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MANUFACTURE

OF
POLY BUTADIENE
RUBBER (PBR)
GUIDED BY:
P.RAMYAKRISHNA
Md. Javeed ali
12021A2531

Presented By

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
PROPERTIES
APPLICATIONS
GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO
DIFFERENT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
SELECTION OF PROCESS
DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS

INTRODUCTION

Polybutadieneis asynthetic rubberthat is apolymerformed


from
thepolymerizationprocess
of
themonomer1,3butadiene.

About 20% of the synthetic rubber manufactured all over the


world is PBR.
Other IUPACnames are : poly (buta-1, 3-diene) and
Poly (but-1-ene-1, 4-diyl)

PROPERTIES
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
Elongation
Hardness Range

450% to

Low Temperature

650%

Range

40 to 80
Shore A

Density

940 kg/m

Tensile strength

500 to
2000PSI

Youngs modulus

THERMAL PROPERTIES:

2 to 10MPa

-150 F to -100 F

Minimum for

- 90 F

Continuous Use
High Temperature

+ 180 F to + 220 F

Range
Maximum for

+ 200 F

Continuous Use
Brittle point

- 100 F

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:
Compression set

Good to Excellent

Rebound Rating

Fair to Excellent

Tear Resistance

Poor to Good

Impact

Poor to Good

Resistance
Abrasion

Fair to Excellent

Resistance
Adhesion to
Metal
Adhesion to
Rigid Materials

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE:
Alkalies, Dilute

Fair to Good

Alkalies,

Fair to Good

Concentrated
Alcohols

Fair to Good

Aldehydes

Good

Amines

Poor to Good

Oil Resistance

Poor

Good
Fair to Good

APPLICATIONS
Polybutadiene

is largely used in various parts of


automobile tires.
About 25% of the produced polybutadiene is used to
improve the mechanical properties of plastics.
Mostgolf
ballsare made of an elastic core of
polybutadiene surrounded by a layer of a harder material.
This rubber can also be used in railway pads, bridge
blocks, etc.
Polybutadiene is used in the manufacturing of the highrestitutiontoySuper Ball.

GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO

The

overall consumption of PBR by Indian rubber industry


today is over 33000 TPA (1993-94), amounting to a
compounded average growth rate of 6.5% per year in
last decade
PBR demand supply in India
2011-

2012-

2013-

2014-

2015-

2016-

12

13

14

15

16

17

Capacity

74

74

94

114

114

164

Production

72

74

94

114

114

164

Exports

Imports

57

68

60

55

66

31

Consumption

131

141

153

167

178

193

(KT)

Cons Growth
(%)

DIFFERENT
PROCESSES

MANUFACTURING

The various manufacturing process available are:


Solution

polymerization

Emulsion

polymerization

SOLUTION POLYMERIZATION:
Solution

polymerizationis a method of
industrialpolymerization. In this procedure, amonomer 1, 3
butadieneis dissolved in a non-reactivesolventthat contains
acatalyst.

Most

polybutadienes are made by a solution process, using


either a transition metal (Nd, Ni, or Co) complex or an alkyl
metal, as catalyst.

Since

the reaction is very exothermic, and can be explosive,


particularly with alkyl lithium catalysts, the reaction is
normally carried out in solvents like hexane, cyclohexane,
benzene or toluene.

The

solvents are used to reduce the rate of reaction,


control the heat generated by the polymerisation and to
lower the viscosity of the polymer solution in the reactor.

typical polybutadiene polymerisation would be run at


about 20% monomer and 80% solvent.

EMULSION POLYMERIZATION:

A typical emulsion polymerization formulation comprises


four basic ingredients:

1)

Monomer,
2) dispersion medium,
3) emulsifier,
4) initiator.
Monomer 1, 3 butadiene can be polymerized by emulsion
polymerization.

SELECTION OF PROCESS
WHY
This

SOLUTION POLYMERIZATION ?

is easy and simple technique


Precise control of the chemical reaction
Control of the resulting heat and viscosity
control over auto acceleration of the process
Polymer isolation step can be avoided by solvent
evaporation, distillation

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS
Polybutadiene

rubber is produced by solution polymerization


of Butadiene monomer.
Normal heptane and toluene is used as solvents. Three
component based Ziegler-Nata catalysts system is employed
(Tri alkyl aluminium, Nickel naphthenate and Boron
trifluoride) to carry out polymerization reaction to produce
nickel based Butadiene Rubber so that high stereo specificity
is achieved.
Exothermic heat of polymerization is removed by liquid
ammonia boiling at sub-zero temperature inside reactor
jackets.

Flow diagram of PBR Polymerization

Four

stirred tank reactors are used in series to achieve


Butadiene conversion to the tune of 90%.
The rubber solution so obtained is stabilized by addition of
antioxidant at reactor outlet and stored in homogenization
tanks. Subsequently the solution is flashed (stripped) with hot
water and steam to precipitate rubber in hot condensate.
Solvent so evaporated is sent for purification in distillation
towers from where they are recycled to reactors. From
solvent purification section, high boiler bottoms is recovered
as by product and sold.

The

rubber crumbs precipitated in hot water is sent to


rubber drying /finishing section where they are dewatered
thru series of mechanical equipment (shaker screen,
expeller and expander etc.) and dried to meet volatile
matter specification.
The dried crumbs obtained, are then pressed into 35 kgs.
Bales in a baler machine and wrapped by LDPE films in a
film wrapper. They are then packed in paper bags and
stored in metal crates in the warehouse for dispatch.
Rubber bales, due to their cold flow properties get
deshaped under pressure.

Hence

metal crates are used for storing of rubber bales.


Fine rubber particles which come out during equipment
cleaning are processed in slop stripper and recovered as
PBR scrap Butadiene polymerization reaction is highly
sensitive to moisture and other impurities present in
monomer as well as in solvents and special care is required
to be taken to operate purification and other operating
systems to run within very close tolerances with respect to
process parameters.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PBR


POLYMERIZATION

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