During the butterfly stroke,
the ball and socket joint of
the shoulder allows the
swimmers arm to rotate.
You might head a football using
the pivot joint in your neck, which
allows your head to rotate.
What type of joint allows a handball
players fingers to spread apart so that
they can control the ball with one hand?

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Synovial joints sporting examples


The saddle joint allows the
thumb to curl around a canoe
paddle to give a firm grip.
The hinge joint at the knee allows
the leg to flex and extend, for
example when a hurdler extends
their trail leg at take-off and then
flexes it as they clear the hurdle.
Can you think of a sporting movement that
involves the gliding joints between the tarsals?
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Name the bones in these joints

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Other synovial joints

EMPICS Ltd

Look at this cricketer making a catch.

Task try to work out the movements at each joint.


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Wrist, fingers and ankles


The wrist is more than just a hinge
joint it can perform many complex
movements, including flexion,
extension, abduction and adduction.
The fingers can be made into a fist
(flexion) or straightened (extension).
The fingers can be spread (abduction)
or brought close together (adduction).
The ankle is another complex hinge joint.
The foot can bend down and bend up.
It can also slide turn out (eversion) and in
(inversion), as a result of gliding action
between the tarsal bones.
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Joint movement
Joints enable us to make an extremely wide range of
movements under our conscious control.
The different types of joints allow us to move in many
different ways and to perform many different actions.
Consider this dancer.
The hinge joints at her
elbows and her right knee
are extended.
Her left knee is flexed.
There is abduction at her
shoulders and right hip.
The spine shows extension
as the head moves back.
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Sporting movement

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EMPICS Ltd

Joint and movement analysis

Analyse the joint movements involved in these


two sports actions.
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Joints in action

Image EMPICS Ltd


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Joints and sport


Joint flexibility is important in sport, especially in activities
like gymnastics and diving that require extreme movements.
Participants in all sports however, can benefit from the
greater range of movement that comes with improved
flexibility.
Flexibility exercises increase
the range of movement at joints.
This can reduce the risk of
injury and damage as the joints
are more able to absorb forces.
However, overstretching joints
can cause injury to them.

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Joints and old age


Most peoples flexibility deteriorates as they get older.
This is because the connective tissues around the joints
become less elastic.
Flexibility exercises and extended
warm-ups before exercise can
help, but ultimately, it becomes
harder and harder to maintain the
same levels of flexibility.

Young gymnasts benefit


from good flexibility.

Some people, especially older


individuals, may develop arthritis a disease that causes
pain, stiffness and inflammation around joints.
It is usually hereditary, but injured joints that have not
healed properly can be more prone to arthritis.
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Types of synovial joints

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Joint movement how do we move?

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Exam-style questions
1. This diagram shows a cross
section of the knee.
a) Name bones a, b and c.

b
a

b) Name substance d.
c) List the types of movement
possible at the knee.

d
c

d) Explain the role of cartilage in


the functioning of the knee.
2. Explain how age affects joint flexibility and suggest a
way in which flexibility can be improved.

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Can you remember all these keywords?


Joint a place where two or more bones meet.
Flexibility the range of movement possible at a joint.
Ligaments strong, elastic fibres that join bones together.
Tendons non-elastic fibres that attach muscles to bones.
Cartilage connective tissue found at the ends of bones to
protect them and enable smooth movement.
Flexion the action causing a limb to bend.
Extension the action of a joint / limb straightening.
Abduction the action of a limb moving outwards, away from
the body.
Adduction the action of a limb moving in, towards the body.
Rotation the action of a limb turning around.

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