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Nov.

2004

Various Communication Protocol


A Comparative Study

Substation Communication a Comparative Study


On protocols

Shailesh Mishra
Manager Sales Support

APSAS 2004

Communications : Why use it ?


Why

would utilities/industry use communications


to substation equipment?
To get power system data into a remote SCADA / DCS
system
To set IEDs, aid commissioning and extract data for
analysis (local access)
Remote control of plant

Communication Requirements

Retrieval

Measurements
Plant status
Trip information
Fault location
Setting files
Fault, event & disturbance records
Maintenance information

Change settings
Circuit breaker control
Peer-to-peer communications

Communication Requirements :
Priorities

Protection Relays

Protection functions are the priority


Communications & disturbance records secondary

Measurement Devices / Disturbance Recorders

High-speed communications are the priority


Disturbance recording at higher sample rates

Serial Transmission : Definitions

Transmitter

11101010

00001101

Receiver

SERIAL TRANSMISSION

SIMPLEX

Transmission in one direction only

HALF DUPLEX

Two way means of transmission but data can only


travel in one direction at a time

FULL DUPLEX

Transmission in both directions simultaneously

Transmission Systems

SYNCHRONOUS

Bit periods controlled by synchronizing the clocks at the


transmitter and at the receiver
Framing bits are added to blocks of data

ASYNCHRONOUS

Tansmitter and Receiver clocks run at approximately the same rate


Framing bits are added to raw data bits

Transmission Medium
EIA 232
(was RS232)

- 9/25 pin D connector


- Maximum data rate ~19200 b/s
- Maximum distance 15m

EIA 485
(was RS485)

- 2 or 4 wires
- Maximum data rate 10Mb/s
- Maximum distance 1000m

Optical fibre - Immunity to electrical interference


- Advantages in distance and speed
Ethernet

- Electrical and fibre media


- Data rate 10Mb/s, 100Mb/s

Data Security

Noise corruption of data

Parity bit check


Checksums
Cyclic redundancy check

Unauthorized access

Password protection
Modem dial back
Firewalls
Encryption
Authentication

Transmission Definitions :
Client/Server
MASTER/SLAVE

slave (IED) can only send when it receives a request


from the master (e.g. RTU)
slave sets flags to indicate functions need servicing by
the master

CLIENT/SERVER

same relationship as master/slave


but can have multiple clients!

Transmission Definitions : Point


to point
REMOTE
LOCAL

Laptop

Engineering
Station
Modem

IED
Modem

IED

Transmission Definitions :
Shared Access

STAR

RING
Controller

BUS
Controller

Network Terminology
Network

An interconnected group of nodes or


stations linked by communication channels

Node

The interface point where one or more


functional units are connected

LAN

Local area network (<5km)

WAN

Wide area network

Network topology

Pattern of nodes and their interconnection

Gateway

Equipment which makes data from a


separate subnetwork available to primary
network

Transmission Definitions :
Network Access
CARRIER SENSE METHODS
CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)/
CD (Collision Detection)
TOKEN ACCESS METHOD
The device that has the Token has access to
transmit
RESERVATION METHOD
Each device has a predefined time slot to
transmit

Network Topology
Modem

SCADA
Client

Engineering
Station
Modem

Modem

Gateway
RS485
IED *

DNP3.0 Level 3
Substation
HMI

DNP3.0
Level 2
RS485
DNP3.0
Level 2
IED

RS485
IED
RS485

RS485
* proprietary protocol

Modem

RS232
Front

Laptop
Computer

Gatewa
y

Network Topology
SCADA
Client
Ethernet
HUB

Gatewa
y UCA2
RS485
IED *

Engineering
Station
RS232
Terminal
Server

WAN

Terminal
Server

Substation
HMI
Etherne
t
IED

Etherne
t
IED
RS232
Front

RS485
RS485
* proprietary protocol

RS485

Laptop
Computer

Gatewa
y

Current Communications Protocols


Outside the substation
IEC60870-5-101, DNP3, MODBUS,
MODBUS Plus, etc.
Client / Server
Speed 9.6 to 64 kb/s +

SCADA

RTU / Bay
Computer /
Gateway

Within the substation


IEC60870-5-103, DNP3, MODBUS,
Courier, Profibus, etc.
IEDs
Client / Server
Speed 1200b/s to 64 kb/s

Various Available Protocols


Properitory Protocols
Courier, Profibus, Spabus
Modbus
DNP3
IEC60870-5-103
UCA-2
IEC61850

Modbus
Developed by Modicon USA
Master Node
Slave Node
Information when the master poles
Analog data supported in two bytes

Max no. of data supported in a device are 655

Strength & Weaknesses


STRENGTHS
Real open Protocol
General purpose Protocol
Low resource requirement
Frame level advantages
Reliable communication

Strength & Weaknesses


Weaknesses
Time Stamping is proprietary
No unsolicited response support
No polled report by exception support
Operates only on sequential data point

Gateway :
Principle of Protocol Conversion
MODBUS
Courier

Register 30175
Register 30176
Register 30177

000 0

0001

1101

1100

IED database
Conversion Process
Ia = 476A
476

Gateway : Protocol Converter Unit

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

POWER SUPPLY

MODBUS protocol
To SCADA
RTU
RS485 - MODBUS protocol
202

Protocol
Converter

F+OPN A9311

F+OPN A9311

F+OPN A9311

MODBUS Relays
K-Bus - Courier protocol

Courier Relays

F+OPN A9311

IEC60870-5-103
The limitations of the Modbus is over come
Time Synchronization is defined
Setting changes can not be done

Current protocols : limitations


Designed 5-20 years ago to:

minimise the communication bandwidth


minimise the processor/memory load
make it implementable for non-communication expert

One driver per protocol, no standard


Slow communication: need for multiple links
Difficult connection of a third party application - gateway
Database absolute address, not flexible, no modelling
Master-slave: long recovery time in case of master failure
Peer-to-peer communication usually not possible

Need for Standardisation


Lack

of commonality between vendors

Lack

of standard SCADA / DCS protocols

Existing

industry protocols (e.g. Modbus,

Profibus,..) not well suited to protection


communications
Cost

of interface / gateway solutions

Changes in technology
Processor

speeds have been multiplied by 30 (at


least) in 15 years
Cost of Memory has dropped considerably
Ethernet is widely available
10 - 100 Mbps
Software

technology allows the implementation


of complex concepts
For example, Object Oriented Design enabling the reuse of existing software

Communications
Interoperability
Interoperability is the capacity to:
communicate,
execute programs,
or transfer data,
amongst the various elements of a system or
network,
without requiring extensive knowledge of the
equipment and processes involved.

Recent Developments
UCA2

EPRI ( USA utilities ) project


not tied to any particular vendor
use of some existing standards (MMS protocol, Ethernet medium)
IEC61850

Future international standard


based on UCA 2
mappings to existing protocols (for compatibility with existing
systems)

Substation Communications
Architecture
Substation HMI

Substation Computer

SCADA Client

Router

WAN

Hub A

IED
A1

IED
A2

IED
A3

Hub B

IED
An

IED
B1

IED
B2

IED
B3

IED
Bn

IEC61850 Protocol Capabilities


Single protocol enabling integration of multiple vendors
equipment and easy application change = Interoperability
High speed Ethernet communication
Data addressing by logical name, not absolute address:
more flexible
Peer-to-peer communication: fast (4 ms objective), no
central point-of-failure
Easy Ethernet extension outside of the substation (LAN)

IEC61850 Services
Measurement

and Status read


Settings read and write
Controls (Select before operate)
Reports (spontaneous report by exception)
File transfer (disturbance records, PSL etc)
Time-synch
Peer-to-peer status (GOOSE)

UCA 2 Object Hierarchy

Functional Components

MX

MX

Logical Nodes
MMXU1

Logical Device
(e.g. Relay1)

Physical Device
(network address)

MMXU2

OBJECT
NAME :
MMXU2.MX.A.PhsAf

Object Hierarchy : Definitions


(2)

Logical

Nodes (Brick) - standardized


reusable groupings of associated data
objects. Wrapper is optional.

Logical

Devices - represent the device;


consist of specialized groupings of associated
Logical Nodes

GOMSFE
GOMSFE

Max Characters

Wrapper

6 ChaRacTers

Logical Node (Brick)

4 CHARACTERS + #

Functional Component

2 CHARACTERS.

Data Class
Common Component

9 ChaRacTers.
7 ChaRacTers

GOMSFE : Measurements
Object MMXU

Functional Components

MX

MX

Logical Nodes
MMXU1

MMXU2

Logical Device
(e.g. Relay1)

Physical Device
(network address)

MMXU2.MX.A.PhsAf =
Phase A Current Measurement

GOMSFE : Measurements
Object MMXU
Examples of different measurements :

MMXU0 - this will return all measurements


MMXU0.A - this will return all Amps measurements, i.e. Ia,
Ib, Ic, Io

MMXU0.A.PhsAf - this will return a Phase A


measurement in a Floating Point format

MMXU0.V.PhsABi - this will return a Phase-to-phase


voltage A-B measurement in an Integer format

MMXU0.Hz - this will return the frequency F

UCA 2 : Self-description
The

composition of any device model can be


completely determined through the
interrogation of the communicating device.

This

can be compared to web sites accessed


through a standard browser: the browser
cannot anticipate the content of each web site.

This

aims at saving considerable engineering


time.

Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event


(GOOSE)
Peer-to-peer
Inter-triggering

and inter-tripping
Emulates (and so replaces) wiring between IEDs
Multicast
High reliability
Periodic Refresh
Automatic Reset
Sequence Count

Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event


(GOOSE)
RECEIVING
IED (1)
SENDING
IED

GOOSE

RECEIVING
IED (2)

Substation
LAN
(Ethernet)

RECEIVING
IED (3)

IEC61850 : Benefits
Interoperability

Open protocol
supported by most vendors
helps customer to build standard bays/panels, to
reduce design and production time
High

speed communications 100Mb/s


Peer-to-peer communications

IEC61850
UCA2
GOMSFE

618507-4
7-3

TC57 WG10,11,12

Compatible data objects

Device Models
Device Models
Device Models
Common Class Definitions

Data Templates for Substations

7-2

Abstract Communication
Service Interface (ACSI)

8-1

Mapping to MMS

Standard Data Types and


Common Components
GOOSE Communications

Common Application
Service Model (CASM)

Interoperability Test at CIGRE

Substation IEDs for Complete


Solution
Remote
Unit

Remote
Unit

DR/PQ
Monitor

Distance
Protectio
n

Bus
Protectio
n

DR/PQ
Monitor

DR/PQ
Monitor

Distance
Protectio
n

DR/PQ
Monitor
Remote
Unit

Remote
Unit

X-er
Protect.

X-er
Protect.

DR/PQ
Monitor

DR/PQ
Monitor

DR/PQ
Monitor

DR/PQ
Monitor

Feeder
Protect
.

Feeder
Protect.

Feeder
Protect.

Feeder
Protect.

Communications Software
Local

access (for PC/laptop)

proprietary (protocol-specific), e.g. MiCOM S1


generic browsers for UCA2
Drivers

(for RTU/PLC/PC)

open standards: DDE, OPC, etc., e.g. Courier


DDE for MiCOM S10
SCADA

/ DCS

direct: UCA2 on Ethernet, e.g. PACiS


via RTU/Bay Module, e.g. DNP3.0
via gateway, e.g. RTU/PLC

Conclusions
Industries must remain stuck to
Modbus or IEC 103 Protocol

Utilities willing to expand must also go for the I

New installation can think of going for the IEC61

In Power System network emphasis must be giv


on Protection devices
Setting shall be preferably from the front port

Rear port shall be used for the Event, Measurem


and disturbance

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