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Anatomy of long bone and

classification of Joints
Prepared by
Dr Dipendra Maharjan
1st yr Resident, NAMS

Bone
Calcified, living, connective tissue that
forms the majority of skeletal system
Intercellular calcified matrix which consist
collagen fiber
Functions as
Supportive structure
Protector
Reservoir
Act as a lever
Act as a container

Type of Bone
Compact
Dense bone tissue composed of osteons, which
resist pressure and shocks and protect the
spongy tissue
forms especially the diaphysis of the long
bones.

Spongy
Tissue made of bony compartments separated
by cavities filled with bone marrow, blood
vessels and nerves
gives bones their lightness.

Classification of bone
According by shape
Long bone
Short bone
Flat bone
Irregular bone
Sesamoid bone

Long bone
Longer than they are wide.
Reflects the elongated shape rather than
the overall size.
Consist of a shaft plus two ends and are
constructed primarily of compact bone
may contain substantial amounts of
spongy bone.
All bones of the limbs, except the patella,
wrist and ankle bones, are long bones.

Parts of long bone

Epiphysis
Are expanded articular ends
separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal
plate during bone growth
composed of a spongy bone surrounded by
a thin layer of compact bone.
Proximal epiphysis
Enlarged terminal part of the bone,
nearest the center of the body,

Distal epiphysis
Enlarged terminal part of the bone,
farthest from the center of the body,

Metaphysis
Part of the bone between the epiphysis
and the diaphysis;
it contains the connecting cartilage
enabling the bone to grow
disappears at adulthood.

Diaphysis
Elongated hollow central portion of the
bone located between the methaphyses;
made of compact tissue
encloses the medullary cavity.

Structure of long bone

Osteon
Elementary cylindrical structure of the
compact bone
Runs parallel to longest axis of bone
Surrounds and opens into Haversian
canal.

Haversian canal
Lengthwise central canal of the osteon
enclose blood vessels and nerves.

Volkmanns canals
Perforating canal
Transverse canals of the compact bone
enclosing blood vessels and nerves
they connect the Haversian canals and with
the medullary cavity and the periosteum.

Medullary cavity
Cylindrical central cavity of the bone
containing the bone marrow
encloses lipid-rich yellow bone marrow.

Periosteum
Fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that
envelopes the bone
contributes especially to the bones growth in
thickness.
anchored to the bone itself by bits of collagen
called Sharpeys perforating fibers.

Concentric lamellae
Bony layers of osteon made of collagen fibers
arranged concentrically around the Haversian
canal
form as the bones grow.

Articular cartilage
Smooth resistant elastic tissue covering the
terminal part of the bone
facilitates movement and absorbs shocks.

Blood vessel
Channel in the bone through which the blood
circulates, carrying the nutrients and mineral
salts the bone requires.

Bone marrow
Soft substance contained in bone cavities,
producing blood cells
red in children, yellow in the long bones of
adults.

JOINTS
the site where two or more
skeletal elements come
together

Classification of Joint
According to function of joint
Synarthroses
no/little movement
Sutures, Teeth,Epiphyseal plates,1st rib and
costal cart.

Amphiarthroses
slight movement
Distal Tibia/fibula, Intervertebral discs, Pubic
symphysis

Diarthroses
great movement
Glenohumeral joint, Knee joint, TMJ

According to the structure of Joint


Cartilaginous
Fibrous
Synovial

Cartilaginous Joint
are connected entirely by cartilage
allow more movement between bones
than a fibrous joint but less than the
highly mobile synovial joint
also forms the growth regions of
immature long bones and the
intervertebral discs of the spinal column.
Types
Synchondrosis
Symphysis

Cartilaginous
Synchondrosis (synarthroses)
Primary cartilaginous joints
Occur where two ossification centre in a developing bone
remain seperated by a layer of cartilage
Growth plate between head and shaft of developing long
bone
Allow bone growth and eventually become completely
ossified

Symphysis (amphiarthroses)
Secondary cartileginous joints
Two separate bones are interconnected by cartilage
Mostly occur in midline
Pubis symphysis, intervertebral disc between adjacent
vertebrae

Fibrous Joint
are connected by dense connective
tissue, consisting mainly of collagen
Types
Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphosis

Fibrous
Suture
Only in skull where adjacent bones are linked by a thin
layer of connective tissue

Gomphoses
Occur only between the teeth and adjacent bone
Short collagen tissue fibre in the periodontal ligament
run between the root of the tooth and the bony socket

Syndesmoses
Joints in which two adjacent bones are linked by a
ligament
Are moveable
Ligamentum flavum, interosseos membrane

Synovial Joint
Are diarthrosis
the most common and most movable type
achieve movement at the point of contact
of the articulating bones.
The main structural differences between
synovial and fibrous joints are
the existence of capsules surrounding the
articulating surfaces of a synovial joint
the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within
those capsules.

Classification of synovial
Joint
Based upon movement
Uniaxial joint
Biaxial Joint
Multiaxial Joint

Classification of synovial
Joint
Based on the shape of their articular
surface
Planar Joint
Hinge Joint
Pivot Joint
Bicondylar Joint
Condylar Joint
Saddle Joint
Ball and socket joint

Plane Joint
Also called
Gliding Joints
One moves
across the
surface of
another
Allow sliding or
gliding
movements
Acromoclavicular
joint

Hinge Joint
Also known as
ginglymus joint
Allow movement
around one axis
that passes
transversly
through the joint
Permit flexion and
extension
Humeroulnar joint

Pivot Joint
Also called trochoid
joint
Allow movement
around one axis
that passes
longitudinally along
the shaft of the
bone
One bone rotates
another
Atlanto-axial joint

Bicondylar Joint
Formed by two
convex condyles
that articulate with
concave or flat
surface
Allow movement
mostly in one axis
with limited rotation
around a second
axis
Knee joint

Condylar Joint
Ellipsoid Joint
Allow movement around
two axis that are at right
angle to each other
Permit flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction and
limited circumduction
Wrist joint

Saddle Joint
Also known as sellar joint
Allow movement around
two axis that are at right
angle to each other
Articular suface are
saddle shaped
Permits flexion,
extension, abduction,
adduction, circumduction
Carpometacarple joint of
the thumb,
sternoclavicular joint

Ball and Socket Joint


Universal joint,
spheroidal joint
Allow movement
around multiple axis
Permits extension,
flexion, abduction,
adduction,
circumduction
except gliding
Hip joint,
glenohumeral joint

Thank You!

References
Grays anatomy for student by Drake,
Vogi
Grays anatomy : the anatomical by
susan standring
Clinical anatomy by region Richard snell
Netters Anatomy
Gross Anatomy BRSeries by Kyung
Clinically oriented Anatomy by Moore
Lasts Anatomy regional and applied