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SISTEM JAMINAN MUTU PADA

INDUSTRI SUSU DAN TELUR


GMP, NKV, HACCP DAN ISO 22000

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MUTU DAN KEAMANAN

Penerapan yang konsisten:


Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
HACCP
Sanitasi dan Higiene (Orang, Peralatan,

Proses)
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SISTEM JAMINAN KEAMANAN PANGAN

Tidak ada pangan yang 100% aman


(zero risk) risiko minimum atau
dapat diterima (acceptable) = ALOP
(appropriate level of protection)
Pengelolaan produksi pangan
dengan risiko minimum
manajemen keamanan pangan
(food safety management)
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Penerapan good practices


(GPs) pada setiap tahapan
dalam rantai penyediaan
pangan asal hewan mulai
dari peternakan sampai
dikonsumsi masyarakat
dikenal dengan konsep safe
from farm to table
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Good Farming Practices


Good Transportation Practices
Good Handling/
Slaughtering Practices
Good Distribution Practices
Good Manufacturing Practices

Good
Practices
Konsep
safe from
farm to
table

Good Retailing Practices


Good Catering Practices

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Dalam sistem jaminan


mutu,:
Good Practices pedoman
yang lebih rinci Prosedur
Operasi Baku atau Standard
Operating Procedures
(SOPs)
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o GPs dilaksanakan bertahap


sosialisasi, pelatihan,
bimbingan, pembinaan,
bantuan teknis, pengawasan

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Prinsip higiene

Bangunan & Fasilitas


Alat
Personal
Proses produksi

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NKV

NKV

Sistem Jaminan Keamanan


Pangan (HACCP)

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures


Good Hygienic (SSOP)
Practices (GHP)/Good
Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
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HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

suatu sistem yang mengidentifikasi,


mengevaluasi, dan mengendalikan
bahaya-bahaya yang signifikan dalam
keamanan pangan
a system which identifies, evaluates, and control
hazards which are significant for food safety
(Codex
Alimentarius
Commission,
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1997)

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HACCP di
mengadopsi dari:
Indonesia
CAC/CRP 1 - 1969, Rev. 3 (1997) Recommended International Code of
Practice - General Principles of Food
Hygiene - Annex: Hazard Analysis Critical
Control Point (HACCP) System and
Guidelines for its Application
menjadi:

Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 014852-1998 tentang Sistem Analisa


Bahaya dan Pengendalian Titik Kritis
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DEFINISI
SERTIFIKASI NOMOR KONTROL VETERINER (NKV)
(Permentan No. 381/2005)

NOMOR KONTROL
PRAKTEK
HIGIENE & SANITASI
VETERINER
KD-1411321-48

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Rangkaian kegiatan
penerbitan sertifikat
NKV terhadap unit
usaha pangan asal
hewan yang telah
memenuhi persyaratan
kelayakan dasar sistem
jaminan keamanan
pangan dalam aspek
higiene, sanitasi &
biosekuriti
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Sertifikat Kontrol Veteriner

(NKV): adalah bukti tertulis yang


sah telah dipenuhinya persyaratan
higiene sanitasi sebagai kelayakan
dasar jaminan keamanan pangan
asal hewan pada unit usaha pangan
asal hewan.

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TUJUAN SERTIFIKASI NKV


Memberi jaminan dan perlindungan kepada
masyarakat bahwa pangan asal hewan yang
dibeli/dikonsumsi berasal dari unit usaha yang
telah memenuhi persyaratan higiene, sanitasi
dan biosekuriti
Terlaksananya tertib hukum dan tertib
administrasi dalam pengelolaan unit usaha
pangan asal hewan
Pelaksanaan sistem pengawasan unit usaha
pangan asal hewan menjadi lebih efektif alat
dalam penelusuran kembali (trace back)

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MANFAAT SERTIFIKASI NKV


Bagi unit usaha yang memiliki NKV dapat
memperoleh nilai tambah dan daya saing berupa
jaminan keamanan produk dengan
mencantumkan label NKV pada produknya atau
memasang sertifikat NKV pada kios
Bagi pemerintah, merupakan sarana
penelusuran / tracebility sumber produk yang
efektif dalam rantai keamanan pangan
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ISO 22000
ISO 22000 is the new international generic FSMS

standard for food safety management systems.


It defines a set of general food safety
requirements that apply to all organizations in
the food chain.
If an organization is part of the food chain, ISO

22000 requires the establishment of a food


safety management system (FSMS) and usage
of this system to ensure that food products do
not cause adverse human health effects

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While ISO 22000 can be implemented on

its own, it is designed to be fully


compatible with ISO 9001:2000 and
companies already certified to ISO 9001
will find it easy to extend this to
certification to ISO 22000
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The standard has three parts:


Requirements for GMP or pre-

requisite programme
Requirements for HACCP principles

of the Codex Alimentarius.


Requirements for management

system
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The standard has the following objectives:


to enhance food safety
to ensure consumer protection
to strengthen consumer confidence
to improve cost efficiency throughout the food

supply chain
to comply with the Codex HACCP principles
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to harmonize the voluntary international standards


to provide an auditable standard that can be used

either for internal audits, self-certification or thirdparty certification


the structure to align with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO

22000:2005
to provide communication of HACCP concepts

internationally
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DAIRY INDUSTRY
The dairy industry presents a unique and

complex problem for the implementation


of HACCP. The starting point is raw milk
collected from a living animal with all the
hazards associated with such working
conditions; however, the problem then
widens as a result of subsequent
treatment.
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The microbial quality of raw milk is crucial for

the production of quality dairy foods. Spoilage is


a term used to describe the deterioration of a
foods texture, colour, odour or flavour to the
point where it is unappetizing or unsuitable for
human consumption.
Microbial spoilage of food often involves the

degradation of protein, carbohydrates and fats


by the micro-organisms or their enzymes.
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EGG

The term eggs applies to the entire

eggs of hens, which are suitable for


consumption and for industrial
production of food products
intended for human consumption.
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Outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning associated with eggs have


been traced to:
Use of raw eggs, for example, in mayonnaise, eggnogs
Eggs undergoing only a mild cooking process, for example, in

hollandaise sauce or soft boiled eggs.


Cross-contamination, for example, in bakeries where uncooked

product (such as imitation cream) has been prepared using utensils


used for uncooked egg mix.
Unhygienic methods of production of shell eggs
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MICROBIAL FOOD SAFETY PROBLEMS


control
pasteurization

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Shell pasteurization
washing
Spraying chicks
Feed ingredient
control
Use of salmonellafree chicks/pullets
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GOOD MANUFACTURING
PRACTICES

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Recommended
International Code of
Practice, General
Principles of Food Hygiene
CAC/CRP-1969, Rev. 3
(1997)
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GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES


Adalah cara berproduksi / bekerja yang baik
dan benar
Mencakup bagaimana persiapan pengolahan,
proses produksi secara benar
dengan
standart mutu yang telah ditentukan dan
menjamin hasil jadi / hasil produksi (Finished
good) memenuhi standart makanan olahan
siap konsumsi tanpa tercemar dalam kondisi
apapun
Sistem produksi menggunakan metode yang
benar

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GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES


Cara Produksi Makanan yg Baik
Pedoman yg menjelaskan bagaimana

memproduksi makanan agar aman, bermutu dan


layak dikonsumsi
Berisi penjelasan mengenai persyaratan minimum
yg harus dipenuhi pd seluruh mata rantai
makanan, mulai bahan baku sp produk akhir.
Umumnya menguraikan ttg kondisi yg bagaimana
dan prosedur yg mana yg akan dipakai
perusahaan
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GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES


Setiap bab didalam pedoman

menjelaskan mengenai tujuan dan alasan


yg berkaitan dgn kelayakan dan
keamanan makanan yg diproduksi.
Membantu jajaran manajemen utk

membangun sistem jaminan mutu yg


baik
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HUBUNGAN ANTARA SISTEM DALAM


KEAMANAN PANGAN
HACCP

GMP

Keamanan
Pangan

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SSOP

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Manajemen Mutu
HACCP

SSOP

GMP

Sanitasi & hygiene

Program dasar

GMP dan SSOP merupakan program prasyarat dr HACCP.


Sedangkan SSOP merupakan komponen dari GMP

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Basic Principles of GMP


Sanitation and
Hygiene

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Scope
High level of sanitation and hygiene practised in
every aspect of manufacturing. It covers:
Personnel
Premises
Equipment and apparatus
Production materials and containers
Products for cleaning and disinfection
All potential sources of cross-contamination

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Personal Hygiene (1)
Health examinations:
Before and during employment
Periodic eye examinations for those who do visual

inspections
Training:
Practices in personal hygiene
Written procedures and instructions
Signs in areas

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP

Written procedures and

instructions - to wash
hands before entering
production areas
Some also use

disinfectants

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP

Wash hands before

entering production
areas
Signs in areas (e.g.

changing rooms)

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Personal Hygiene (2)
Illness or open lesions:
May affect the quality of products
Should not handle starting materials, intermediates

or finished products, etc.


Instruction and encouragement to report to

supervisors
Direct contact between product and operator:
Should be avoided
Starting materials, primary packaging materials,

intermediate and bulk product

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Personnel Hygiene (3)
Protection of product from contamination:
Clean clothes appropriate to personnel activities
Including hair covering (e.g. caps)
Check change rooms/changing facilities
Hand washing, signs, drying of hands
Used clothing stored in separate closed containers

while awaiting cleaning


Laundering of clean area clothing according to an SOP

and in an appropriate facility


Procedure for disinfecting and sterilizing when required

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Personnel Hygiene (4)
Smoking, eating and drinking not allowed in

production areas, laboratories and storage


areas
No chewing (e.g. gum), or keeping food or

drinks allowed
No plants kept inside these areas
Rest and refreshment areas should be

separate from manufacturing and control


areas

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP


FACTO RY

CHANG E
RO O M

A IR
LO CK
T O IL E T S

CANTEEN

Toilets should not open directly into production or storage areas

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Personnel Hygiene (5)
Personal hygiene procedures including wearing

protective clothing apply to all persons entering into


production areas:
Full-time employees
Temporary workers
Contractor's employees
Visitors
Managers
Inspectors

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Design of Premises
Design
Walls, floors, ceilings, ledges, drains, air supply, dust

extraction

Prevention of build-up of dirt and dust to avoid

unnecessary risks of contamination

Cleaning programme, appropriate cleaning, cleaning

records

Effective cleaning and disinfection


choice of materials and chemicals, validation
Drains prevent backflow

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP

Protection from

insects, birds,
vermin and weather
from receipt of raw

materials to
dispatch of
released product

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (1)

Special precautions should be taken to

prevent generation and dissemination of dust


Proper air control supply and extraction,

suitable quality
Due to uncontrolled release of:
dust, gas, particles, vapours, sprays,

organisms, residue, insects

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP

Measures that can be taken to


prevent cross-contamination
also include:
Segregated areas
Ventilation systems
Airlocks
Clothing
Closed processing systems
Cleaning and

decontamination

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (2)

Dedicated and self-contained areas for:


Live vaccines
Live bacterial preparations
Certain other biological materials
Penicillin products

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (3)

Campaign production:
Separation in time
Followed by appropriate cleaning
Validated cleaning procedure

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (4)
Ventilation systems and airlocks
Appropriately designed ventilation system with air

supply and extraction systems


Supply or incoming air should be filtered
Recirculation of air versus 100% fresh air supply
Proper airflow patterns
Pressure differentials
Appropriately designed airlocks

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GMP


Appropriately designed

ventilation system with


air supply and extraction
systems
Supply or incoming air

should be filtered
Detailed modules in the

supplementary training
deal with recommendations
for HVAC systems

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (5)

Clothing
Protection of operator and product
Highly potent products or those of particular risk - need

for special protective clothing


Personnel should not move between areas producing

different products
Garments need to be cleaned

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (6)
Cleaning and decontamination
Procedure for removing soil and dirt
Remove all cleaning chemical residues or disinfectant

residues
Remove and/or reduce micro-organisms
Validated (known effectiveness of the procedure)
Use cleanliness status labels
Test for residues

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Avoidance of Cross-Contamination (7)
Closed processing systems
For example: totally enclosed water purification systems
Tanks fitted with appropriate filtration - without

removable lids
Present special cleaning difficulties, sometimes use

clean-in-place (CIP)

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Production Operations Sanitation (1)
Cleaning and cleaning validation
Degree of cleaning depends on whether consecutive batches

are of same or different product

Check cleaning agent is fully removed


If possible hot water alone used for cleaning
all cleaning and disinfecting solutions carefully prepared and

expiry dated

Final rinse with purified water, or water for injection (for sterile

products)

Full records kept

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Production Operations Sanitation (2)

Full records kept


Water systems
Water - major constituent of most products
SOP for cleaning and sanitization of the water purification

system should include distribution line


Validation and removal of disinfectant before reuse

SANITATION AND HYGIENE


Production Operations Sanitation (3)

Maintenance and repair


activities inevitable in manufacturing area
Should present no risk to product

Whenever possible, all planned maintenance outside normal


operating hours

Emergency work in working area followed by thorough clean


down and disinfection before manufacturing recommences

Area clearance by QC

SSOP

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Prosedur Pengendalian
Sanitasi (Food and Drug Administration USA)
Setiap unit usaha seharusnya
memiliki & melaksanakan rencana
tertulis Sanitation Standard
Operating Procedures (SSOP) atau
SOP
Sanitasi,
yang
mencakup:
pemantauan sanitasi (monitoring)
perbaikan sanitasi (corrective
action)
catatan pengendalian sanitasi
(sanitation control record)

59

8 Kunci Kondisi
Sanitasi (Food and Drug
Administratio /FDA USA)

Keamanan
air
: Keamanan air yang kontak
1
1 dengan makanan, atau permukaan yang kontak dengan
makanan; atau yang digunakan untuk pembuatan es.

Kebersihan permukaan yang


kontak dengan makanan: Kondisi
2
2

dan kebersihan permukaan-permukaan yang kontak dengan


makanan, termasuk peralatan, sarung tangan dan baju luar.

60

8 Kunci Kondisi Sanitasi . . .

Pencegahan
kontaminasi
3
3
silang: Pencegahan kontaminasi silang dari bendabenda yang tidak saniter, bahan kemasan, permukaan yang
kontak dengan makanan, termasuk peralatan, sarung tangan,
baju luar, dan dari bahan mentah ke produk masak.

4
4

Pemeliharaan fasilitas cuci


dan sanitaiser tangan,
serta toilet
61

8 Kunci Kondisi Sanitasi . . .

5
5

Pencegahan dari
pencemaran: pencegahan makanan, bahan
kemasan, dan permukaan yang kontak dengan makanan dari
pencemaran oleh bahan pelumas, bahan bakar, pestisida,
senyawa pembersih, bahan pensanitasi, kondensat, serta
pencemar kimiawi, fisik dan biologis.

Labelisasi, penyimpanan &


penggunaan senyawa
6
6 beracun yang tepat
62

8 Kunci Kondisi Sanitasi . . .

7
7

Kesehatan karyawan:

pengawasan
kondisi kesehatan karyawan yang dapat menyebabkan
kontaminasi mikrobiologis terhadap makanan, bahan kemasan
dan permukaan yang kontak dengan makanan;

Pest control:

menghilangkan hama dari pabrik

makanan.

8
8

63

Format SSOP
Mencakup:
Prosedur
Pemantauan (monitoring) apa,
bagaimana, kapan, siapa buat
checklist atau formulir
Tindakan Koreksi
Rekaman

64

Pemantauan
Menggunakan
check
list
(formulir)

Sanitasi
tidak ada format baku
Formulir berisi:
kondisi/praktek sanitasi tertentu
yang akan dipantau;
catatan hasil observasi atau
pengukuran/ penilaian sesuai
dengan frekuensi pemantauan;
catatan untuk tindakan koreksi yang
diperlukan

65

Rekaman Hasil
Satisfactory (S) atau Unsatisfactory
Penilaian

(U)
Lulus (Pass) atau Tidak Lulus (Fail)
Ya (Yes) atau Tidak (No)

atau
Diperlukan juga catatan khusus,
misalnya konsentrasi sanitaiser,
waktu pengamatan
Pemantauan dilaksanakan setiap
hari dan bulanan

66

Rekaman Hasil Penilaian . . .

Frekuensi pemantauan:
Pemantauan harian (daily
sanitation control record)
sebelum proses (pre-op)
kemudian setiap 4 jam, dan
setelah proses (post-op)

Pemantauan bulanan
Pemantauan multi-day
67

CONTOH FORM PENGENDALIAN SANITASI

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TUGAS

Buatlah Prosedur Sanitasi per Kelompok berdasarkan format

SSOP
Buatlah untuk perusahaan/unit usaha yang sudah anda punya

untuk produk susu/telur


Minggu Depan akan dibahas di depan kelas untuk masing-

masing kelompok

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Point sanitasi

Deskripsi tindakan

Keamanan air dan es

Pengawasan,
pemantauan
Koreksi
catatan

Kondisi dan Kebersihan Permukaan yang


Kontak dengan Pangan
Pencegahan kontaminasi silang
Pemeliharaan Fasilitas Cuci Tangan,
Sanitasi Tangan dan Toilet
Pencegahan dari Kontaminasi (Protection
from Adulterants)
Pelabelan, Penyimpanan dan
Penggunaan Bahan Toksik
Kondisi Kesehatan Karyawan
Pengendalian hama

Terima kasih

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