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5.

CHEMICAL BONDS
5.2. FORMATION OF IONIC BONDS

LEARNING OUTCOMES
~ Explain the information of ions
~ Write the electron arrangements for the
ions formed
~ Explain the formation of ionic bonds.
~ illustrate electron arrangement of an ionic
bond.
~ illustrate the formation of ionic bonds.

FORMATION OF IONS
1. A positive ions/cations is formed when an atom releases one or more
electrons. Generally:
a) Metal atoms form positive ions.
b) Charge of positive ions = number of electrons released by
atoms
2. Metal atoms from Groups 1,2 and 13 in the Period Table will release
all their valence electrons to achieve the stable duplet or octet
electron arrangement during chemical reactions.
3.A negative ions/anions is formed when an atom receives one or more
electrons.A negative ion has more electrons than protons.Generally:
a) Non-metal atoms form negative ions.
b) Charge of negtive ion = number of electrons received.
4.Non-metal atoms from Groups 15,16 and 17 in the Periodic Table will
accept electrons to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement
during chemical reactions.

Formation Of Ionic Bonds.


1. Metal react with non-metals to form ionic compounds.
2. formation of ionic bonds,
a) electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom
b) metal atoms release valence electrons to form
positive ions.
c) non-metal atoms accept electrons to form negative
ions.
d) positive ions and negative ions are attracted to each
other by strong electrostatic force of attration.

3.Formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl:


a) A sodium atom with an electron arrangement of 2.8.1
achieves the stable octet electron arrangement of 2.8
when it releases one valence electron to form a sodium
ion, Na+.
b) A chlorine atom with an electron arrangement of 2.8.1
achieves the stable octet electron arrangement of 2.8.8
when it accepts one electron from a sodium atom to form
a chloride ion, Cl-.
c) Sodium ions, Na+ and chloride ions, Cl- with opposite
charges are attracted to each other by strong
electrostatic force of attraction forming the ionic bond.

One sodium atom will donate one valence


electron to one chlorine atom to form
sodium, NaCl .

Other examples, Two Potassium atom will donate


two electron to one oxygen atom to form
potassium oxide, K2O.

HOW TO PREDICT THE FORMULA OF AN IONIC


COMPOUND.
1.Metal atoms will release their valence electrons to achieve the
stable duplet or octet electron arrangement as in the inert
gases.
2.Non-metal atoms will accept electrons in order to achieve
stable octet electron arrangement as in the inert gases.
3.The total positive charge of the cation must be equal to the
total negative charge of the anion in an ionic
compound.Hence, the formula of an ionic compound can be
drived as follows:

Ma X b

a=number of electrons
received by X

b=number of electrons
released by M