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Seminar on


Abhishek Kumar Lowanshi {0191EC081003}

Bhupendra Okte { 0191EC081014}
Deepesh Jain {0191EC081020}
Jayendra Kumar Yadav {0191EC081029}

Cellular Telephone Service

1940s MTSs (Mobile Telephone Systems or
Manual Telephone systems):
all calls were handled by an operator, use FM
-use a single carrier frequency in the 35 MHz to
45 MHz range for both the mobile unit and base
- half duplex operation,
-120 kHz bandwidth per channel
-only one conversation could take place at a time
-could not be accessed directly through the PSTN
with five digit long numbers.

1964 IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone

use several carrier frequencies and could,
therefore, handle several simultaneous mobile
conversations at the same time
- high output power between 13 W and 30 W and
a range of 25 mile radius
-with assigned regular PSTN number so could be
reach by dialing the PSTN directly, eliminating
the need for an operator
-transmit power a channel bandwidth of 30 kHZ
increasing the number of channels, .

Cellular Telephone Service

Disadvantages of early mobile telephone
systems: High cost, limited availability, and
narrow frequency allocation.
1983 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
the first U.S. cellular telephone system by
AT&T with 666 30 kHz half-duplex mobile
telephone channels, was based on analog radio
technologies and has been phased out.

AMPS Specifications
Frequency Band:
Forward Link
Reverse Link

Channel Spacing
Spacing between Transmission
and Reception
Number of Channels
Coverage Radius
Audio Signal
Type of Modulation
Frequency Deviation
Control Signal
Type of Modulation


869 894
824 849
30 kHz
45 MHz
2 20 km
+/- 12 khz


Fundamental Concepts of Cellular Phone

Coverage zone a large geographic market
Cells the small sections of the large geographic
area. It is defined by its physical size, and the
size of its population.
a. Macrocells large cells typically have a
radius 1 mile and 15 miles with base station
transmit power between 1 W and 6 W.
b. Microcells the smallest cells typically
have a radius of 1500 feet or less with base
station transmit power between 0.1 W & 1 W

Honeycomb the pattern formed by the

hexagonal- shaped cells.
Picocells very small cells used indoor.

Fundamental Concepts of Cellular Phone

Different locations of base station transmitters:
1. Center-excited cell

3. Edge-excited cell
2. Cornerexcited

Frequency Allocation:
1. 800 900 MHz original frequency
assignment; previously occupied by UHF TV
channels 68 through 83
2. 824 and 849 MHz reserved for uplink
3. 869 and 849 MHz are for downlink
Both 2) and 3) are divided into 832 channels with
30 kHz bandwidth.
4. 30 kHz, 200 kHz, 1.25 MHz the different
bandwidths used in different ways by different
companies in different locations.
5. 700 to 800 Mhz abandoned UHF TV
channels for digital high-definition TV in 2009.
6. 1700 to 1750 Mhz from military
7. 1900 to 2300 Mhz available for 3G.

Multiple Access refers how the subscribers

are allocated





1. Frequency reuse
2. FDMA - the spectrum is divided into many
smaller channels.
3. TDMA multiple users use different time slots
4. CDMA with unique coding, up to 64
subscribers can share a 1.25 Mhz channel.
5. SDMA it uses highly directional antennas to
pinpoint users and reject others on the same


Frequency Reuse
Frequency reuse the
process in which the
(channels) can be
allocated to more
provided the cells are
sufficient distance.
Cluster groups of cells


Frequency Reuse
The number of channels available in a cluster, F:
F = GN
The total channel capacity in a given area, C:
C = mF
G = # of channels in a cell
N = # of cells in a cluster = 3, 7, or 12
m = # of clusters in a given area


Frequency Reuse
Frequency Reuse Factor, FRF: - the number of
subscribers who can use the same set of
frequencies in nonadjacent cells at the same
time in a small area like city is generally 4.

N = total number of full-duplex
channels in an area
C = total number of full-duplex
channels in a cell

Two major kinds of interferences produced
within a cellular telephone system:
1. Co-channel interference - the interference
that occurs between co-channel cells (two cells
using the same set of frequencies).
Note: To reduce co-channel interference, a
certain minimum distance must separate cochannels. It cant be reduce by simply increasing
transmit powers.


between cells is
proportional not
to the distance
between the two
cells but rather to
the ratio of the
distance to the
cells radius.


Since a cells radius is proportional to transmit

power, more radio channels can be added to a
system by either:
1. Decreasing the transmit power per cell.
2. Making cells smaller.
3. Filling vacated coverage areas with new cells.
In a cellular system where all cells are
approximately the same size, co-channel
interference is dependent on the radius (R) of
the cells and the distance to the center of the
nearest co-channel cell (D).


Co-channel reuse ratio,

Q = D/R increasing the
D/R ratio increases the
between co-channel cells
relative to the coverage
Note: The smaller the value of Q, the larger the
channel capacity since the cluster size is also
smaller. However, a large value of Q improves the
co-channel interference and, thus, the overall
transmission quality.

2. Adjacent-channel interference occurs

when transmissions from adjacent channels
(channels next to one another in the frequency
domain) interfere with each other.
- results from imperfect filters in receivers that
allow nearby frequencies to enter the receiver.
Near-far effect: Adjacent-channel interference is
most prevalent when an adjacent channel is
transmitting very close to a mobile units
receiver at the same time the mobile unit is
trying to receive transmission from the base
station on an adjacent frequency.
- most prevalent when a mobile unit is receiving
a weak signal from the base station.


Two methods of increasing the capacity of a

cellular system:
1. Cell Splitting
2. Sectoring
1. Cell Splitting when the area of a cell, or
independent component coverage areas of a
cellular system, is further divided, thus creating
more cell areas.
- occurs when traffic levels in a cell reach the
point where channel availability is jeopardized.
- the process of subdividing highly congested
cells into smaller cells each with their own base
station and set of channel frequencies.



Maximum traffic load the point when a cell

reaches maximum capacity occurs when the
number of subscribers wishing to place a call at
any given time equals the number of channels in
the cell.
Blocking - if a new call is initiated in an area
where all the channels are in use.
More Base station transfers the major
drawback of cell splitting, more handoffs per call
and a higher processing load per subscriber. It
has been proven that a reduction of a cell radius
by a factor of 4 produces a 10-fold increase in the
handoff rate per subscriber.


2. Sectoring another means of increasing the

channel capacity of a cellular telephone system is
to decrease the D/R ratio while maintaining the
same cell radius.
- capacity improvement can be achieved by
reducing the number of cells in a cluster, thus
increasing the frequency reuse. To accomplish
this, the relative interference must be reduced
without decreasing transmit power.
- co-channel interference can be decreased by
replacing a single omnidirectional antenna with
several directional antennas, each radiating
within a smaller area.

Sectors the smaller areas.
Sectoring - decreasing co-channel interference
while increasing capacity by using directional
Space diversity - placing two receive antennas
one above the other. It improves reception by
effectively providing a larger target for signals
radiated from mobile units.

Note: The separation between the two receive

antennas depends on the height of the antennas
above the ground.
30 m above ground: require 8 separation
50 m above ground: require 11 separation

Radio network is defined by a set of radiofrequency transceivers located within each cells
Base stations the locations of radio-frequency
transceivers, consists of a low-power radio
transceiver, power amplifiers, a control unit
(computer), and other hardware, depending on the
system configuration. It can improve transmission
quality, but they cannot increase the channel
capacity within the fixed bandwidth of the
network. It serves as central control for all users
within that cell.
- are distributed over the area of system coverage. 27

Cell-site controller handles all cell-site control
and switching functions.
Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO)
controls channel assignment, call processing, cal
setup, and call termination which includes
signaling, switching, supervision, and allocating
radio-frequency channels.
provides a centralized administration and
maintenance point for the entire network and
interfaces with the PTN over wireline voice
trunks to honor services from conventional
wireline telephone subscribers.


Roaming and Handoffs

Roaming - is when a mobile unit moves from one
cell to another possibly from one companys
service area into another companys service area
(requiring roaming agreements).
Handoff / Handover the transfer of a mobile
unit from one base stations control to another
base stations control.
4 stages of handoff:
1. Initiation either the mobile unit of the
network determines the need for a handoff and
initiates the necessary network procedures.

4 Stages of handoff:
2. Resource reservation appropriate network
procedures reserve the resources needed to
support the handoff (i.e. a voice and a control
3. Execution the actual transfer of control from
one base station to another base station takes
4. Completion unnecessary network resources
are relinquished and made available to another
mobile units.


Types of Handoff:
1. Hard Handoff a connection that is
momentarily broken during the cell-to-cell
transfer. It is a break-before-make process.
- generally occur when a mobile unit is passed
between disjointed systems with different
characteristics, or technologies.
2. Soft Handoff a flawless handoff, normally
takes approximately 200ms, which is imperceptible
to voice telephone users, although the delay may be
disruptive when transmitting data


6 Essential Components:
1. Electronic Switching Center the heart of a
cellular telephone system. It controls switching
between the public wireline telephone network and
the cell-site base stations for wireline-to-mobile...
2.Cell-site Controller manage each of the radio
channels at each site, supervise calls, tx/rx on off.
3. Radio transceivers - transmitter/receiver
4. System interconnections used four-wire leased
lines to connect switching centers to cell sites and
to PTN.
5. Mobile telephone units
6. Common Communications Protocol - governs
the way telephone calls are established and34

Cellular Telephone Call Processing

1. User channel the actual voice channel where
mobile users communicate directly with other
mobile and wireline subscribers through a base
2. Control channel used for transferring control
and diagnostic information between mobile users
and a central cellular telephone switch through a
base station.
Note: Base stations transmit on the forward
control channel and forward voice channel &
receive on the reverse control & reverse voice

3 Types of Calls:
1. Cellular-to-PSTN
2. Cellular-to-Cellular
3. PSTN-to-Cellular

Digital Cell Phone Systems

- developed primarily to expand the capacity of
the cell phone systems already in place.


- more reliable in a noisy environment

- digital circuits can be made smaller and more
power-efficient, and therefore handsets can be
more compact and can operate for longer times.


- digital cell phones greatly facilitate the
transmission of data as well as voice so that data
services such as e-mail and Internet access are


3G Cell Phone Systems

- are true packet data phones
- feature enhanced digital voice and high-speed
data transmission capability.
- described by the term International Mobile
Telecommunications 2000; CDMA 2000.
- frequency range: 1800 to 2200 MHz.
- can achieve a data rate up to 2.048 Mbps in a
fixed position; 384 kbps in a slow-moving
pedestrian environment, and 144 kbps in a fast
mobile environment.
- include fast e-mail and Internet access
- permits the transmission of video
- subscribers can watch a movie