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ANALISIS LAPORAN

KEUANGAN
KULIAH - 5

ACCOUNTING CYCLE

Analyze and
record the
transactions

Prepare the
financial
statements

Post the
transactions and
prepare trial
balance

Adjust the
accounts
and prepare
trial balance

Close the
accounts and
prepare trial
balance

2-52

LAPORAN KEUANGAN

LAPORAN LABA RUGI


LAPORAN PERUBAHAN EKUITAS
LAPORAN ARUS KAS
CATATAN ATAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN

1. Neraca
(Balance Sheet)
Menggambarkan posisi keuangan perusahaan pada suatu
titik waktu tertentu (biasanya di akhir tahun anggaran
atau akhir periode akuntansi)

2. Laporan Laba Rugi


(Income Statement)
Menggambarkan volume kegiatan perusahaan selama
suatu periode waktu tertentu (biasanya selama satu tahun
anggaran atau satu periode akuntansi)

3. Laporan Perubahan Modal


(Changes of Owners Equity Statement)
Menggambarkan peningkatan atau penurunan
aktiva bersih atau kekayaan selama satu periode
waktu tertentu (biasanya selama satu tahun
anggaran atau satu periode akuntansi)

4. Laporan Arus Kas (Cash Flow Statement)


Memberikan informasi yang memungkinkan para
pemakai untuk mengevaluasi perubahan dalam
aktiva bersih perusahaan, struktur keuangan
(termasuk likuiditas dan solvabilitas) dan
kemampuan untuk mempengaruhi jumlah serta
waktu arus kas dalam rangka adaptasi dengan
perubahan keadaan dan peluang
Selama satu periode waktu tertentu (biasanya selama
satu tahun anggaran atau satu periode akuntansi)

5. Catatan atas Laporan Keuangan


(Notes to Financial Statement)
Informasi

tentang dasar penyusunan laporan keuangan


dan kebijakan akuntansi yang dipilih dan diterapkan
terhadap peristiwa dan transaksi yang penting.
Informasi yang diwajibkan dalam Pernyataan Standar
Akuntansi Keuangan tetapi tidak disajikan di neraca,
laporan laba rugi, laporan arus kas, dan laporan
perubahan ekuitas.
Informasi tambahan yang tidak disajikan dalam laporan
keuangan tetapi diperlukan dalam rangka penyajian
secara wajar.

Hubungan

Financial Position

Financial Performance

Balance Sheet as at Dec.31, 2007

Events during 2008 affecting


only the balance sheet
Auditing

Balance Sheet as at Dec.31, 2008

Income Statement for the year 2008


Statement of Retained Earnings
for the year 2008

HUBUNGAN INCOME STATEMENT BALANCE SHEET


Income Statement
RE Statement
(for a specified period)

Revenues - Expenses
=Income before tax
Deducted by Income tax
=Net income

To Balance Sheet

(for a specified period)


Beginning Balance
Added by :
net income
Deducted By:
dividends declared
=Ending Balance

GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING


PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS

Entity - Every entity is a separate economic unit and


should be kept distinct from the activities of its
owners and other companies
Monetary Unit - only economic events that have
monetary transactions will be reported in the
financial statements
Cost Principle - assets are presented at their original
(historical) cost
Going Concern - companies are established with the
goal that they will operate for an indefinitely long
period of time
Periodicity - economic activities of any firm can be
divided into discrete time periods for reporting
purposes
Matching Principle -all revenues must be recorded in
the accounting period in which the goods are sold or
services are rendered and all expenses must be
recorded in the accounting period in which they are
incurred to produce such revenues

KETENTUAN PEMBUKUAN PASAL 28


KUP
1)

Wajib Pajak orang pribadi yang melakukan kegiatan usaha atau


pekerjaan bebas dan Wajib Pajak badan di Indonesia wajib
menyelenggarakan pembukuan.

2)

Wajib Pajak yang dikecualikan dari kewajiban menyelenggarakan


pembukuan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1), tetapi wajib
melakukan pencatatan, adalah Wajib Pajak orang pribadi yang
melakukan kegiatan usaha atau pekerjaan bebas yang sesuai
dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan perpajakan
diperbolehkan menghitung penghasilan neto dengan
menggunakan Norma Penghitungan Penghasilan Neto dan Wajib
Pajak orang pribadi yang tidak melakukan kegiatan usaha atau
pekerjaan bebas.

3)

Pembukuan atau pencatatan tersebut harus diselenggarakan


dengan memperhatikan iktikad baik dan mencerminkan keadaan
atau kegiatan usaha yang sebenarnya.

4)

Pembukuan atau pencatatan harus diselenggarakan di Indonesia


dengan menggunakan huruf latin, angka Arab, satuan mata uang
rupiah, dan disusun dalam bahasa Indonesia atau dalam bahasa
asing yang diizinkan oleh Menteri Keuangan.

5)

Pembukuan diselenggarakan dengan prinsip taat asas dan dengan


stelsel akrual dan stelsel kas.

6)

Perubahan terhadap metode pembukuan dan/atau tahun buku


harus mendapat persetujuan dari Direktur Jenderal Pajak.

(7)

Pembukuan sekurang-kurangnya terdiri atas catatan mengenai


harta, kewajiban, modal, penghasilan dan biaya, serta penjualan
dan pembelian sehingga dapat dihitung besarnya pajak yang
terutang.

(8)

Pembukuan dengan menggunakan bahasa asing dan mata uang


selain Rupiah dapat diselenggarakan oleh Wajib Pajak setelah
mendapat izin Menteri Keuangan.

9) Pencatatan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) terdiri atas data


yang dikumpulkan secara teratur tentang peredaran atau
penerimaan bruto dan/atau penghasilan bruto sebagai dasar untuk
menghitung jumlah pajak yang terutang, termasuk penghasilan yang
bukan objek pajak dan/atau yang dikenai pajak yang bersifat final.
10) Buku, catatan, dan dokumen yang menjadi dasar pembukuan atau
pencatatan dan dokumen lain termasuk hasil pengolahan data dari
pembukuan yang dikelola secara elektronik atau secara program
aplikasi on-line wajib disimpan selama 10 (sepuluh) tahun di
Indonesia, yaitu tempat kegiatan atau tempat tinggal Wajib Pajak
orang pribadi, atau ditempat kedudukan Wajib Pajak badan.

ANALISIS LAPORAN KEUANGAN

Suatu proses yang penuh pertimbangan


dalam rangka membantu mengevaluasi
posisi keuangan dan hasil operasi
perusahaan pada masa sekarang dan
masa lalu, dengan tujuan untuk
menentukan estimasi dan prediksi yang
paling memungkinan mengenai kondisi
dan kinerja perusahaan pada masa
mendatang (Leopold A. Bernstein)

FUNGSI ANALISIS LAPORAN


KEUANGAN

Sebagai alat kontrol serta


dapat mendeteksi jika
terdapat ketidakwajaran
laporan keuangan

LANGKAH-LANGKAH DALAM
ANALISIS LAPORAN KEUANGAN

METODE ANALISIS LAPORAN


KEUANGAN

ANALISIS HORIZONTAL

DEFINISI

Metode analisis yang dilakukan


dengan cara membandingkan
laporan keuangan dengan
beberapa periode sehingga
dapat diketahui perkembangan
dan kecenderungannya

METODE ANALISIS HORISONTAL


(DINAMIS)

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Balance
Balance Sheet
Sheet

Increase (Decrease)
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Assets
Current assets $ 550,000 $ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
Long-term investments 95,000
177,500 (82,500)
(46.5%)
Fixed assets (net) 444,500 470,000 (25,500) (5.4%)
Intangible assets 50,000
50,000

Total assets $1,139,500 $1,230,500 $ (91,000) (7.4%)


Liabilities
Current liabilities $ 210,000 $ 243,000 $ (33,000)
(13.6%)
Long-term liabilities 100,000 200,000 (100,000)
(50.0%) Total liabilities $ 310,000 $ 443,000
$(133,000) (30.0%)
Stockholders Equity
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par $ 150,000 $ 150,000
Common stock, $10 par 500,000 500,000
Retained earnings 179,500 137,500 $42,000 30.5%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Balance
Balance Sheet
Sheet

Increase (Decrease)
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Assets
Current assets $ 550,000 $ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
Long-term investments 95,000
177,500 (82,500)
(46.5%)
Fixed assets (net) 444,500 470,000 (25,500) (5.4%)
Intangible assets 50,000
50,000

Total assets $1,139,500 $1,230,500 $ (91,000) (7.4%)


Liabilities
Current liabilities $ 210,000 $ 243,000 $ (33,000)
(13.6%)
Long-term liabilities 100,000 200,000 (100,000)
(50.0%) Total liabilities $ 310,000 $ 443,000
$(133,000) (30.0%)
Stockholders Equity
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par $ 150,000 $ 150,000
Common stock, $10 par 500,000 500,000
Retained earnings 179,500 137,500 $42,000 30.5%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Increase (Decrease)
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
$ 550,000 $ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
95,000
177,500
(82,500) (46.5%)
444,500 Analysis:
470,000
(25,500)
(5.4%)
Horizontal
50,000
50,000

Difference
$1,139,500
$1,230,500$17,000
$ (91,000)
(7.4%)

Assets
Current assets
Long-term investments
Fixed assets (net)
Intangible assets
Total assets
=
Liabilities
Base year (2005) $533,000
Current liabilities
$ 210,000 $ 243,000 $ (33,000)
Long-term liabilities
100,000
200,000 (100,000)
Total liabilities
$ 310,000 $ 443,000 $(133,000)
Stockholders Equity
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par$ 150,000 $ 150,000

Common stock, $10 par


500,000
500,000

Retained earnings
179,500
137,500
$42,000
Total stockholders equity $ 829,500 $ 787,500
$42,000
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 $1230,500 $(91,000)

3.2%

(13.6%)
(50.0%)
(30.0%)

30.5%
5.3%
(7.4%)

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Increase (Decrease)
2005
Amount
Percent
$ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
177,500
(82,500) (46.5%)
470,000
(25,500)
(5.4%)
50,000

$1,230,500 $ (91,000)
(7.4%)

2006
Assets
Current assets
$ 550,000
Long-term investments
95,000
Fixed assets (net)
444,500
Intangible assets
50,000
Total assets
$1,139,500
Horizontal Analysis:
Liabilities
Current liabilities
$ 210,000 $ 243,000 $ (33,000) (13.6%)
Difference
$(82,500)
Long-term liabilities
100,000
200,000 (100,000)
(50.0%)
= (46.5%)
Base
year (2005)
$177,500
Total liabilities
$ 310,000
$ 443,000
$(133,000) (30.0%)
Stockholders Equity
Preferred stock, $100 par $ 150,000 $ 150,000

Common stock, $10 par


500,000
500,000

Retained earnings
179,500
137,500
$42,000
30.5%
Total stockholders equity $ 829,500 $ 787,500
$42,000
5.3%
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 $1230,500 $(91,000)
(7.4%)

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Okay,
Okay, go
go to
to the
the next
next slide
slide
Increase (Decrease)
2006the
Assets and
and calculate
calculate
the 2005 Amount Percent
Current assets
$ 550,000 $ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
percentage
change
for
fixed
percentage95,000
change177,500
for fixed
Long-term investments
(82,500) (46.5%)
Fixed assets (net)
assets.
assets. 444,500 470,000 (25,500) (5.4%)
Intangible assets
50,000
50,000

Total assets
$1,139,500 $1,230,500 $ (91,000)
(7.4%)
Liabilities
Current liabilities
Horizontal
$ 210,000 Analysis:
$ 243,000 $ (33,000) (13.6%)
Long-term liabilities
100,000
200,000 (100,000) (50.0%)
Total liabilities
$ Difference
310,000 $ 443,000 ?$(133,000) (30.0%)
= ?
Stockholders Equity
Base year (2005)
?
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par$ 150,000 $ 150,000

Common stock, $10 par


500,000
500,000

Retained earnings
179,500
137,500
$42,000
30.5%
Total stockholders equity $ 829,500 $ 787,500
$42,000
5.3%
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 $1230,500 $(91,000)
(7.4%)

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Increase (Decrease)
2005
Amount
Percent
$ 533,000 $ 17,000
3.2%
177,500
(82,500) (46.5%)
470,000
(25,500)
(5.4%)
50,000

$1,230,500 $ (91,000)
(7.4%)

2006
Assets
Current assets
$ 550,000
Long-term investments
95,000
Fixed assets (net)
444,500
Intangible assets
50,000
Total assets
$1,139,500
Liabilities
Current liabilities
$ 210,000 $ 243,000 $ (33,000)
Long-term liabilities
100,000
200,000 (100,000)
Total liabilities
$ 310,000 $ 443,000 $(133,000)
Stockholders Equity
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par$ 150,000 $ 150,000

Common stock, $10 par


500,000
500,000

Retained earnings
179,500
137,500
$42,000
Total stockholders equity $ 829,500 $ 787,500
$42,000
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 $1230,500 $(91,000)

(5.4%)
(5.4%)
(13.6%)
(50.0%)
(30.0%)

30.5%
5.3%
(7.4%)

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
December 31, 2006 and 2005
2006
Sales
$1,530,500
Sales returns
32,500
Net sales
$1,498,000
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
Gross profit
$ 455,000
Selling expenses
$ 191,000
Administrative expenses
104,000
Total operating expenses $ 295,000
Operating income
$ 160,000
Other income
8,500
$ 168,500
Other expense
6,000
Income before income tax $ 162,500
Income tax
71,500
Net income
$ 91,000

Income
Income Statement
Statement

Increase (Decrease)
2005
Amount
Percent
$1,234,000 $296,500
24.0%
34,000
(1,500)
(4.4%)
$1,200,000 $298,000
24.8%
820,000
223,000
27.2%
$ 380,000 $ 75,000
19.7%
$ 147,000 $ 44,000
29.9%
97,400
6,600
6.8%
$ 244,400 $ 50,600
20.7%
$ 135,600 $ 24,400
18.0%
11,000
(2,500) (22.7%)
$ 146,600 $ 21,900
14.9%
12,000
(6,000) (50.0%)
$ 134,600 $ 27,900
20.7%
58,100
13,400
23.1%
$ 76,500 $ 14,500
19.0%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Increase (Decrease)
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Sales
$1,530,500 $1,234,000 $296,500 24.0%
24.0%
Sales returns
32,500
34,000
(1,500)
(4.4%)
Net sales
$1,498,000 $1,200,000 $298,000
24.8%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
820,000
223,000
27.2%
Gross profit
$ 455,000 $ 380,000 $ 75,000
19.7%
Horizontal Analysis:
Selling expenses
$ 191,000 $ 147,000 $ 44,000
29.9%
Administrative expenses
104,000
6.8%
Increase
amount97,400
$296,500 6,600
Total operating expenses $ 295,000 $ 244,400 $ 50,600
= 24.0%20.7%
Base
year (2005)
$1,234,000
Operating income
$ 160,000
$ 135,600
$ 24,400
18.0%
Other income
8,500
11,000
(2,500) (22.7%)
$ 168,500 $ 146,600 $ 21,900
14.9%
Other expense
6,000
12,000
(6,000) (50.0%)
Income before income tax $ 162,500 $ 134,600 $ 27,900
20.7%
Income tax
71,500
58,100
13,400
23.1%
Net income
$ 91,000 $ 76,500 $ 14,500
19.0%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
December 31, 2006 and 2005

Increase (Decrease)
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Sales
$1,530,500 $1,234,000 $296,500
24.0%
Sales returns
32,500
34,000
(1,500)
(4.4%)
Net sales
$1,498,000 $1,200,000 $298,000 24.8%
24.8%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
820,000
223,000
27.2%
Gross profit
$ 455,000 $ 380,000 $ 75,000
19.7%
Selling expenses
$ 191,000 $ 147,000 $ 44,000
29.9%
Administrative expenses
104,000
97,400
6,600
6.8%
Total operating expensesHorizontal
$ 295,000
$ 244,400 $ 50,600
20.7%
Analysis:
Operating income
$ 160,000 $ 135,600 $ 24,400
18.0%
Other income
8,500
Increase
amount11,000
$298,000(2,500) (22.7%)
= 24.8%14.9%
$ 168,500 $ 146,600 $ 21,900
Base year
(2005)12,000
$1,200,000(6,000) (50.0%)
Other expense
6,000
Income before income tax $ 162,500 $ 134,600 $ 27,900
20.7%
Income tax
71,500
58,100
13,400
23.1%
Net income
$ 91,000 $ 76,500 $ 14,500
19.0%

ANALISIS VERTIKAL

DEFINISI

Metode analisis yang dilakukan


dengan cara membandingkan
account-account laporan
keuangan (rasio tertentu) pada
suatu periode tertentu sehingga
dapat diketahui nilai relativenya terhadap basis tertentu.

METODE ANALISIS VERTIKAL (STATIS)

Lincoln Company
Balance
Balance
Comparative Balance Sheet
Sheet
Sheet 31, 2005
December 31, 2006
December
Amount Percent
Amount Percent
Assets
Current assets $ 550,000 48.3% $ 533,000
48.3%43.3%
Long-term investments 95,000 8.3 177,500 14.4
Property, plant, & equip. (net) 444,500 39.0470,000 38.2
Intangible assets 50,000 4.4 50,000 4.1
Total assets $1,139,500 100.0%
$1,230,500 100.0%
Liabilities
Current liabilities $ 210,000 18.4% $ 243,000 19.7%
Long-term liabilities 100,000 8.8 200,000 16.3
Vertical
Analysis:
Total liabilities
$ 310,000 27.2% $ 443,000 36.0%
Stockholders Equity
Current assets
$550,000
Preferred stock, 6%, $100 par
$ 150,000
13.2% $ 150,000 12.2%
= 48.3%
Totalstock,
assets
Common
$10 par $1,139,500
500,000 43.9500,000 40.6
Retained earnings 179,500 15.7137,500 11.2
Total stockholders equity
$ 829,500 72.8% $ 787,500 64.0%
Total liab. & SE$1,139,500 100.0% $1,230,500 100.0%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006
December 31, 2005
Amount Percent
Amount Percent
Assets
Current assets
$ 550,000
48.3%
$ 533,000 43.3%
43.3%
Long-term investments
95,000
8.3
177,500
14.4
Property, plant, & equip. (net)
444,500
39.0
470,000
38.2
Intangible assets
50,000
4.4
50,000
4.1
Total assets
$1,139,500 100.0%
$1,230,500 100.0%
Liabilities
Current liabilities
$ 210,000
18.4%
$ 243,000
19.7%
Long-term liabilities
100,000
8.8
200,000
16.3
Vertical
Analysis:27.2%
Total liabilities
$ 310,000
$ 443,000
36.0%
Stockholders Equity
Current assets
$533,000
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par $ 150,000
13.2%
$ 150,000
12.2%
= 43.3%
$1,230,500500,000
Common stock, $10 par Total assets
500,000
43.9
40.6
Retained earnings
179,500
15.7
137,500
11.2
Total stockholders equity
$ 829,500
72.8%
$ 787,500
64.0%
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 100.0%
$1,230,500 100.0%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006
Amount Percent
Assets
Current assets
$ 550,000
48.3%
Long-term investments
95,000
8.3
Property, plant, & equip. (net)
444,500
39.0
Intangible assets
50,000
4.4
Total assets
$1,139,500 100.0%
Liabilities
Current liabilities
$ 210,000
18.4%
Long-term liabilities
100,000
8.8
Total liabilities
$ 310,000
27.2%
Stockholders Equity
Preferred 6% stock, $100 par $ 150,000
13.2%
Common stock, $10 par
500,000
43.9
Retained earnings
179,500
15.7
Total stockholders equity
$ 829,500
72.8%
Total liab. & SE
$1,139,500 100.0%

December 31, 2005


Amount Percent
$ 533,000
177,500
470,000
50,000
$1,230,500

43.3%
14.4
38.2
4.1
100.0%

$ 243,000
200,000
$ 443,000

19.7%
16.3
36.0%

$ 150,000
500,000
137,500
$ 787,500
$1,230,500

12.2%
40.6
11.2
64.0%
100.0%

Lincoln Company
Income
Income
Comparative Income Statement
Statement
For the Years Ended December 31, 2006 and 2005
Statement
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Amount Percent
Sales
$1,530,500
102.2% $1,234,000 102.8%
Sales returns
32,500
2.2
34,000
2.8
Net sales
$1,498,000
100.0% $1,200,000 100.0%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
69.6
820,000 68.3
Gross profit
$ 455,000
30.4% $ 380,000 31.7%
Selling expenses
$ 191,000Net 12.8%
$ 147,000 12.3%
sales
Administrative expenses
104,000 Net sales
6.9
97,400
8.1
Total operating expenses
$ 295,000is
19.7% $ 244,400 20.4%
is 100.0%
100.0%
Income from operations
$ 160,000
10.7
$ 135,600
11.3%
Other income
8,500
0.6
11,000
0.9
$ 168,500
11.3% $ 146,600 12.2%
Other expense
6,000
0.4
12,000
1.0
Income before income tax
$ 162,500
10.9% $ 134,600
11.2%
Income tax expense
71,500
4.8
58,100
4.8
Net income
$ 91,000
6.1% $ 76,500
6.4%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31, 2006 and 2005
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Amount Percent
Sales
$1,530,500
102.2% $1,234,000 102.8%
Sales returns
32,500
2.2
34,000
2.8
Net sales
$1,498,000
100.0% $1,200,000 100.0%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
69.6
820,000 68.3
Gross profit
$ 455,000
30.4% $ 380,000 31.7%
Selling expenses
$ 191,000 12.8%
12.8% $ 147,000 12.3%
Administrative expenses
104,000
6.9
97,400
8.1
Total operating expenses
$ 295,000
19.7% $ 244,400 20.4%
Income from operations
$ 160,000
10.7
$ 135,600
11.3%
Other income
8,500
0.6
11,000
0.9
Vertical Analysis:
$ 168,500
11.3% $ 146,600 12.2%
Other expense
0.4
12,000
1.0
Selling expenses $191,0006,000
Income before income tax
$ 162,500= 12.8%
10.9% $ 134,600
11.2%
Nettax
sales
Income
expense $1,498,000 71,500
4.8
58,100
4.8
Net income
$ 91,000
6.1% $ 76,500
6.4%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31, 2006 and 2005
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Amount Percent
Sales
$1,530,500
102.2% $1,234,000 102.8%
Sales returns
32,500
2.2
34,000
2.8
Net sales
$1,498,000
100.0% $1,200,000 100.0%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
69.6
820,000 68.3
Gross profit
$ 455,000
30.4% $ 380,000 31.7%
Selling expenses
$ 191,000
12.8% $ 147,000 12.3%
Administrative expenses
104,000
6.9
97,400
8.1
Total operating expenses
$ 295,000
19.7% $ 244,400 20.4%
Income from operations
$ 160,000
10.7
$ 135,600
11.3%
Other income
8,500
0.6
11,000
0.9
$ 168,500
11.3% $ 146,600 12.2%
Other expense
6,000
0.4
12,000
1.0
Income before income tax
$ 162,500
10.9% $ 134,600
11.2%
Income tax expense
71,500
4.8
58,100
4.8
Net income
$ 91,000
6.1% $ 76,500
6.4%

Lincoln Company
Comparative Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31, 2006 and 2005
2006
2005
Amount
Percent
Amount Percent
Sales
$1,530,500
102.2% $1,234,000 102.8%
Sales returns
32,500
2.2
34,000
2.8
Net sales
$1,498,000
100.0% $1,200,000 100.0%
Cost of goods sold
1,043,000
69.6
820,000 68.3
Gross profit
$ 455,000
30.4% $ 380,000 31.7%
Selling expenses
$ 191,000
12.8% $ 147,000 12.3%
Administrative expenses
104,000
6.9
97,400
8.1
Total operating expenses
$ 295,000
19.7% $ 244,400 20.4%
Income from operations
$ 160,000
10.7
$ 135,600
11.3%
Other income
8,500
0.6
11,000
0.9
$ 168,500
11.3% $ 146,600 12.2%
Other expense
6,000
0.4
12,000
1.0
Income before income tax
$ 162,500
10.9% $ 134,600
11.2%
Income tax expense
71,500
4.8
58,100
4.8
Net income
$ 91,000
6.1% $ 76,500
6.4%

Common
Common Size
Size Statements
Statements
Vertical
Vertical analysis
analysis with
with both
both dollar
dollar and
and
percentage
percentage amounts
amounts isis also
also useful
useful in
in
comparing
comparing one
onecompany
company with
with another
another or
or
with
with industry
industry averages.
averages. Such
Such
comparisons
comparisons are
are easier
easier to
to make
makewith
with the
the
use
use of
of common-size
common-size statements
statements in
in
which
which all
all items
items are
are expressed
expressed in
in
percentages.
percentages.

Common-Size
Common-Size Income
Income Statement
Statement

ANALISIS RASIO

LIQUDITY RASIO
Mengukur kemampuan perusahaan dalam membayar pengeluaranpengeluaran kas jangka pendek

Current Ratio =

Acid Test Ratio =

Aktiva lancar
Hutang lancar

Aktiva lancar - Persediaan


Hutang Lancar

SOLVABILITY/LEVERAGE RASIO
Mengukur kemampuan perusahaan untuk bertahan dalam jangka
waktu yang lama (Struktur Pembiayaan Jangka Panjang)

Debt to Equity Ratio =

Debt Ratio =

Total Hutang
Modal

Total Hutang
Total Assets

PROFITABILITY RASIO
Mengukur pendapatan atau kesuksesan operasi perusahaan dalam
jangka waktu tertentu

Return on Investment (RoI) =

Profit Margin atau Return on Sales =

Laba Sblm Pajak


Operating Assets
Laba Bersih
Total Sales

Return on Equity =

Laba Bersih
Modal

Return on Assets =

Laba Bersih
Total Assets

ACTIVITY RASIO
Mengukur aktivitas perusahaan dalam jangka waktu tertentu

Inventory Turnover =

Fixed Assets Turnover =

Total Sales
Persediaan Rata-rata
Net Income
Total Aktiva Tetap
Rata2 Piutang

Average Collection Period =


Rata2 Credit Sales per
Hari

SOME FACTS ABOUT THE RATIOS

Financial

ratio is not a crystal ball


Just Showing the Indications
Just a convenient way
to summarize large quantities of

financial data
to compare firms performance

OBJECTIVES OF RATIO ANALYSIS

Standardize financial information for


comparisons
Evaluate current operations
Compare performance with past
performance
Compare performance against other firms
or industry standards
Study the efficiency of operations
Study the risk of operations

TRICK

GETTING NUMBER
APPROACH

WITH

EYE-CATCHING

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BROTHERS


SEEING TAX-RISK BEHIND THE NUMBER

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