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CHAPTER 5

PAVEMENT DESIGN

Chapter 5
Content:
1. Types & characteristic of
flexible & rigid pavement
2. Structural components for
flexible pavement
3. Design of flexible pavement
JKR Method

Lesson Learning Outcomes


Students should be able to:
1. Distinguish between types of road pavement
2. Select the appropriate materials for used in

road construction.
3. Design the flexible pavement according to

JKR Arahan Teknik (Jalan) method

Function of pavement
Distribute traffic load, stress to the soil at a
magnitude that it will not shear or distort the soil
Guide the driver
pavement & shoulder give a visual
perspective of the horizontal and vertical
alignment of the travel path.

Types of pavement
Two types of pavement structure:
1. Flexible pavement
Constructed with asphaltic cement & aggregates
Consist of several layers:

a) The lowest (subgred) natural soil


b) Subbase crushed aggregate
c) Roadbase crushed aggregates with a
cementing material.
d) Top layer (surfacing) asphaltic concrete

2.

Rigid pavement

Constructed with Portland cement concrete &

aggregates (coarse & fine)


Consist of several layers:

a) Lower layer (subgred) In-situ soil


b) Subbase granular material or suitable stabilized
material.
c) Top layer Portland cement concrete slab.
Transverse contraction joints are built into the

pavement to control the cracking of the slab due to the


shrinkage of the concrete during the curing of fresh
concrete.

Traffic loading, Materials,


Soils, Pavement
performance & Safety

Environmental

Deterioration due to
climatic effects, Ease of
recycling & Noise

Engineering

Social

Selection of
pavement type:
Contractors capability &
Paving equipment

Construction

Road User Cost

Maintenance
Cost

The Differences Between Flexible and Rigid Pavement


Flexible Pavement
Asphaltic cement & aggregates

Rigid Pavement
Portland cement concrete &

aggregates.
Last for 20 years

Last for 40 years

Low initial cost

High initial cost

Cheap & easy to get material

Material shortage problem

High cost & scheduled

More economic maintenance, no

maintenance

schedule

Less economic for long duration More economic for long duration
Easy to upgrade

Cannot upgrade

Rutting, potholes

Free from rutting, potholes

Can be used once ready

Traffic disturbance wait 28 days for

max strength

Portland cement concrete


Asphaltic concrete
Base course

Contraction
joint
Load
transfer
device

Base course

Subbase course
Subgrade
Subgrade

a) Flexible pavement

b) Rigid Pavement

Typical structural layer arrangement for


each pavement type

Flexible
1) Surfacing course

Forms impermeable n
flexible lining high
elastic modulus
a) wearing resist abrasion,
prevent skidding,
waterproof

Rigid

Wearing surface Portland


cement concrete slab

Contraction joints control


cracking due to shrinkage
of concrete during curing

Load transfer device


dowel bars minimize
deflection and reduce
stresses near the edges of
the slab

Optional, depend on
subgrades eng properties
if subgrade soil poor use
this layer if subgrade ok
and drain well, this layer is
not necessary

Compacted to maximum
density

b) binder support &


disperse traffic, resist
shear

2) Base Course

3) Subbase Course

4) Subgrade

Crushed agg higher


strength than used for
subbase reduce comp
stress

Rock bearing capacity


higher than subgrade,
disperse load from base
course before
transmitting it to
subgrade, as drainage
layer

Supporting the load


transmitted from the
overlying layers

Flexible Pavement
depend on material strength &
layer thickness

Structural
Strength and
Performance

some deflection within the


elastic limit is allowed
surface rideability good but less
durable to high temp - cracking

Rigid Pavement
high flexural strength slab & reinforcement
slab performance good under high loading
expansion and contraction joints should be
allowed
rough surface skid resistance resulting to
bumpy n noise

Structural Components of
Flexible Pavements
Subgrade (Prepared Road Bed)
Natural material located along the horizontal
alignment of the pavement
Serves as the foundation of the pavement
structure
May also consists of a layer of selected borrow
materials, well compacted.
It may be necessary to treat the subgrade
material to achieve certain strength properties.

Subbase Course
Above the subgrade
Consists of material of a superior quality than
subgrade.
May be omitted if subgrade material meets the
requirements of the subbase material.
Can be treated to achieve necessary
properties gradation, plastic chac & strength.
The process known as stabilization treating
soils to improve their engineering properties.

Base Course
Above the subbase or subgrade if a subbase
course is not used.
Consists of granular materials such as crushed
stone, crushed/uncrushed slag,
crushed/uncrushed gravel and sand.
Specs usually higher than subbase material in
terms of plasticity, gradation & strength.
Material that are properly stabilized with
Portland cement, asphalt or lime can be used.

Surface Course
Upper course of the road pavement.
Consists of a mixture of mineral aggregates
and asphaltic materials.
Should be capable:
a) withstanding high tire pressures
b) resisting the abrasive forces due to traffic
c) providing a skid-resistant driving surface
d) preventing the penetration of surface water
into the underlying layers.
Thickness can vary from 3 inch to more than 6
inch, depending on the expected traffic on the
pavement.

Design of Flexible
Pavements
Traffic analysis know present traffic and to

predict future traffic volume growth rate


during the design periods
Evaluate subgrade & const. materials used
Using JKR Standard (Manual Arahan Teknik)

JKR METHOD

1.

Initial annual commercial traffic for one way, V o

Vo = ADT (bothways) x x 365 x Pc/100


where, Pc = % commercial vehicles

2.

Total no. of commercial vehicles for one way, V c

Vc = Vo [(1+r)x 1]/r
where, r = annual growth rate and x = design periods (in years)

3.

ESA = Vc x e
e = equivalent factor

4.

Based on std CBR value (3%) and ESA find TA from


NomographTotal thickness of bituminous layer, TA
TA = a1D1 + a2D2 + a3D3
a = structural coeff. based on material used for each layer
D = thickness of each layer (not include subgrade layer)

A 3%

4%
B
104

106

2x106

28cm
Corrected Equivalent
Thickness, TA (cm)

Equivalent Thickness,
TA (cm)

ESA

Subgrade CBR (%)

Thickness Design Nomograph


D
10

10

44

29cm
44

5.

Corrected Equivalent Thickness, TA can be found by using


Nomograph based on CBR value given in the Question and
previous TA

6.

Thickness for each layer can be calculated by trial and error

Asphaltic concrete
Base course

D1
D2

Subbase course
D3

Example 4.1
Design a suitable flexible pavement for two-lane
highway in rolling terrain using JKR design method.
The current average daily traffic is 6600 vehicles and
the percentage of commercial vehicles is 15%. The
annual growth rate expected is 7%. The CBR value of
soil insitu is 5% and the road design life is to be 10
years.
See the relevant charts in the Appendix.
Given Material Used:
Base Course Crushed Aggregate
Subbase
Sand

Calculation:
V0 = ADT x Pc/100 x 365 x
= 6600 x 15/100 x 365 x
= 180675
Vc = V0 [(1+r)x 1]
r
= 180675 [(1+0.07)10 1]
0.07
= 2.5 x 106
ESA = e x Vc
= 2 x 2.5 x 106
= 5 x 106

From Nomograph: TA = 26 cm
First Trial:
TA = a1D1 + a2D2 + a3D3
= 1.00 (10) + 0.32 (15) + 0.23 (25)
= 20.55 cm < TA = 26 cm
Second Trial:
TA = a1D1 + a2D2 + a3D3
= 1.00 (15) + 0.32 (16) + 0.23 (25)
= 25.9 cm ~ TA = 26 cm

Therefore:
Surfacing Layer =
15 cm (150 mm)
Base Layer =
16 cm (160 mm)
Subbase Layer =
25 cm (250 mm)

150 mm

Asphaltic
Concrete

160 mm

Crushed
Aggregate

250 mm

Sand
Subgrade

Check Highway
Capacity
Max hourly capacity of traffic for one way,
c = IRT
I = maximum hourly capacity under ideal condition
R = carriageway roadway reduction factor
T = traffic reduction factor
Assuming that max hourly capacity, c only represents
10% from the daily capacity, C

C = 10 x c

Total daily traffic flow for one way, Vx actual

Vx = Vi x (1+r)x
where Vi = initial daily traffic for one way
= ADT (bothways) x
Compare Vx and C
If Vx < C highway capacity has not been
reached after x years
If Vx > C highway capacity has been
reached before x years
So, number of years, n required to reach capacity
highway
n=
log (C/Vi)
log (1+r)

Example 4.2
A two lane expressway in rolling terrain is expected to
carry 50 million standard axles during its 15 years
performance life. The subgrade CBR test results
indicate the design value to be 6%. Check the
highway capacity after 15 years.
- Carriageway width
= 7.5 m
- Shoulder width
= 2.0 m
- Percentage of commercial vehicles, Pc
= 11%
- Annual growth rate, r
= 4.5%
- Initial ADT (both ways)
= 7500
See the relevant charts in the Appendix.

Calculation:
Capacity check:
Total one way traffic flow after 15 years:
Vx = Vi (1+r)x
VX = 7500 (1+0.045)15
2
= 7257 veh/day/lane

Maximum hourly one way traffic flow:


c=IxRxT
From Appendix: I = 1000, R = 1.00
T = 100 / (100 + 2Pc)
= 100 / [100 + 2 (11)] = 0.82
Therefore,
c = 1000 x 1.00 x 0.82 = 820 veh/hr/lane
Maximum daily one way traffic flow:
(*Assume hourly capacity is 10% of daily capacity)
C = 10 x 820 = 8200 veh/day/lane
C = 8200 veh/day/lane > Vx = 7257 veh/day/lane
Therefore the maximum capacity has not been reached
after 15 years.

Example 4.3
Based on the following information, proposed a suitable
design period on two lane highway.
- Carriageway width
- Shoulder width
- Gradient of the road
- Percentage of commercial vehicles, Pc
- Annual growth rate, r
- Initial ADT (both ways)
- Subgrade CBR
See the relevant charts in the Appendix.

= 7.5 m
= 2.0 m
= 4% (rolling)
= 18%
= 9%
= 8000
= 6%