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Respiratory System

Trading with the Environment


Every organism must exchange materials with its
environment
And this exchange ultimately occurs at the cellular level
In unicellular organisms
These exchanges occur directly with the environment
For most of the cells making up multicellular organisms
Direct exchange with the environment is not possible

Concept : Gas exchange occurs across


specialized respiratory surfaces
Gas exchange
The movement of O2 and CO2 between the animal
and its environment.
Supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and
disposes of carbon dioxide
Respiratory
medium
(air of water)

O2

CO2

Respiratory
surface

Organismal
level
Circulatory system

Cellular level
Energy-rich
molecules
from food

Figure 42.19

Cellular respiration

ATP

Respiratory surface
Portion of the animal surface where gas
exchange with the respiratory medium occurs.
Oxygen diffuses in; carbon dioxide diffuses
out.

Gills in Aquatic Animals


Animals require large, moist respiratory
surfaces for the adequate diffusion of
respiratory gases
Between their cells and the respiratory medium,
either air or water

Gills are outfoldings of the body surface


Specialized for gas exchange
Eg: Gills in invertebrates (sea star), segmented
worm, clamp & crayfish.

The feathery gills projecting from a salmon


Are an example of a specialized exchange
system found in animals

Figure 42.1

Ventilation
Any method of increasing the flow of the
respiratory medium over the respiratory
surface; brings in a fresh supply of O2 and
removes CO2.

The effectiveness of gas exchange in


some gills, including those of fishes
Is increased by ventilation and countercurrent
flow of blood and water
Oxygen-poor
blood
Lamella

%
% 15
40

Figure 42.21

30
%
60
%

Operculum

90
%

Water
flow

10
0%

70
%

Gill
arch

Blood
vessel

Oxygen-rich
blood

5%

Gill arch

Water flow
over lamellae
showing % O2
Gill
filaments

O2

Blood flow
through capillaries
in lamellae
showing % O2

Countercurrent exchange

Tracheal Systems in Insects


The tracheal system of insects
Consists of tiny branching tubes that
penetrate the body
Air sacs
Tracheae

Spiracle

(a) The respiratory system of an insect consists of branched internal


tubes that deliver air directly to body cells. Rings of chitin reinforce
the largest tubes, called tracheae, keeping them from collapsing.
Enlarged portions of tracheae form air sacs near organs that require
a large supply of oxygen. Air enters the tracheae through openings
called spiracles on the insects body surface and passes into smaller
tubes called tracheoles. The tracheoles are closed and contain fluid
(blue-gray). When the animal is active and is using more O2, most of
the fluid is withdrawn into the body. This increases the surface area
of air in contact with cells.

Figure 42.22a

The tracheal tubes


Supply O2 directly to body cells
Body
cell

Air
sac

Tracheole

Trachea

Air
Tracheoles

Mitochondria

Body wall
Myofibrils

(b) This micrograph shows cross


sections of tracheoles in a tiny
piece of insect flight muscle (TEM).
Each of the numerous mitochondria
in the muscle cells lies within about
5 m of a tracheole.

Figure 42.22b

2.5 m

Lungs
Spiders, land snails, and most terrestrial vertebrates
Have internal lungs

In mammals, air inhaled through the nostrils


Passes through the pharynx into the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and
dead-end alveoli, where gas exchange occurs

The process that ventilates the lungs is breathing


The alternate inhalation and exhalation of air

Mammalian Respiratory Systems: A


Closer Look
A system of branching ducts

Conveys air to the lungs

Nasal
cavity
Pharynx

Branch
from the
pulmonary
artery
(oxygen-poor
blood)

Branch
from the
pulmonary
vein
(oxygen-rich
blood)
Terminal
bronchiole

Left
lung

Alveoli
50 m

Larynx
Esophagus
Trachea
Right lung

50 m

Bronchus
Bronchiole
Diaphragm
Heart

SEM

Figure 42.23

Colorized SEM

How an Amphibian Breathes


An amphibian such as a frog
Ventilates its lungs by positive pressure
breathing, which forces air down the trachea
Air is pulled into the mouth by lowering the
floor region; this enlarges the oral cavity.
The nostrils and mouth is raised, forcing air
down the trachea.
Air is exhaled by elastic recoil of lungs and by
compression of the lungs by the muscular
body wall.

How a Mammal Breathes


Mammals ventilate their lungs
By negative pressure breathing, which pulls air into the lungs

Lung volume increases


As the rib muscles and diaphragm contract
Rib cage
expands as
rib muscles
contract

Air inhaled

Rib cage gets


smaller as
rib muscles
relax

Air exhaled

Lung
Diaphragm

INHALATION
Diaphragm contracts
(moves down)

Figure 42.24

EXHALATION
Diaphragm relaxes
(moves up)

How a Bird Breathes


Besides lungs, bird have eight or nine air sacs
That function as bellows that keep air flowing through
the lungs
Air

Air
Anterior
air sacs
Trachea
Posterior
air sacs

Lungs

Lungs

Air tubes
(parabronchi)
in lung

INHALATION
Air sacs fill

EXHALATION
Air sacs empty; lungs fill

Figure 42.25

1 mm

Control of Breathing in Humans


The main breathing control centers
Are located in two regions of the brain, the
medulla oblongata and the pons
Cerebrospinal
fluid

1 The control center in the


medulla sets the basic
rhythm, and a control center
in the pons moderates it,
smoothing out the
transitions between
inhalations and exhalations.

Pons
2 Nerve impulses trigger
muscle contraction. Nerves
from a breathing control center
in the medulla oblongata of the
brain send impulses to the
diaphragm and rib muscles,
stimulating them to contract
and causing inhalation.

Breathing
control
centers

Medulla
oblongata

4 The medullas control center


also helps regulate blood CO2 level.
Sensors in the medulla detect
changes
in the pH (reflecting CO2
concentration)
of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid
changes in
5 Nerve
bathing
theimpulses
surface ofrelay
the brain.
CO2 and O2 concentrations. Other
sensors in the walls of the aorta
and carotid arteries in the neck
detect changes in blood pH and
send nerve impulses to the medulla.
In response, the medullas breathing
control center alters the rate and
depth of breathing, increasing both
to dispose of excess CO2 or decreasing
both if CO2 levels are depressed.

Carotid
arteries

Figure 42.26

3 In a person at rest, these


nerve impulses result in
about 10 to 14 inhalations
per minute. Between
inhalations, the muscles
relax and the person exhales.

Aorta

Diaphragm
Rib muscles

6 The sensors in the aorta and


carotid arteries also detect changes
in O2 levels in the blood and signal
the medulla to increase the breathing
rate when levels become very low.

The centers in the medulla


Regulate the rate and depth of breathing in
response to pH changes in the cerebrospinal fluid

The medulla adjusts breathing rate and depth


To match metabolic demands

Sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries


Monitor O2 and CO2 concentrations in the blood
Exert secondary control over breathing

The amount of air inhaled and exhaled


depends upon size, activity level and state
of health.
Tidal volume is the volume of air an animal
inhales and exhales with each breath during
normal quiet breathing. Averages about 500
ml in humans.
Vital volume is the maximum air volume that
can be inhaled and exhaled during forced
breathing. Averages 3400-4800 ml in collegeage females and males, respectively.
Residual volume is the amount of air that
remain in the lungs even after forced
exhalation.

Concept: Respiratory pigments bind and


transport gases
The metabolic demands of many
organisms
Require that the blood transport large
quantities of O2 and CO2

The Role of Partial Pressure


Gradients
Gases diffuse down pressure gradients
In the lungs and other organs

Diffusion of a gas
Depends on differences in a quantity called partial
pressure

A gas always diffuses from a region of higher


partial pressure
To a region of lower partial pressure

In the lungs and in the tissues


O2 and CO2 diffuse from where their partial pressures
are higher to where they are lower

Inhaled air

160
O2

Exhaled air

0.2
CO2

O2
104

Alveolar
epithelial
cells

O2

40

O2

CO2

O2

Alveolar
capillaries
of lung

45

O2

CO2

Blood
leaving
alveolar
capillaries
104

40

O2

CO2

Pulmonary
veins

Pulmonary
arteries

Systemic
arteries

Systemic
veins

Heart
Tissue
capillaries

CO2

Blood
leaving
tissue
capillaries
40

O2

Figure 42.27

CO2

40

CO2

CO

Blood
entering
alveolar
capillaries

120 27

Alveolar spaces

45

O2

Blood
entering
tissue
capillaries
O2

CO2

100

O2

CO2

Tissue
cells
<40 >45

O2

CO2

40

CO2

Animals

Respiratory
Medium

Respiratory
Surface.

Amoeba

Water

Plasma
membrane.

Grasshopper

Air

Trachea

Fish

Water

Gills

Frog

Air

Lungs and Skin

Human

Air

Lungs

Air has several advantages over water as


a respiratory medium
A higher oxygen concentration
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse faster
through air than water
Respiratory surfaces do not have to be
ventilate as thoroughly

Disadvantage
The respiratory surfaces are continually
desiccated.