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Materi 8

Produk Indigenous Sebagai Pangan Fungsional

Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

Body needs both omega 3 and 6

Linoleic
linolenic

Jenis Asam Lemak

Minyak
Kelapa

Minyak
Kelapa

Minyak Inti
Sawit

(%)a

Sawit (%)b

(%)b

Asam Kaprat

4,9 9,5

Asam Kaprilat

5,5 9,5

34

Asam Kaproat

0,0 0,8

37

Asam Laurat

44,0 52,0

46 52

Asam Miristat

13,0 19,0

1,1 2,5

14 17

Asam Palmitat

7,5 10,5

40 46

6,5 9

Asam Palmitoleat

0,0 13,1

Asam Stearat

1,0 3,0

3,6 4,7

1 2,5

Asam Oleat

5,0 8,0

39 45

13 19

Asam Linoleat

1,5 2,5

7 11

0,5 - 2

Asam Arakhidonat

0,0 0,4

DEFINISI
Pangan tradisional BERBAHAN LOKAL:
Bahan baku atau resep makanan dan minuman yang terbuat dari bahan-bahan
yang terdapat di Indonesia dan telah dikenal sejak dahulu.

Contoh:
tempe, tahu, oncom, bir pletok, wedang jahe, cincau,
tape beras, peujeum, dodol, kredok, urap, asinan,
sayur asin, kacang rebus, tauge sayuran dan buahbuahan tropis, bahan lalapan, rumput laut, dsbnya

Pangan fungsional
Makanan atau minuman yang berpengaruh positif terhadap kesehatan,
Kegiatan fisik dan mental, disamping kandungan zat-zat gizinya

Pangan fungsional/functional food


Pharmafoods

Pangan tradisional

Pangan rekayasa/deigner food

Nutraceuticals

Fungsional/
Biologis

Fungsional:
Fungsi biologis seluler: sintesis protein, enzim, hormon,
DNA, RNA, senyawa metabolik

Jenis sel: endotelium, hati dan organ-organ lain, darah merah,


imun, syaraf, kulit, penglihatan, dsbnya
Sistem: vaskuler, imun, hormon, syaraf, pencernaan
regenerasi/pertumbuhan sel (kanker), energi

Kesehatan:
Tanggung jawab bersama
Ilmu dan teknologi pangan dengan farmakologi
dan kedokteran

Paradigma sehat
SAKIT MENJADI
SEMBUH

OBAT

SEHAT

=
TIDAK SAKIT
TETAP TIDAK

MAKANAN
(FUNGSIONAL)

Pendahuluan: Hubungan antara makanan dan tubuh


Eat What Your Body is Made For

Pangan/bahan alami:
segar, .olahan

Metabolisme
(pembongkaran)

Cells dlm
organ tubuh

PARADIGMA
SEHAT

WHO 2002

SEHAT
USAHA
PENCEGAHAN:
Pencegahan
PANGAN,
NATURAL PRODUCTS

Perawatan

SEHAT
USAHA
KEDOKTERAN
FARMASI

Pengobatan
SAKIT

It is abundantly clear that the incidence of all


the common cancers in human is being
determined by various potentially controllable
external factors.
This is surely the most comforting fact to come
out of all cancer research, for it means that
cancer is, in large part, a preventable diseases.
World Cancer Research Funds (WCRF) & American
Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) 1997: 670 halaman

Pangan/makanan/bahan
nabati/natural products yang dapat
mencegah kanker dapat mencegah
penyakit jantung,

pembuluh darah, diabetes,


dan penyakit degeneratif
lainnya

Pangan/makanan yang dapat mencegah kanker


Berbagai jenis sayuran

Klorofil
serat

Daun cincau

Antosianin
Flavonoid/fenolik

Isotiosianat

Karotenoid,
terpenpoid

Bagaimana
terjadinya kanker ?

85% kejadian kanker disebabkan


oleh faktor
dari luar tubuh:
Karsinogen (Polusi makanan /Minuman/
udara/air), sinar UV, virus, infeksi
Hanya 15% disebabkan oleh keturunan

Bagaimana terjadinya kanker ?

Gen

Keturunan:
15%i

Gen

Gen

Polusi udara,

pencemaran
makanan,
Uvsinar
matahari,,
virus,
infeks:
85%

Sel & Gen


Normal

Gen

Sel & gen


Tidak normal

Gen

Gen
Gen
Gen
Polusi udara, pencemaran makanan,
UV/sinar matahari,,kegemukan, hormon

Bagaimana terjadinya kanker ?

Gen

Gen

Gen

Sel tidak normal,gen tidak normal,


menghasilkan jaringan kanker/tumor
Polusi: makanan
minuman
udara, air, sinar,
kegemukan,
hormon

METASTASE
MENYEBAR

Gen

Gen
pembetul
Normal DNA

Gen

Gen

Kerusakan
gen lanjut

Gen

Diperngaruhi oleh:
Zat

gizi

Diperngaruhi oleh:
Aktivitas fisik,
kegemukan,
makanan
yang dikonsumsi
Hormon dan
faktor
pertumbuhan

tertentu spt
karotenoid,
retinol
Serat, bakteri
Gen
kolon, asam lemak
yang mudah
Sel normal
menguap,
pre/probiotik

Gen
Sel tidak normal

Gen
Sel bunuh diri

Pangan
Zat gizi:
protein,lemak,
karbohidrat, vitamin,
mineral, serat

Tanaman obat

Sumber utama
----------------

Komponen
fungsional/bioaktif
Non-gizi

Kadar rendah

Rasa, textur, volume,

Penting

Kemungkinan toksik

Sangat kecil

Kadar tinggi
tidak penting
Besar

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Jenis

Fungsi

Sumber

Zat-zat gizi makro

Protein, lemak,
karbihidrat

Zat pembangun,
Energi, pelindung
Esensial

Biji-bijian,
Kacangkacangan,
Daging, ikan,
dll

Vitamin dan
Mineral esensial

A, B, C, D, E, K,
Folat, pantotenat,
Niasin, biotin

Metabolisme
Seluler normal
Esensial

Sayuran dan
buah-buahan,
Rumput laut,
sintetik

Serat

Selulosa, pektin,
hemiselulosa
Gum, oligoskarida

Prebiotik,
Kontrol kolesterol,
Pencernaan,ImunitasDia
betes, kanker,
kegemukan

Sayuran dan
buah-buahan,
Rumput laut
Sintetik

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Gula alkohol

Asam amino,

Jenis

Fungsi

Sumber

Eritritol
Arabitol, ribitol,
xilitol
Sorbitol,
manitol,

Sebaian prekursor glikogen,


antiketogenik, substitusi gula
rendah kalori, kambah, laxative,
Anti caries, anti tumor

Ganggang, jamur,
Exudat tanaman,
molases, rumput
laut

Arginin
Aspartat/gin

Antihipertensi
Fatig kronik, sirosis hati
Anti epilepsis
Anti insomnia
Analgesik
Anti depresi/ Parkinsons
diseases
Anti depresi/hiperaktif

Protein

Glutamat
Triptofan
Tirosin
Fenilalanin

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Jenis

Fungsi

Sumber

Peptida

Casomorphin
Imunopeptida
Caseinophosphopepti
da
Peptida bioaktif

Anti diarea
Stimulasi imunitas
Absorpsi Ca
Antihipertensi

Kasein susu

Bakteri asam
laktat

Lactococcus,
Lactobacillus,
Bifidobacterium,dll

Lactose intolerant
Probiotik: diarea, anti
kolesterol/ kanker/
konstipasi
imunostimulan,

Produk fermentasi
Susu, sayuran, dll

PUFA, -6,

LA, LNA, DHA

Metabolisme
arakhidonat, anti
penyakit kronis

Lemak tanamn
Daun, biji-bijian,
ikan.

-3

Hidrolisa protein
kacang-kacangan,
ikan

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Jenis

Fungsi

Sumber

Thioallyl

CH2=CH-CH2X
X=struktur
organik

Hypolipidemic
Antitrombotik
Anti kanker

Bawang putih

Protese inhibitor

Kunitz

Anti kanker

Kedele, kacangkacangan

Chlorophyllins

Khlorofol
tanaman

Antikanker

Khlorofol
tanaman

Lignans

Antikanker
Estrogen

Kedle, gandum

PEITC
(Phenethyl
isothiocyanate)

Antikanker

Cruciferous

Antikanker

Kunyit

Curcumin I, III

Diferuroilmetan

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Fungsi

Sumber

Karotenoid

Anti penyakit degeneratif


Antioxidan

Sayuran, buahbuahan, teh

Gingerols,
shogaol

Antioxidan, anti
ateroskelosis,
Pencernaan, Anti kanker

Jahe

Ubiquinone
s,
ubiquinols

Antioxidan
Imunomodulator (AIDS)

Minyak jagung,
kacang-kacangan

Antioxidan, anti kanker

Tanaman

Flavonoids

Fenol
sederhana

Jenis

Quercetin,
galangin,Ruti
n, diosmin
katekin

Khlorogenat,e Antioxidan, anti kanker


lagat,protokat
ecuat, ferulat

Teh
Tanaman

Functionality berdasarkan komponen:


Komponen

Jenis

Fungsi

Sumber

Isotiosianat

sulfofran

antikanker

brokoli

Actoxikavikol
asetat

Fenil propanoid

Anti kanker

Languas galanga

Aurapten (AURA)

D-limonen

Anti kanker

Sitrus

Resveratrol

Trihidroxistilben

Anti kanker

Anggur merah

Laktoferin

Protein

Anti kanker

Susu

Fitosterol

B-sitosterol,
kampesterol

Anti kanker
Hipokholesterol

Sayruan, bijibijian

Saponin

Glikosida

Anti kanker

Kedele

Fitoestrogen, lignan isoflavon

Antioxidan, Anti
kanker

Kedele, sorgum,

Momordisin

Anti kanker

paria

Cucurbitasin

Anti cacing

Labu

Penggunaan komoditi tanaman pangan sebagai bahan obat (POM)


Budidaya:
Temulawak
Jahe
Lengkuas
Kencur
Cengkeh
Kunyit
Bengle
Pare
Tan hutan:
Alang-alang
Lempuyagn wangi

Curcuma xanthoriza
Zingiber officinale Roxb
Languas galanga (L) Stuntz
Kaempferia galanga L
Eugenia aromatica L. O.K.
Curcuma domestica Val
Zingiber purpureum Roxb
Momordica charantina L

1554351
1364270
1256148
615418
556500
488686
215432
140427

Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv


Zingiberis aromaticum Vahl

528845
872642

Potensi pangan tradisional sebagai pangan fungsional

Bahan baku:prinsipal/suplemen:
sayuran buah-buahan, rempah-rempah, ganggang,
rumput laut, mikroorganisme, jamur

Diet/menu: gado-gado, asinan, rujak, kredok, bubur manado,


sayur asam, lodeh, sayur tumis, pindang ikan, sop
buntut/kaki ayam, bubur kacang, cincau, wedang
jahe, bir pletok, manisan buah, selai
Perlu standardisasi bahan/pengolahan dan uji khasiat

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)


extracts increase in vivo human LDL
resistance to oxidation and prevent in vitro
cholesterol accumulation in mouse
macrophage
Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria(1, Aisyah T. Septiana(2 and Sulistiyani(3.

1) Dept Food Technology and Human Nutition,


Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
2) University of Jend. Soedirman, Indonesia
3) Faculty of Math & Natural Sciece,
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizoma

INTRODUCTION
GINGER
Zingiber family
The rhizome is commonly accepted as a source of
flavor :
cooking, drinks, baking
Grows well in tropical rainforest climate
Traditional beliefs:
prevention of common cold, physiological and
stomach disorders,
inflammation, diarrhea, etc (Tang and Eisenbrand,
1992)

Scientific Reports
Antioxidant capacity of ginger extract (oleoresin
fractions) in
linoleic acid system > a-tocopherol (Kikuzaki and
Nakatani,1993)

Oleoresin fractions

gingerol, shogaol

Suppress 5-lipoxygenase or prostaglandin


synthetase
(Flynn and Rafferty, 1986)

Protect TPA induced ear edema, epidermal


ornithine decarboxylase
activity, skin tumor promotion in female ICR mice
(Park et al, 1998)
Protect lymphocytes and hybridoma cells from

Modified LDL
( Ox LDL, Ac LDL)
Scavenger Reseptor
Phagocytosis

Endosome

UC

EC

HDL
Pinocitosis
LDL

UC

Translocation

LDL
Reseptor

Lysosome
Cholesterol up
take

receptor
synthesis

Acetate
Cholesterol

Cholesterol
processing

Macrophage cholesterol Metabolism

Cholesterol
exclussion

Lipid streaks

Monocyte
LDL
Adhesion

entry
Lipid
oxidation

Foam cells

differentiation
ROS
Protein
modification

Uptake LDL

Macrophage

Initiation mechanism of atherosclerosis

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To find out whether drinking ginger water extract can


1. Lower plasma cholesterols
2. Protect plasma LDL against oxidation
To find out whether the protection of LDL can prevent further
accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage

METHODOLGY
Subjects: 24 healthy male students living in the same religious dormitory
two groups: treated group and control/placebo group
Ginger drinks:
water extract, pasteurized 850C, added with sugar syrup
standardized acceptable drink
given every afternoon at 17:00
placebo group received syrup without ginger extract
Plasma analysis:
1. Total cholesterol (CHOD-PAP method, Boehringer-Mannheim, kit)
2. LDL-C (PVS method, Boehringer-Mannheim, kit)
3. HDL-C (phosphotungstic acid)

LDL isolation:
8 ml plasma + 5 ml NaCL 0.9% + EDTA 0.01%
incubation in polyalomer tubes
Ultracentrifugation at 36.000 rpm 40C, 20 hours
Tube cutting
VLDL
LDL + LDL (d> 1.006 g/ml)
Scaled tubes + 0.1109 g KBr/ml
Mixing
Transfer to new polyaomer tubes + 4 ml KBr in NaCl-EDTA
Ultracentrifuse, 36.000 40C 24 hrs

LDL (upperpart, d , 1.063 g/ml)


LDL, dialized

LDL oxidation:
The isolated LDL was oxidized with 5 M CuSO4 at 370C
conjugated dienes was monitor continuously at 234 nm for 30 minutes
MDA LDL analysis:
Extraction with butanol
measurement at 515 nm exitation, 553 nm emission (Conti et al
1991)

Cholesterol accumulation in macrophages:


Plasma from one healthy male was incubated with 430 g/ml
ginger dichloromethane extract, 1 M a-tocopherol or none
for 3 hrs at 370C
Mouse was injected with thioglycolate
macrophages, 2-3x106, isolated from peritoneal, were incubated
in RPMI 1640 containing 1% BSA and incubated for 4 hrs at
370C, 5% CO2
cells were washed and cholesterol was extracted with
isopropanol
total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, free cholesterol analysis
was done by HPLC

RESULTS

180
160
140

m g /d l

120

HDL-c
LDL-c

100

Total-c

80

TG

60
40
TG

20

Total-c
0

LDL-c
Bef ore
TREATMENT

After

HDL-c
Before
P LACEBO

Af ter

Figure 1. HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride in plasma of male student
subjects before and after treatment with ginger drink for 30 days (n=12) and
those in control placebo subjects (n=12)

nmol conjugated diena/mg LDL


protein

800
700
600
0 time of control

500

30 time of control

400

0 time of treatment

300
30 time of treatment

200
100
0
0

25

50

75

100

125

Time, m in

Figure 2. Significant protective effects of drinking ginger for 30 days in male


student subjects (n=12) on resistance of the isolated LDL against
oxidation by CuSO4 for 100 minute, measured by conjugated dienes
as the oxidation product during.

500

Free Cholesterol

450
400

Ester kolesterol

350

Total cholesterol

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Control

Dichloromethane
extract

a-Tocopherol

Figure 3. Cholesterol profiles in macrophages incubated with oxidized human


LDL that have been supplemented with ginger dichloromethane
extract (430 g/ml), -tocopherol (1 M) or unsupplemented (control)

CONCLUSSION

1.

Drinking ginger water extract for 30 days did not lower


blood cholesterol levels nor reduce plasma MDA

2.

However there was significant resistance to oxidation of the


LDL against induced oxidative stress

3.

The resistance of LDL to oxidation prevent cholesterol


accumulation in macrophage cells similar to -tocopherol

IMMUNO ENHANCER ACTIVITY OF GINGER


(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) WATER EXTRACT IN
HEALTHY MALE STUDENT SUBJECTS
Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria1, Nurrahman2, Dondin Sayuthi3,
Francine Belleville4, and Pierre Nabet4
1. Dept Food Technology & Human Nutr, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
2. School of Nutrition, Semarang, Indonesia
3. Deparment of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
4. School of Medicine, Henri POINCARE University, Nancy, France

Table. Average and range values of lymphocyte cell analysis of proliferation activities (SI) in
the presence of Con A, LPS or paraquat; of MDA cell; and of percentage of CD3 cells

No

Parameters

Subjects

SI of cells
cultured with
Con A

Treated group

SI of cells
cultured with
LPS
SI of cells
cultured with by
paraquat
MDA cells
(mol/l)
Percentage of
CD3+
cells

Average values
Day 0

Day 30

3.33
(2.63-6.40)
7.87
(4.58-10.75)

0.63
(0.46-0.75)
10.42
(4.63-16.75)

Treated group

1.39
(1.09-1.80)

2.07
(0.83-3.34)

Control group

1.74
(0.98-3.06)

2.05
(0.64-6.08)

Treated group

1.15
(0.75-1.83)

2.15
(0.83-5.44)

Control group

1.28
(0.79-2.32)

1.62
(0.62-3.94)

Treated group

3.33
(2.63-6.40)

0.63
(0.46-0.75)

Control group

3.03
(2.55-4.40)

0.83
(0.67-1.06)

Treated group

82.42
(77.74-91.29)

80.19
68.15-91-99)

Control group

79.52
(63.75-93.15)

78.44
(69.38-87-62)

Control group

Lysing activity (%)

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

100;1
50;1

Lysing activity (%)

Control group
(n=12)

Treated group
(n=12)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

100;1
50;1

Control group
(n=12)

Treated group
(n=12)

Figure 1.Increasing NK lysing activity of 12 healthy male subjects given ginger drink..Blood was
withdrawn for lymphocyte isolation at before treatment (A) and after treatment (B) from control
and treated groups. Ginger drink was given for 30 days every afternoon and the cells were
incubated with target cells which had been treated with H3-thymidine with the ratio of 100:1 or
50:1. Data was expressed as count per minute of the unlysed target cells.

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

Days of treatm ent

30

MDA of
treated
subjects
(umol/L)
MDA of
control
subjects
(umol/L)
Vitamin E of
treated
subjects
(umol/L)
Vitamin E of
control
subjects
(umol/L)

Figure 2. MDA and vitamin E content in plasma of subjects before (0 day) and after receiving ginger
drink for 30 days (n=12). The subjects were healthy male students living in the same dormitory. MDA
was analyzed using the method of Conti et al (1991).Vitamin E was analyzed using spectrofluorometer.

1.97 2.09 3.17 3.97 4.18 5.89

6.18 7.90 8.45 10.23

Retention time (min)

Figure.

Retention time (min)

HPLC chromatogram of ginger oleoresin


(A), of plasma from control subjects (B)
and of plasma from subjects received
ginger drinks for 30 days (C). All
samples were extracted with ethanol and
injected in Lichosphere 5 OD2 column.

Retention time (min)

CONCLUSSION
In human study, using male adult healthy subjects, there is improvement in T cells
proliferation activities and percentage.
Improvement on T cells was accompanied by resistance of lymphocyte cells against
oxidative stress. This improvement was demonstrated by the cells obtained from the
subjects drinking ginger
Resistance of the lymphocytes was not accompanied by decrease in MDA cell
Beside the role of ginger compounds as protectant against oxidative stress, they appeared
to have other immunoenhancement activity, notably in improving NK cell activity. This
improvement in NK cell activity had been observed in the male student studied receiving
ginger drink for 30 days
analysis of ginger substances in the plasma reveal the presence of the assumed gingerol
group in the plasma of subjects drinking ginger, higher than that of the control group.
Since NK cells are known to have specific activity in lysing mutated or infected cells,
the results of this research has shown the scientific support of the traditional beliefs that
ginger can improve body resistance to common cold.

LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Tang W and Eisenbrand G. 1992. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Use in Traditional
and Modern Medicine. Springer-Verlag, New York.
2. Nakatani N. 1997. Natural antioxidants from spices. In: Huang M, Ho C, Lee CY (Eds). Phenolic Compounds in
Food and Their Effects on health II. Am Chem Soc., Washington DC.
3. Hikino H, Kiso Y, Kato N, Hamada Y, Shioiri T, Aiyama R, Itokawa H, Kiuchi F and Sankawa U. 1985.
Antihepatotoxic actions of gingerols and diarylheptanoids. J Ethnopharmacol 14: 31-39
4. Kikuzaki H. and Nakatani N. 1993. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci, 58: 1407-1410
5. Zakaria-Rungkat, F, Darsana L and Wijaya H. 1996.Immunity enhancement and cell protection activity of ginger
buds and fresh ginger on mouse spleen lymphocytes. Symp Non-Nutritive Health Factors for Future Foods.
Korean Soc. Food Sci and Technol, Korea
6. Antipenko, AY, Spielman AI, and Kirchberger MA.1999. Interactions of 6-Gingerol and Ellagic Acid with the
Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeutics, 290, 227-234
7. Conti M, Morand PC, Levillain P, and Lemonnier A. 1991. Improved fluorometric determination of
malonaldehyde. J Clin Chem, 37/7: 1273-1275
8. Fritz KL, Nelson TL, Ruiz-Velasco V, and Mercurio SD. 1994. Acute intramuscular injection of oils or oleic acid
component protects mice against paraquat lethality. J Nutr. 194: 425-42
9. Meydani SN, Wu D. Santos MS and Hayek MG. 1995. Antioxidants and immune response in aged persons:
Overview of present evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 62: 146S-147S
10. Zakaria-Rungkat, F., Nurahman, Prangdimurti, E., Tejasari. 2003. Antioxidant and Immunoenhancement
Activities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extracts and Compounds in In Vitro and In Vivo Mouse
and Human System. Nutraceuticals and Foods.8; 96-104

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This reseach was funded by the University Research Graduate Education)-Project III 97-2000, Department of Higher
Education, Ministry of National Education

HEALTHY DESSERT
MAKANAN PENCUCI MULUT SEHAT
MAKANAN PENCUCI MULUT FUNGSIONAL
PANGAN (PENCUCI MULUT) FUNGSIONAL

AKTIFITAS
ANTI KANKER GEL CINCAU HIJAU
(Cyclea barbata L.Miers)
Fransiska Rungkat-Zakaria,
Endang Prangdimurti, Edna Ananta, Albertus Seno Pandoyo

PENDAHULUAN
Secara tradisional, tanaman cincau hijau (Cyclea barbata L. Miers)
digunakan sebagai obat penurun panas, obat radang lambung, mual, dan
penurun tekanan darah tinggi. Minuman cincau merupakan produk olahan yang
berbentuk gel dan dibuat dari daun cincau hijau melalui proses extraksi dingin.
Beberapa laporan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman cincau
mempunyai aktivitas sitotoksik dan antimalaria (Guinaudeau, 1993). Aktivitas
sitotoksik ini dihipotesiskan dapat menghambat proliferasi sel kanker atau sel
tumor di dalam tubuh..

Informasi ilmiah mengenai khasiat gel cincau hijau akan mendukung


perkembangan produk pangan fungsional yang berbentuk healthy dessert,
yang akhir-akhir ini amat digemari karena dapat mengimbangi konsumsi
diet mengandung lemak dan protein hewani tinggi dan kadar serat rendah.
Kanker merupakan penyakit yang diawali dari mutasi gen seluler, yang
diketahui sebagian besar disebabkan oleh faktor external seperti polutan
kimia baik pada makanan maupun lingkungan, virus, dan radiasi.
Mekanisme pencegahan mutasi gen dapat terjadi melalui aktifitas
antioxidan, perbaikan imunitas, atau sitotoksik (WCRF&AICR, 1997;
Zakaria-Rungkat et al., 2001)

METODA PENELITIAN
Extraksi air daun segar dengan aquades dilakukan secara manual karena
terbentuk gel yang kemudian didinginkan untuk memperoleh cairan sineresis.
Extrak air daun, akar dan batang dikeringbekukan.
Extrak etanol dan hexan dilakukan pada daun, akar dan batang keringbeku.
Extrak di tambahkan pada media kultur sel-sel kanker K562 (turunan sel
leukimia) dan Hela (turunan sel kanker servix) dan pada kultur sel limfosit
yang diisolasi dari darah tepi seorang mahasiswa sehat, dengan 5 tingkat
konsentrasi: C1 (1/2 C2); C2 (setara dengan konsumsi segelas minuman
cincau), C3 (2xC2); C4 (4xC2); C5 (8xC2).

% Penghambatan

100
50
0
c1

c2

c3

-50

c4

c5

Aid
etd
hed
aib
etb
heb
aia
eta
hea

Konsentrasi

Gambar 1. Efek sitotoksik extrak air (ai), etanol (et) dan hexan
(he) dari daun (d), batang (b) dan akar (a) tanaman cincau hijau
terhadap pertumbuhan sel leukemia (K562). Extrak air akar
mempunyai persentase penghambatan diatas 61%, air batang
diatas 30%, sedang air daun diatas 37% setelah konsentrasi diatas
C3. Peningkatan konsentrasi > C3 (2x 2 gelas muniman gel
cincau) tidak nyata menaikkan aktifitas sitotoksik.

50
% Penghambatan

40
30
20
10
0
-10

c1

c2

c3

c4

c5

Aid
etd
hed
aib
etb
heb
aia
eta
hea

-20
-30
Konsentrasi

Gambar 2. Aktifitas sitotoksik extrak air (ai), etanol (et) dan hexan
(he) dari daun (d), batang (b) dan akar (a) tanaman cincau hijau
terhadap kehidupan sel kanker servix (Hela).Ekstrak Aia hingga
konsentrasi C4 (setara 4 gelas minuman gel cincau) menghambat
pertumbuhan sebesar 31%, extrak aid 22% pada konsentrasi C4.

Tabel 1. Aktifitas sitotoksik (persen) extrak gel cincau pada sel limfosit manusia
yang dikultur dalam media RPMI 1640 lengkap. Sel hidup dianalisa dengan MTT
Sampel
Aid

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

-9

-2

-17

-18

-1

Etd

-10

-26 *

Hed

49 *

16

31*

38 *

Aib

-11

-19 *

-39 *

-3

Etb

-12

-2

-7

-25 *

14

Heb

-22 *

-11

-2

-7

Aia

-1

-17

-38 *

-52 *

Eta

-9

11

-26 *

10

Hea

31

-14

-84

(*) menunjukkan perbedaan nyata terhadap kontrol pada selang kepercayaan 95%
Bilangan negatif menunjukkan penurunan nilai absorbansi.

Tabel 2. Kadar alkaloid extrak cincau. Analisa dilakukan dengan


HPLC dengan menggunakan asam scopolamin-HBr dan tropic
sebagai standard.
Sampel
Daun

Bata
ng

Akar

Pelar
ut
Air
Etanol
Hexan
Air

*) Scopolamin
% b.b % b.k
0.12
0.37
0.69
1.84

*)
Tropic acid
% b.b
% b.k
1.28
3.85
0.16
0.49
-

Etanol

0.44

1.18

Hexan
Air
Etanol
Hexan

0.07
0.30
-

0.18
0.61
-

1.23
0.59

2.52
1.20

KESIMPULAN
1

2
3
4
5

Minuman tradisional gel cincau hijau merupakan pangan


fungsional yang dapat mencegah terjadinya penyakit kanker
Extrak yang paling bersifat sitotoksik adalah extrak air akar
pada sel K562 (leukimia) yang menghambat kehidupan sel
sampai 61% dan pada sel Hela (kanker servix) sampai 31%
Rasa extrak akar yang amat pahit dapat merusak cita rasa
minuman gel cincau, sedang nilai ekonomisnya amat tinggi
Secara keseluruhan semua extrak pada konsentrasi setara
dengan satu gelas minuman gel cincau bersifat sitotoksik pada
sel K562 dan Hela. tetapi
Semua extrak pada konsentrasi setara dengan satu gelas
minuman gel cincau tidak bersifat sitotoksik pada sel limfosit
normal manusia
Ucapan Terimakasih
Ucapan terimakasih disampaikan pada Poyek QUE-TPG IPB yang
telah mendanai penelitian ini dengan anggaran tahun 2000-2001

Improvement of lymphocyte activity and


liver antioxidant in tumour bearing mice
after feeding with
green gel leaf (Cyclea barbata L Miers)
powder
Fransiska R. Zakaria1, Sri Yadial Chalid2, Rosanti Setiawati1, Budi Agus Pranoto2,
Puspita Eka Wuyung3, and Kusmardi3
Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition,
Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16001, Indonesia

1,2)

3)

Anatomy Pathology, Medical School, Indonesia Univ, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Bogor Agricultural University


Campus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16002

INTRODUCTION
Tumour growth:
oxidative stress, immunological disorder, malnutrition
Potential role for oxidative-induced injury in the cancer process
specifically during the promotion stage (Klaunig et al, 1998)
Sources of ROS :
from inflammatory cells (Cerutti and Trump, 1991)
A need in research to find suitable food for cancer patients
Green gel leaf Cyclea barbata L.Miers
common refreshing drink in South East Asian countries
known traditionally to have cooling and anti
inflammation effects in the body

This gel /extracts of the leaf had been reported to


have :
cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines
non toxic on normal human lymphocyte cells
(Zakaria-Rungkat et al, 2001)

In this study, the leaves were processed to produce powder


products
which included all parts and fibres in the leaves

C3H Mice n=5

Fed with powder for


4-wk (12.1g/kg)

Tumor transplantation
Tumor latent
period (days)
Killed , Day 57

Liver

Tumor volume
(Moving pen,
Tajima)

Tumor
Healthy and necrotic

Spleen

Spleen cells
Tumor cells
Resistance to
H2O2 (MTT)

T cell
(Rosette)

In vitro cytotoxic toward tumor cell

LIVER

SOD
(Adenochrome asay
Misra. H.P.

GSH-PX
(Paglia and Valentine,
1967

CATALASE
Colometri, Sinha 1972

MDA
(TBA, Buege and
Aust)

Total Glutathion
DTNB, Ellman. 1982

Healthy tumor tissue

Necrotic tumor tissue

Latent period, days

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
LP + T

SC

Figure. Latent period of tumor growth in mice fed leaf powder


then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice
implemented with tumor (T). There is no difference in the latent
period; the leaf did not prevent tumor growth in mice

2.5
2

Cm

1.5
1
0.5
0
LP + T

SC

Figure. Tumor volume in mice fed leaf powder then


implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in mice
implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder decrease
tumor volume in mice

4
G
r
a
m
s

2
0
LP + T
Necrose

T
SC
Whole tumor

Figure. Whole tumor and necrotic tissue in mice fed leaf


powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and in
mice implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder
decrease tumor mass but increase tumor necrotic tissue in
mice

50
40
% necrotic 30
tissue
20
10
0
LP + T

SC

Figure. Percentage of necrotic tumor tissue in mice fed


leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T) and
in mice implemented with tumor (T). The leaf powder
increase the percentage of tumor necrotic tissue in mice

T Cell, %

16,2
8,8

7,5

CP

SC

Figure. Percentage of T cells by rosette technique in mice fed leaf powder


then implemented with tumor cells (CP), implemented with tumor without
the leaf (T) and in standard control mice (SC). Feeding leaf powder
increased Tcell inspite of the tumor growth. Tumor implementations
without the leaf markedly reduced T cell percentage

77
69,3
80

D
e
a
d

t
u
m
o
r

c
e
l
l
s
,

59,3

70
60
50
40
30

20
% 10
0
SC

LP+T

Figure. Cytotoxicity of T cells from mice fed leaf powder then


transplanted with tumor cells (LP+ T), with tumor alone and
standard diet (SC). Slight increase in cytotoxicity in T and LP+T,
indicate T cell recognition of the tumor antigen

Absorbancy, 570 nm

4,50
4,00
3,50
3,00
2,50
2,00
1,50
1,00
0,50
0,00
Without H2)2
NC, 3W

With H2O2
NC, 4W

LP, 3W

LP, 4W

Figure. Mice lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress. H2O2 10 -3 M


did not influence cells' resistance. Prolonged tumor growth
from 3 to 4 weeks markedly decrease cells resistance to
oxidative stress

MDA

SOD

15

500
400
300
200
100
0

10
5
0
LP + T

SC

LP + T

Figure. MDA content and SOD activity in mice fed leaf


powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T); in mice
implemented with tumor (T) and in mice fed standard diet.
The leaf powder increase SOD activity in mice but reduce
MDA in the liver

SC

600
400
200
0
Catalase

GSH-PX
LP + T

GSH
SC

Figure. GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activity in mice fed


leaf powder then implemented with tumor cells (LP+T); in mice
implemented with tumor (T) and in mice fed standard diet. The
leaf powder reduce liver catalase activity but did not effect the
other enzyme activity in the liver.

CONCLUSION
1. There is no difference in the latent period of the tumor growth in

mice. The leaf powder decrease tumor volume and tumor mass but
increase tumor necrotic tissue up to 3 times
2. Feeding leaf powder increased Tcell inspite of the tumor growth.
Slight increase in cytotoxicity in T and LP+T, indicate T cell
recognition of the tumor antigen
Prolonged tumor growth from 3 to 4 weeks markedly decrease
cells resistance to oxidative stress
3. The leaf powder increase SOD activity in mice but reduce
MDA in the liver Reduce liver catalase activity but did not
effect the other enzyme activity in the liver.

Yang sudah/sedang kami teliti:


Kayu manis, cacao
Kumis kucing
Kecombrang
Lengkuas, minyak buah merah, Dll
Aspek: imunomodulator, anti kanker
anti obesity (baru)

Conclusion
Potensi komoditi lokal sangat besar untuk
produk pangan fungsional
Bahan baku pangan tradisional mengandung
komponen fungsional/bioaktif
Ketersediaan bahan berlimpah
Potensi untuk suplemen dari bahan baku pangan,
rempah-rempah, tanaman obat
Rekayasa pangan fungsional dari bahan/resep
tradisional
Potensi menu diet tradisional
Masih banyak komoditi yang harus diteliti

Thank

Administration Building
Bogor agricultural University
Indonesia

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