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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN

Kelompok 6:
Adi, Ardi, Adya, Asep, Dodi

Secara Umum fisiologi kulit adalah..

Fungsi Proteksi
Melindungi bagian dalam tubuh manusia
terhadap
gangguan fisik&mekanik : tekanan, gesekan,
tarikan, panas/dinginlemak subkutis,
tebalnya lapisan kulit, & serabut penunjang
gangguan sinar UV melanin
gangguan jamur, bakteri/virus kelenjar2
kulit yang mempunyai pH 5,0 - 6,5

Fungsi Absorpsi
Kulit yang sehat tidak mudah menyerap air,
larutan.
Kemampuan absorpsi kulit dipengaruhi : tebal
tipisnya kulit, hidrasi, kelembaban udara,
metabolisme dan jenis vehikulum zat yang
menempel di kulit.
Penyerapan dapat melalui celah antar sel,
saluran kelenjar atau saluran keluar rambut.

Fungsi Ekskresi
Kelenjar kulit mengeluarkan zat yang tidak
berguna/sisa metabolisme tubuh : NaCl, urea,
amonia, dan sedikit lemak.
Kelenjar lemak pada fetus, atas pengaruh
hormon androgen dari ibunya, akan
menghasilkan sebum untuk melindungi
kulitnya terhadap cairan amnion yang pada
waktu lahir disebut vernix caseosa.

Sebum yg diproduksi kelenjar lemak


melindungi kulit : meminyaki kulit & menahan
penguapan berlebihan, kulit tidak kering.
Produk kelenjar lemak & keringat, di
permukaan kulit membentuk keasaman kulit
pada pH 5 - 6,5.
Penguapan air dari dalam tubuh dapat secara
difusi melalui sel-sel epidermis, tetapi karena
sel epidermis baik fungsi sawarnya, maka
kehilangan air melalui sel epidermis
(transepidermal water loss) dapat dicegah
agar tidak melebihi kebutuhan tubuh.

Fungsi Pengindra (Sensori)


Kulit mengandung ujung-ujung saraf sensorik
di dermis dan subkutis.
Badan Ruffini yang terletak di dermis,
menerima rangsangan dingin
rangsangan panas diperankan oleh badan
Krausse.
Badan taktil Meissner yang terletak di papil
dermis menerima rangsang rabaan & badan
Merkel-Renvier di dermis untuk rangsang
tekanan.

Fungsi Termoregulasi
Dengan cara mengeluarkan keringat dan
mengkontraksikan otot dinding pembuluh darah kulit.
Vasokonstriksi pembuluh darah kapiler kulit
menghambat kehilangan panas pada waktu dingin.
Kulit kaya akan pembuluh darah kapiler sehingga
cara ini efektif
Pada keadaan suhu meningkat, kelenjar keringat
mengeluarkan banyak keringat ke permukaan kulit
dan dengan penguapan keringat tersebut terbuang
pula kalori/panas tubuh.

Fungsi Pembentukan Pigmen


(Melanogenesis)
Sel pembentuk pigmen kulit (melanosit)
terletak di lapisan basal epidermis
Pajanan sinar matahari mempengaruhi
produksi melanin. Bila pajanan bertambah,
produksi melanin akan meningkat

The Architecture of the Skin


Generally consists of three
layers structure:
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Subcutaneous
tissues

Epidermal Cell Layers


Stratum basale (Basal
cell layer)
A single layer of
cuboidal/columnar cells
Stem cells, melanocytes,
Merkel cells
Stem cells keratinocytes,
mitosis pushes the other
layers to the top

Stratum spinosum
8 to 10 layers of closely
packed cells
Langerhans cells

Epidermal Cell Layers


Stratum granulosum
3-5 layers of flattened,
beginning breakdown of
nucleus, cell death initiated

Stratum lucidum
only in thick skin (palms, feet)
3-5 layers of clear, flat dead
cells with keratin

Stratum corneum
20-30 layers of flattened,
dead, keratin-filled cells
continuously shed and
replaced

2-4 weeks for each cell to


form and to move from the
stratum basale to the
surface

Epidermal histology

Basal cell layer


Contain basophilic
cytoplasm
Elliptical nucleus rich in
cromatin
Desmosomes(for cell
attachment)
Gap junction (for cell
communication)
Hemidesmosomes (for
connection with the
extracellular matrix and
underlying basal
membrane)

The Epidermis
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
4 cell types
1. Keratinocytes - 95%

filled with keratin (protein)


waterproof barrier

2. Melanocytes

produce melanin (pigment)

3. Langerhans cells

phagocytes (from immune


system)
easily damaged by UV light

4. Merkel cells

in deepest layer of hairless skin


sensory transduction - touch

Keratinocytes
Produce keratins and differentiated, and
migrate to the upper layers as they mature
(keratinization)
Produce & secrete various cytokines

Melanocytes
Melanocytes are
found in the basal cell
layer and hair matrix
1000-1500
melanocytes are seen
per mm2 of skin
Melanin is produced
from the amino acid
tyrosine in the
melanosome

Functions of melanin
Protecting the skin from UV rays and
preventing the sunlight injury to the skin
The darker the skin of a particular race, the
lower is the insidence of skin cancer caused
by UV light

Langerhans cell
Is a bone marrow-derived
dendritic cell specific to stratified
squamous epithelia
Frequently seen isolated in the
middle and suprabasal cell layers
Birbeck granules ( Golgi
apparatus-derived) carry antigens
in the cells

Merkel cell
Is a tactile cell found in the basal
cell layer
Greater number are seen in the
fingers, oral mucosa and the hair
roots
Merkel cell are connected to
adjacent keratinocytes by
desmosomes
Physical
stimulationneurotransmitters are
secreted from Merkel cell granules

Dermis
The structure
beneath the
epidermis.
It consists of three
layers :
Papillary layer
Subpapillary layer
Reticular layer

Dermis - Structure
Papillary region
(layer) - outer
layer - 20%
Areolar connective
tissue, elastic
fibers
Dermal papillae
mound-like
projections to
increase the
surface area for
nutrition from
capillaries
Some papillae
contain Meissner's
corpuscles

Dermis Structure
Reticular region 80%
Dense, irregular
connective tissue
Collagen, elastic
fibers in a
network
surrounding the
various cells
Fibers give
strength,
elasticity,
extensibility

Interstitial components
Collagen fibers
70% of weight of dry
dermis
Form from aggregations of
thin fibrils with
glycoprotein
20 subtypes of collagen
(type I 80%)

Elastic fibers

Cellular components
Fibroblast
Differentiates from
mesenchymal cell
Produces collagen fibers,
elastic fibers,
glycosaminoglycans

Histiocyte
A kind of macrophage
In the dermis and
subcutaneous tissues
Contain Golgi apparatus,
smooth&rough endoplasmic
reticuli, lysosomes
Degrades&phagocytoses
mainly foreign substances

Mast cell
Found in the dermis
around capillaries & in the
periphery of
subcutaneous tissues
Produces & maintain
various vasodilatory

Plasma cell
Is a differentiated B cell
that has been
stimulated by an
antigen
Produces antibodies &
involved in humoral
immunity
The diameter is twice
as large as a leukocyte

Vascular channels and nerves


Blood vessels
Arteriovenous
anastomosis controls
the peripheral blood
flow and is involved in
body temperature
regulation

Lymphatic vessel
Are distributed around the
subpapillary layer, extend
through postcapillary lymph
vessels to dermal&
subcutaneous lymph vessels
Aggregated cutaneous
lymphatic fluidregional
lymph nodes flows into the
blood vessels

Nervous system
The nerve fibers :
Myelinated nerve
fibers
Non-myelinated nerve
fibers
The sensory nerves
transmit tactile,
pressure,
pain&temperature
sensation
The autonomic nerves
control the blood
vessels, sweat glands

Sensory nerve
Free nerve ending
Are

distributed in the dermal upper & papillary


layer
Nonmyelinated nerves transmit pain sensations

End corpuscle
Meissner

end corpuscle :

in the dermal papillae


perceiving tactile & pressure sensations

Pacinian

corpuscle :

In the dermal deep layer & subcutaneous tissue


It reacts to vibration

Autonomic nerves
Distributed in the sweat glands, arrector pili
muscles, blood vessels & glomus
apparatuses control the functions of these
organs
The cholinergic nonmyelinated sympathetic
nerves are distributed in the eccrine sweat glands
The adrenergic symphathetic nerves are
distributed in the arrector pili muscles and blood
vessels

Subcutaneous fat tissue


The layer between the
dermis and the fascia
Act to against external
physical pressure, retain
moisture and generate
heat
Is largely composed of
fat cells
Assembled fat cells
separated by connective
fibroid fat septum (fat
lobules)

Appendages
Hair apparatus
Protecting the scalp
from external forces
and light
Found throughout
the skin except lips
on the mouth

Hair follicle
Is double bounded
with two layers:
Epithelial

components; are
inner & outer root
sheaths
Connective tissue
component; is called
connective tissue
sheath

Arrector pili muscle


A smooth muscle
bundle between ORS
and dermal upper
layer.
Cause hair stand
vertically
Controlled by
adrenergic
sympathetic nerves
Contracted by cold
stress & emotional
stress(fear & surprise)

OIL PRODUCTION
Oil is produced in the sebaceous gland ,
production is stimulated by hormones

Oil flows into the hair follicle then into


the skin surface

41

Sebaceous (Oil) Glands


Connected to hair
follicles; located in the
dermis
Most secrete directly into
follicles; some directly
onto the skin
Gland shape differs
depending on location
Secrete sebum (oil)
fats, cholesterol, proteins,
inorganic salts
keeps hair from drying
prevents water evaporation
from skin
keeps skin soft
inhibits growth of many
bacteria

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands

Sweat: a plasma filtrate


consisting of water, salts, urea,
uric acid, amino acids, ammonia,
sugar, lactic acid, ascorbic acid,
and pheromones

pH between 4 and 6

Salty and acidic solution inhibits


most bacterial growth

Maintain body temperature

Two types:
1. Eccrine sweat glands
2. Apocrine sweat glands

Eccrine Sweat Glands

Apocrine Sweat Glands


Secretory portion is
located in the
dermis or the
subcutaneous
region; secrete into
hair follicles
Secrete more during
emotional stress

http://faculty.une.edu/com/abell/histo/histolab3g.h

Modified Sudoriferous (Sweat)


Glands
Two types of modified sweat glands
1. Ceruminous glands protect against
ectoparasites (bugs)

Produce a bitter waxy secretion (cerumen)


Open into the external auditory meatus (ear
canal) or into local sebaceous glands

2. Mammary glands highly specialized for


milk production

Hormonally regulated by estrogens, prolactin,


and oxytocin

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