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Solomon Berg Martin

Biology, Seventh Edition

Chapter 39

Neural Signaling

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Neural signaling process


Reception of information by a
sensory receptor
Transmission by afferent neuron to
the central nervous system
Integration by CNS interneurons
Efferent neuron transmission
Action by effectors
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Stimulus response

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Glial cells
Support and nourish neurons
Microglia are phagocytic cells
Astrocytes
Some are phagocytic
Others help regulate composition of
the CNS extracellular fluid
May induce and stabilize synapses
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Oligodendrocytes
Glial cells that form myelin
sheaths around axons in the CNS

Schwann cells
Form sheaths around axons in
the peripheral nervous system
(PNS)
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Structure of a typical neuron


A cell body contains the nucleus
and most of the organelles
Many branched dendrites extend
from the cell body
Single long axon extends from
the cell body and forms branches
called axon collaterals
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Structure of a multipolar neuron

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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Dendrites receive stimuli and send


signals to the cell body
Axon transmits signals into its
terminal branches that end in
synaptic terminals
Many axons are surrounded by an
insulating myelin sheath formed of
Schwann cells
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the sheath between
successive Schwann cells

Nerve
Several hundred axons wrapped in
connective tissue

Ganglion
Mass of neuron cell bodies
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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Nerve structure

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Neuron resting potential


In a resting neuron, the inner
surface of the plasma membrane
is negatively charged compared
with the outside
Potential difference of about -70
millivolts (mV) across the
membrane
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Differences in concentrations of
specific ionsNa+ (sodium) and
K+ (potassium)inside the cell
relative to the extracellular fluid
Selective permeability of the
plasma membrane to these ions
Ions pass through specific
passive ion channels
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

K+ leaks out more readily than


Na+ can leak in
Cl- (chlorine) ions accumulate
along the inner surface of the
plasma membrane
Gradients that determine the
resting potential are maintained
by ATP
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Resting potential

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Sodium-potassium pumps
Continuously transport three
sodium ions out of the neuron for
every two potassium ions
transported in

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Voltage-activated ion channels

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Depolarized membrane
Stimulus caused the membrane
potential to become less negative

Hyperpolarized membrane
Membrane potential becomes
more negative than the resting
potential
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Graded potential
Local response that varies in
magnitude depending on the
strength of the applied stimulus
Fades out within a few mm of its
point of origin

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Action potential
Wave of depolarization that
moves down the axon
Voltage across the membrane
declines to a critical point
Voltage-activated ion channels
open
Na+ flows into the neuron
Action potential is generated
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

Action potential

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Action potential is an all-ornone response


No variation exists in the strength
of a single impulse
Membrane potential either
exceeds threshold level, leading
to transmission of an action
potential, or it does not
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Repolarization
As the action potential moves
down the axon, repolarization
occurs behind it
During depolarization, the axon
enters a refractory period
Time when it cannot transmit
another action potential
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Resting state

Depolarization

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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Repolarization

Return to resting state

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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Continuous conduction
Takes place in unmyelinated
neurons
Involves the entire axon plasma
membrane

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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Saltatory conduction
More rapid than continuous
conduction
Takes place in myelinated
neurons
Depolarization skips along the
axon from one node of Ranvier to
the next
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Saltatory
conduction

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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Synapses
Junction between two neurons or
between a neuron and effector
Most synapses are chemical
Transmission depends on release
of neurotransmitter from synaptic
vesicles in the synaptic terminals
of a presynaptic neuron
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Triggers contraction of skeletal muscle

Glutamate
Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the
brain

GABA
Inhibitory neurotransmitter

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Biogenic amines
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
Dopamine
Play important roles in regulating
mood
Dopamine is important in motor
function
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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Neuropeptides
Endorphinsm
Enkephalins

Nitric oxide (NO)


Gaseous neurotransmitter that
transmits signals from the
postsynaptic neuron to the
presynaptic neuron
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Synaptic transmission
Calcium ions cause synaptic vesicles
to fuse with the presynaptic
membrane and release
neurotransmitter into the synaptic
cleft
Neurotransmitter combines with
specific receptors on a postsynaptic
neuron
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

Synaptic transmission

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Neurotransmitter receptors
Many are proteins that form
ligand-gated ion channels
Others work through a second
messenger such as cAMP

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Excitatory and inhibitory signals


Excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP)
Bring the neuron closer to firing

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential


(IPSP)
Move the neuron farther away from
its firing level
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

A postsynaptic neuron integrates


incoming stimuli and decides
whether or not to fire
Each EPSP or IPSP is a graded
potential
Varies in magnitude depending on
the strength of the stimulus applied

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

The mechanism of neural


integration is summation
Process of adding and
subtracting incoming signals
By summation of several EPSPs,
the neuron may be brought to
critical firing level

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Temporal summation
Repeated stimuli cause new
EPSPs to develop before
previous EPSPs have decayed

Spatial summation
Postsynaptic neuron stimulated
at several different places
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Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Convergence
Single neuron is controlled by
converging signals from two or
more presynaptic neurons
Permits the CNS to integrate
incoming information from
various sources

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling

Divergence
Single presynaptic neuron
stimulates many postsynaptic
neurons
Allows widespread effect

Reverberation
Axon collateral synapses with an
interneuron
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Biology, Seventh Edition

Reverberation

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CHAPTER 39 Neural Signalling