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Hormones and the

Endocrine System
The endocrine system and the nervous system act
individually and together in regulating an animals
physiology
Animals have two systems of internal communication
and regulation
The nervous system and the endocrine system

Hormones may reach all parts of the body


But only certain types of cells, target cells, are equipped to
respond

Endocrine: ductless glands, secreting hormones directly into blood.


Hormone: substance that is produced by one tissue and transported to another tissue
where it induces a specific physiological response. Is a chemical signal that is
secreted into the circulatory system and communicates regulatory messages within
the body

Hormone can be assigned to four chemical


groups
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol,
and include testosterone, estradiol and ecdysone.
Amino acids derivatives include amines, which are the
simplest hormones
Amines are synthesized from tyrosine
Thyroid hormones, and epinephrine and norepinephrine are
amines.

Protein (peptide) hormones include short chains such


as oxytocin and ADH and longer chains such as
growth hormone and TSH
Prostaglandins are fatty acid derivatives.

Vertebrate hormones regulate growth, development, fluid balance, metabolism and


reproduction.
Endocrine disorders may involves too little or too much hormone.
Hypersecretion may cause overstimulation of target cells.
Hyposecretion may cause understimulation of target cells.
If the receptors do not function properly, symptoms similar to hyposecretion
may result.
The hypothalamus integrates neural and endocrine regulation
The hypothalamus links the nervous and endocrine systems
Neurons of the hypothalamus secrete neurohormones which target the
release of hormones by the pituitary gland
The pituitary secretes at least 9 distict hormones that have a wide variety
of target cells and effects
The pituitary of human consist of an interior and posterior lobe
The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones and release-inhibiting
hormones which regulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary via a portal
system.

MASTER OF GLANDS
MASTER CONTROL CENTER

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland release two hormones


Oxytocin and ADH are peptide hormones released by the posterior
lobe.
These hormones are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, and
travel to the posterior lobe via the axons of the neurons.
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction during labor.
Oxytocin also stimulates contraction of muscle cells in the breast
while nursing, resulting in expulsion of milk.
ADH affects the collecting tubules of the nephron and results in a more
concentrated urine.
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland regulates growth and other endocrine
glands.
Tropic hormones stimulate other endocrine glands.
TSH, ACTH, FSH and LH are tropic hormones.
TSH stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones.
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produced adrenal cortical
hormones.
Gonadotrophic hormones (FSH and LH) stimulate gonad function.

The nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary


include
Prolactin
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
-endorphin

Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis.


Growth hormone (GH, also called somatotropin)
stimulates protein synthesis and therefore growth.
GH stimulates liver cells to produce somatomedins,
which stimulate skeletal growth at the epiphyseal plates
and general growth of tissues.
GH promotes mobilization of fat and carbohydrates
metabolism
Growth is affected by many factors
GH is secreted in pulses during the day in both adults
and children.
The hypothalamus secretes GHRH (growth hormone
releasing hormone) and GHIH (growth hormone
inhibiting hormone, also called somatostatin) which
signals the pituitary.

Secretion of GH increases during exercise and


during sleep.
Emotional support is necessary for production
of GH; lack results in psychosocial dwarfism.
Thyroid hormones and sex hormone also
interact in the growth process.

Inappropriate amounts of growth hormone


secretion result in abnormal growth.
Pituitary dwarfs are a result of hyporsecretion
Recombinant GH may now be used to treat this
condition

Gigantism results from juvenile hypersecretion


Acromegaly result in adult hypersecretion

Thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate.


The thyroid produces thyroxine (T 4) and
triiodothyronine (T3) collectively known as thyroid
hormones.
These hormones increase the metabolic rate.

Thyroid secretion is regulated by negative


feedback mechanism
Even thyroid hormone concentration drops, the
pituitary produces TSH, which stimulates the thyroid to
produce thyroid hormones.
The hypothalamus is also involved in the loop as the
hypothalamus produces TSH-releasing hormone.

Malfunction of the thyroid gland leads to specific


disorders.
Juvenile hypothyroidism may lead to cretinism, which
is characterized by retarded mental and physical
development.

Adult hypothyroidism is characterized bya a sluggish


metabolic rate.
Extreme adult hypothyroidism causes myxedema and may
be treated by thyroid hormone administration
Hyperthyroidism increases metabolism but not growth
An enlarged thyroid is a goiter and can be associated with
either hypersecretion or hyposecretion
Iodin deficiency is a common cause of goiter.

The parathyroid glands regulate calcium


concentartion
The parathyroid glands are embedded in tissue
surrounding the thyroid gland
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced by cells of the
parathyroid gland, and stimulates calcium release from
the bones and calcium reabsorption from the kidney
tubules.
Calcitonin produced by the thyroid acts in opposition to
PTH.

The islet of the pancreas regulate glocose concentration


The islet of Langerhans are the endocrine tissues of the
pancreas
Beta cells secrete insulin and alpha cells secrete
glukagon.
Insulin lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Glucagon raises the concentration of glucose in the
blood.
The adrenal glands helps the body adapt to stress
The paired adrenal glands are locataed above the
kidneys.
The adrenal cortex helps the body deal with the chronic
stress.
Cortical hormones are steroids made from
cholesterol
The tree classes of hormones include androgen,
mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.

DHEA accounts for the majority of the androgen in


females.
Mineralocorticoids include aldosterone, which
regulates fluid balance
Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid which
stimulates gluconeogenesis as well as mobilization
of fats and transportation of amino acids to liver
cells.
Stress causes by the hypothalamus to secrete
corticotropin releasing hormone factor (CRF) which
stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary to secrete
ACTH.
Hyposecretion of adrenal cortical hormones causes
Addisons disease.

The major human endocrine glands


Hypothalamus
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands

Adrenal glands
Pancreas
Ovary
(female)
Testis
(male)
Figure 45.6

Major human endocrine glands and some


of their hormones

Table 45.1

Table 45.1

Relation Between the Hypothalamus and


Pituitary Gland
The hypothalamus, a region of the lower
brain
Contains different sets of neurosecretory cells

Some of these cells produce direct-acting


hormones
That are stored in and released from the posterior
pituitary, or neurohypophysis

Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory
cells of the
hypothalamus

Axon

Posterior
pituitary

HORMONE

Figure 45.7

TARGET

Anterior
pituitary

ADH
Kidney tubules

Oxytocin
Mammary glands,
uterine muscles

Other hypothalamic cells produce tropic


hormones
That are secreted into the blood and transported
to the anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
Tropic Effects Only
FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone
LH, luteinizing hormone
TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone
ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone

Neurosecretory cells
of the hypothalamus

Nontropic Effects Only


Prolactin
MSH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Endorphin

Portal vessels

Nontropic and Tropic Effects


Growth hormone
Hypothalamic
releasing
hormones
(red dots)

HORMONE

TARGET

Figure 45.8

FSH and LH

Testes or
ovaries

TSH

Thyroid

Endocrine cells of the


anterior pituitary
Pituitary hormones
(blue dots)

ACTH

Prolactin

MSH

Endorphin

Adrenal
cortex

Mammary
glands

Melanocytes

Pain receptors
in the brain

Growth hormone

Liver

Bones

Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals


But has diverse effects in different vertebrates

MSH influences skin pigmentation in some


vertebrates
And fat metabolism in mammals

Endorphins
Inhibit the sensation of pain

Thyroid Hormones
The thyroid gland
Consists of two lobes located on the ventral surface of
the trachea
Produces two iodine-containing hormones,
triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary


Control the secretion of thyroid hormones
through two negative feedback loops
Hypothalamus

Anterior
pituitary

TSH

Thyroid

Figure 45.9

T3

T4

Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin: Control


of Blood Calcium
Two antagonistic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin
Play the major role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in mammals

Thyroid gland
releases
calcitonin.

Calcitonin

Reduces
Ca2+ uptake
in kidneys

Stimulates
Ca2+ deposition
in bones

Blood Ca2+
level declines
to set point

STIMULUS:
Rising blood
Ca2+ level

Homeostasis:
Blood Ca2+ level
(about 10 mg/100 mL)
STIMULUS:
Falling blood
Ca2+ level

Blood Ca2+
level rises
to set point
Stimulates
Ca2+ release
from bones

Parathyroid
gland

PTH

Increases
Ca2+ uptake
in intestines

Figure 45.11

Active
vitamin D

Stimulates Ca2+
uptake in kidneys

Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland


Stimulates Ca2+ deposition in the bones and
secretion by the kidneys, thus lowering blood
Ca2+ levels

PTH, secreted by the parathyroid glands


Has the opposite effects on the bones and
kidneys, and therefore raises Ca2+ levels
Also has an indirect effect, stimulating the
kidneys to activate vitamin D, which promotes
intestinal uptake of Ca2+ from food

Insulin and Glucagon: Control of


Blood Glucose

Two types of cells in the pancreas


Secrete insulin and glucagon, antagonistic hormones that help
maintain glucose homeostasis and are found in clusters in the islets
of Langerhans

Glucagon

Is produced by alpha cells

Insulin

Is produced by beta cells

Maintenance of glucose homeostasis


Body cells
take up more
glucose.

Insulin
Beta cells of
pancreas are stimulated
to release insulin
into the blood.
Liver takes
up glucose
and stores it
as glycogen.
STIMULUS:
Rising blood glucose
level (for instance, after
eating a carbohydraterich meal)

Blood glucose level


declines to set point;
stimulus for insulin
release diminishes.

Homeostasis:
Blood glucose level
(about 90 mg/100 mL)
Blood glucose level
rises to set point;
stimulus for glucagon
release diminishes.

Figure 45.12

Liver breaks
down glycogen
and releases
glucose into
blood.

STIMULUS:
Dropping blood glucose
level (for instance, after
skipping a meal)

Alpha cells of pancreas


are stimulated to release
glucagon into the blood.

Glucagon

Target Tissues for Insulin and


Glucagon
Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by
Promoting the cellular uptake of glucose
Slowing glycogen breakdown in the liver
Promoting fat storage

Glucagon increases blood glucose levels


by
Stimulating the conversion of glycogen to
glucose in the liver
Stimulating the breakdown of fat and protein
into glucose

Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus, perhaps the best-known
endocrine disorder
Is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased
response to insulin in target tissues
Is marked by elevated blood glucose levels

Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent


diabetes)
Is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune
system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas

Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent


diabetes)
Is characterized either by a deficiency of insulin or,
more commonly, by reduced responsiveness of
target cells due to some change in insulin receptors

Adrenal Hormones: Response


to Stress

The adrenal glands


Are adjacent to the kidneys
Are actually made up of two glands: the adrenal medulla and the adrenal
cortex

Catecholamines from the


Adrenal Medulla
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine
and norepinephrine
Hormones which are members of a class of
compounds called catecholamines

These hormones
Are secreted in response to stress-activated
impulses from the nervous system
Mediate various fight-or-flight responses

Stress Hormones from the


Adrenal Cortex
Hormones from the adrenal cortex
Also function in the bodys response to stress
Fall into three classes of steroid hormones

Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol


Influence glucose metabolism and the immune
system

Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone


Affect salt and water balance

Sex hormones
Are produced in small amounts

Stress and the adrenal gland


Stress

Spinal cord
(cross section)

Nerve
signals

Hypothalamus
Releasing
hormone
Nerve
cell

Anterior pituitary
Blood vessel

Adrenal medulla
secretes epinephrine
and norepinephrine.

Nerve cell
Adrenal cortex
secretes
mineralocorticoids
and glucocorticoids.

ACTH
Adrenal
gland
Kidney

(a) Short-term stress response


Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine:
1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased
blood glucose
2. Increased blood pressure
3. Increased breathing rate
4. Increased metabolic rate

Figure 45.13a,b

5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to


increased alertness and decreased digestive
and kidney activity

(b) Long-term stress response


Effects of
mineralocorticoids:
1. Retention of sodium
ions and water by
kidneys
2. Increased blood
volume and blood
pressure

Effects of
glucocorticoids:
1. Proteins and fats
broken down and
converted to glucose,
leading to increased
blood glucose
2. Immune system may
be suppressed

Gonadal Sex Hormones


The gonadstestes and ovaries
Produce most of the bodys sex hormones:
androgens, estrogens, and progestins

The testes primarily synthesize


androgens, the main one being
testosterone
Which stimulate the development and
maintenance of the male reproductive system

Testosterone causes an increase in muscle


and bone mass
And is often taken as a supplement to cause
muscle growth, which carries many health risks

Figure 45.14

Estrogens, the most important of which is


estradiol
Are responsible for the maintenance of the
female reproductive system and the
development of female secondary sex
characteristics

In mammals, progestins, which include


progesterone
Are primarily involved in preparing and
maintaining the uterus