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Weeks 5, 6, & 8:

Development Policy &

Peace Medie
Monica Jacobo Suarez
Brandon Boylan

PIA 3395: Development Theory

The Golden Oldies

Gabriel A. Almond & G. Bingham Powell, Jr.

Comparative Politics: A Development

David Lerner
The Passing of Traditional Society

Almond & Powell

Functional Approach to Comparative Politics

The functional approach to

comparative politics includes a
separation of powers (legislation,
administration, and adjudication).

Authors add three other functions to

this approach: interest articulation,
interest aggregation, and
communication. This new approach
is called conversion processes.

Almond & Powell

Political Systems

Government, state, and nation are

too parochial, static, and limited. Political
systems is fluid, clear, and
comprehensive and encompasses structure
(observable actions) and culture
(population traits).




Political System



David Lerner
Modernizing styles of life: A theory

Attempt to apply modern techniques of social

science to the study of the Middle East.
The challenge of modernization: Rationalist spirit

Key concepts

Mobile personality and empathy (the ability to see oneself in the

other individuals situation).

Stages toward a modernizing participant society

2. Literacy
3. Media growth

David Lerner
Modernizing styles of life: A Survey
Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iran.

1,600 interviews
Overrepresentation of movie-goers, radio listeners and newspaper readers.
Statistical analysis

Who is changing, in what direction, at what rate?

The more modern individuals score higher in one or all of

the next characteristics: opinion range, urbanization,
literacy, media participation, and empathy.
Modern societies in the Middle East tend to be also more
stable and dynamic.
Validity of the results?

David Lerner
Retrospect and Prospect

Traditional society is passing from the Middle East

because few want to live by its rules

The media is engaging empathy among Middle Easterners

Transitionals seek modernization but rigid societal

structures hinder their mobility and cause some to
become violent

Middle East is diverse and a collective Pan-Islam identity

is not viable, the key is modernization

David Lerner
Retrospect and Prospect

Middle East is in need of a great rational

prophecy that will show how Islam can be
made compatible with secular doctrines

Spokesmen (transitionals) are needed to define

the new identity but Western educated Middle
Easterners are stifled by rivalries

Modernization aims to create a Middle Sector

(Transitionals). Governments should also create
conditions that reward new lifestyle

Synthesis of
Development Policy &


1) Government in Development:


government has a role to play in fostering


2) Policymaking:

3) Development Analysis:

4) Civil Society:

Policy analysts need to

consider contextual differences when assigning
theories need to have theoretical coherence and
clear, basic concepts to have power.
Northern NGOs need to better
understand the issues of their Southern counterparts

Government in

Turner and Hulme

The existence of effective public sector organizations is a key facet to

promote development in developing countries. Although, organizational

improvement doesnt guarantee development.

Government fosters development, pushing society through the stages of

modernization. Urbanization, literacy, and communication media bring

about emphatic individuals, which move out of traditional settings
towards modernization.

Lesotho is a case study to exemplify how the World Bank can

misrepresents a developing country and how governments can misuse

NGOs and other development projects for their own benefit.

Government in

Government action is needed to create an

environment that fosters economic

Inequality within and between states is a

source of conflict and development can be a

peace-promoting process
Armament can become part of a states

development strategy. E.g. Indias nuclear


Turner and Hulme

Donors play a crucial role shaping policy-making in developing

countries. Often, the policies adopted have been dysfunctional because

donors disregard contextual differences.

Almond and Powell

A political system consists of interacting roles, structures, and

subsystems, and of underlying psychological propensities which affect

these interactions. To compare political systems, one must understand
inputs, conversion processes, outputs, and feedback loops.

Northern states should acknowledge that their levels of consumption are

unsustainable and make development impossible. They should pursue

development policies in the South that are less predatory and selfinterested.

Development Analysis

Leys, chapter 2
UDT are not useful for development analysis today due to their

conceptual imprecision and lack of theoretical coherence. UDT result

from a very specific historical period. Because UDT constitute a
particular form of political practice, they are not functional for current

Civil Society

Northern NGOs need to develop new lobbying techniques to help their

Southern counterparts.
A blend of academia and NGO officials experiences should provide the
basis for effective advocacy.
Good lobbying demands choosing the issue carefully, constructing the
expert case, and generating public support.

British NGOs often enter into competition, rather than collaboration.
NGOs, fearing that they may lose their charitable status, do not fully

engage or challenge governmental institutions.