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Chapter 16.6 & 16.

Enzymes & Enzyme Actions
Describe how enzymes function as catalysts and give their names
Describe the role of an enzyme in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

Enzymes are.
biological catalyst which speed up Rx by
lowering the Activation Energy
mostly proteins, some RNA
not used up in the reaction
What is an enzyme?

Enzymes are.
globular proteins
small, compact, stable with a unique 3-D
Have a special pocket called
active site

The Active Site

Is an area where the enzyme binds the
substrate and catalyzes the reaction
fits only a few types of substrates

Active Site


Enzyme Rx
Formation of the enzyme substrate (ES)
complex weakens covalent bonds in the
E + S
E + P
E = enzyme
S = substrate
P = product

How enzymes work?

Lock and Key Theory

Active site = lock; substrate = key
1.enzyme binds one specific substrate to form
ES complex
2.Substrate is converted to product
3.Product leaves active site
4.Enzyme binds next substrate

Induced Fit Model

Enzyme changes shape when binding
Enzyme serves a range of similar

Enzyme Naming
Most end with ase
Reflect substrate or reaction types:
amylase, oxidase
Older enzyme names often end in in
Ex: pepsin, rennin, trypsin

Enzyme Rx classifications
Anabolic reactions
Synthesis of complex substances from simple
building blocks (growth, repair)
Amino Acids Polypeptides Proteins

Catabolic reactions
Breakdown of complex substance into building
blocks (digestion)
Proteins Polypeptides Aminoacids

Classification of Enzyme Reactions

Oxidoreductoases: oxidation/reduction Rx
Transferases: transfer functional groups (Kinase:
transfers phosphates)
Hydrolases: breaking molecules in presence of
H2O (Carbohydrases, Proteases, Lipases)
Lyases: (Add/Remove groups with double bonds
Isomerases: rearrange to form isomers (cis/trans)
Ligases: connect molecules using ATP (DNA
strands in replication)

Chapter 16.8
Factors Affecting Enzyme
Describe the effect of temperature, pH, concentration

Factors Affecting Enzyme Reaction

Concentrations of substrates (body)
Concentration of enzyme (body)
Presence of inhibitors (body)

Too high: denaturation, loss of 3D (often
reversible if not too high!)
Too low: slow Rx rates
Optimum Temperature depends on species:
Mammals: 37C
Thermophile bacteria: 80-90oC (thermal springs)
Arctic flies: 5oC temperature

Optimum pH depends on natural enzyme
Too high/low denatures enzyme and/or
affects electrostatic attraction at active site
Tissue and blood enzymes: pH 7.4
Stomach enzyme (pepsin) : pH 2.0
Pancreatic enzyme (trypsin): pH 8.0

pH (cont.)

Substrate & Enzyme Concentrations

Generally: increasing substrate concentration
increases Rx rate

All enzyme molecules work at max speed,
adding more substrate does not increase

Only increase in enzyme concentration

further increases rates!

Animation comparing

Link to animation

Enzyme Inhibitor

Competitive Inhibition

Non-Competitive Inhibition

Enzyme Cofactors
Complex enzymes: require cofactors metal ions - to function
Metal ions: Cu2+, Fe2+/3+, Zn2+, Mg2+,
Mn2+, Ni2+ - obtained from food
Enzymes of the electron transport chain in
mitochondrial membranes: oxidorecutases
Enzyme without the cofactor: apoenzyme
Enzyme with cofactor bound: holoenzyme

Cofactor function

Vitamins and Coenzymes

Vitamins are organic molecules that work
together with enzymes
Vitamins are essential: have to be taken
up with diet: B, C, Biotin, folic acid
Coenzymes have the same function, but
are produced by the body: NADH, FADH,
ATP (Kinases)

Special food proteins A. Gluten

The glue-protein
Protein found in wheat, barley, rye makes dough
Oats, rice, corn, quinoa are gluten free but often
About 1% of the population is allergic to gluten or has
celiac disease
Symptoms: include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea,
muscle, bone or joint pain
Correlation of thyroid problems and gluten allergies.

B. Casein
Main protein in mammalian milk, highest in
cows milk (80%)
Adults can be allergic to casein (just like with
Animal experiments show a correlation of high
casein intake and cancer development
Population studies from China (China Study)
and Norway (WWII) correlate significant lower
rates of breast and prostate cancer in dairy free

C. Prions misfolded proteins

Invalidates current pathogen definitions as
being only bacteria or viruses
Misfolded diseased preptides induce wrong
folding in normal proteins: seeded induction
Ingestion from diseased meats
Cannot be cleared out of cells, but
accumulate and form amyloid aggregates in
brain and nervous tissue (lots of beta pleated

Protein Diseases
Mad Cow Disease (Creutzfeldt-Jacob D):
food chain infection form diseased
One form of Alzheimers