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SISTEM EKSIT

ASI GENERATO
R

DASAR PENYEARAH
(RECTIFIER)
GELOMBANG

Generator AC magnet permanen

Rotor magnet
permanen

Red

CB Generator

N
White

CB
Neutral

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Blue

Eksitasi dari baterai


CB
Generator
Red
Rotor coil DC

Battery

N
+

White

Slip
rings

Blue
CB
Neutral

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Eksitasi dari baterai dengan rheostat


CB Generator
Variable
rheostat

Red
Rotor coil DC
N

White

Slip
rings

Blue

Battery

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

CB
Neutral

Generator DC mensuplai eksitasi

Variable
rheostat

Red

CB
Generator

Rotor coil DC
N
+

White

DC
Gen
-

Slip
rings

Shunt
field
winding

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Blue

CB
Neutral

R
B

Generator DC mensuplai eksitasi dengan


eksiter pilot

Pilot exciter
variable
rheostat

CB
Lokal

Pilot
Ex.DC
Gen

White

Main
Exciter
DC Gen

Self
excited

Rotor coil DC

Red

CB
Generator

S
Field
discharg
e resistor

Blue
CB
Neutra
l

R W B

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Menggunakan sistem kontrol amplidyne


Manual
rheostat

CB
Lokal

switch
Auto/Man

Red

CB
Generator

Rotor coil DC
N

White

Main
Exciter
DC Gen

Pilot
Ex.DC
Gen

Blue
CB
Neutral

Penguat
magneti
k dan
penyear
ah
Boost
field
winding

Amplidyne

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Buck
field
winding

Input
tegangan
terminal
generator
Set point
automatic
rheostat

R W
B

Eksiter AC
Sinyal
kontrol
AVR

CB Lokal
Eksiter
Utama

Eksiter AC
Three phase
AC (ada
pada rotor)

CB Lokal
Generato
r

Rotor coil DC
N

White

Penyeara
h
gelomba
ng
penuh- 3
phase

Variable
3
phase
fullwave
rectifier

Flashing
contacts

Generator
Terminal
voltage

Sumber
Battery
Station
Pilot Exciter (self
excited - field on rotor)

Blue
CB
Neutra
l

Penyeara
h
gelomba
ng penuh
3 phase

Switch lokal
Pilot Exciter

Red

CB
Generator

AVR
input

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

RWB

Suplai eksternal untuk eksitasi


CB Lokal
Generator
Transforme
r eksitasi

Rotor coil DC
+

N
White

Variable
3 phase
full-wave
rectifier

Supply
AC
External

Blue
CB
Neutra
l

Sinyal
kontrol
AVR
Automatic Voltage
regulator (AVR)

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Red

CB
Generator

Tegangan
terminal
Generator

Set point AVR

R W B

Brushless Excitation

Sinyal
kontrol
AVR

CB Lokal
Main
exciter

Generator eksiter AC berputar ,


Penyearah and rotor DC
N

White

Penyear
ah
gelomba
ng
penuh- 3
phase

Variable
3 phase
fullwave
rectifier -

Red

CB
Generator

Blue

Rotor coil DC

Suplai daya 3 phase


ke penyearah (Supply
daya eksternal
lainnya atau dari
eksiter pilot)

Eksiter AC 3 phase (ada pada Stator)

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

CB
Neutral
AVR
input

Generator
Terminal
voltage

R W
B

Rotating
Pilot
Exciter
magnet

Rotating AC Exciter generator,


rectifier and DC rotor

Variable
3 phase
full-wave
rectifier

AVR
control
Unit

White

3 phase
full-wave
rectifier

150 Hz 3 phase
pilot exciter

Red

Generator
CB

Blue
DC coil Rotor
R W B

Three phase AC exciter


(field on Stator)
AVR input
AVR Set point

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Generator
Voltage
Transformer

Voltage Mode
- Set point
(Gen CB open)
Power Factor
mode -Set point
(Gen CB closed)

Automatic Voltage
Regulator
AVR

AVR Mode
Selector
- Gen CB
open/close

Control

AC GENERATOR OUTPUT
3 Phase Voltage reference
Load Current reference

Unit

3 Phase, 4 pole, 50 Hz
415 Volts
1206 KVA
965 kW
1740 AC amps

AVR
Controlled
3 Phase
Thyristor

DC Current to exciter stator


1500 RPM Engine drive shaft
S

MAIN EXCITER
AVR controlled DC stator.
AC rotor 3 phase. 75 Hz
42 Volts
9.3 amps

PILOT EXCITER
Permanent magnet poles.
3 phase stator winding.
75 Hz Constant output

Rotating 3 phase
AC to DC rectifier
- with voltage surge
protection

SIMPLIFIED GENERATOR SET - CATERPILLAR RATINGS USED

Module neutral
bus

Generator Neutral
Reactor or resistor

AC System demands on modern AVRs


Kontrol manual sekarang banyak tidak digunakan
Respon instan dan berkelanjutan mengatur tegangan terminal
generator AC
Stabilitas sistem AC sangat ditentukan oleh kinerja AVR
Sistem duplikasi AVR adalah hal normal pada generator AC besar
Menggunakan teknologi mikroprosesor digital
Tuning AVR sangat diperlukan saat komisioning untuk
menyesuaikan sistem AC dan kondisi generator AC

Main
exciter

Pilot exciter
400 Hz
Exciter
field

Generator
AC
3 phase
rectifier

Medan
rotor

Frequency
detector
Thyristor
controlled

Rotor
angle
detecto
r

System
grid

Generator
main CB

Current
transformer

Power
system
stabiliser

rectifier

Man/Auto
selector
AVR
Channel
A

Set
point
Manual

Voltage
transformer

Generator Output
transformer

Incoming
MVAR
limiter

Overflux
excitation
alarm &
trip

Steady voltage reference (Auto set


point)
Rotor current limit

Manual
control

Fine tune damping &


response adjustments

Channel
selector

Modern AVR

AVR
Channel
B

Note :
CB : Circuit Breaker

Syarat syarat AVR modern


Auto follow pada kontrol dual channel
Kontrol manual
Proteksi dan auto trip AVR untuk channel standby
Proteksi thyristor

Main
exciter

Pilot exciter
400 Hz
Exciter
field

Proteksi kegagalan fuse

AC
generator
3 phase
rectifier

Rotor
field

Frequency
detector
Thyristor
controlled

Rotor
angle
detector

Man/Auto
selector
AVR
Channel
A

Incoming
MVAR
limiter

Overflux
excitation
alarm & trip

Steady voltage reference (Auto set point)

Manual
control

Rotor current limit


Fine tune damping &
response adjustments

Channel
selector

AVR
Channel B

System
grid

Generator
main CB

Current
transformer

Power
system
stabiliser

rectifier

Manual
set point

Voltage
transformer

Generator Output
transformer

Batas operasional AVR


Pembatasan arus rotor
modern
Pembatas MVAR yang masuk
Pembatas fluxing berlebih
Mode run-up untuk underfrekuensi/over eksitasi pada trafo
Main
exciter

Pilot exciter
400 Hz
Exciter
field

Pengontrol referensi
kecepatan
Memungkinkan auto
eksitasi generator AC ketika
mencapai kecepatan rata
rata

AC
generator
3 phase
rectifier

Rotor
field

Frequency
detector
Thyristor
controlled

Rotor
angle
detector

Man/Auto
selector
AVR
Channel
A

Incoming
MVAR
limiter

Overflux
excitation
alarm & trip

Steady voltage reference (Auto set point)

Manual
control

Rotor current limit


Fine tune damping &
response adjustments

Channel
selector

AVR
Channel B

System
grid

Generator
main CB

Current
transformer

Power
system
stabiliser

rectifier

Manual
set point

Voltage
transformer

Generator Output
transformer