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VDB 1023

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
CHAPTER 1: STATICS OF A
PARTICLE
CONDITION OF EQUILIBRIUM, FREECarrol Ng Cheng
Yee, PhD
BODY
DIAGRAM
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

COURSE LEARNING
OUTCOME
(CLO)
At the end of this course, you shall be able to:
CLO

Description

CLO1

Resolve a system of forces and apply the equilibrium conditions

CLO2

Solve problem involving simple trusses and friction

CLO3

Calculate the geometrical properties of simple and complex areas and solids

CLO4

Analyze the dynamics of a rigid body

RECAP OF THE PREVIOUS


LECTURE
FORCE ??
FORCE VECTOR
VECTOR OPERATIONS
POSITION VECTOR

HIGHLIGHT OF THIS
LECTURE
Students will be able to :
Explain and Apply equations of equilibrium, and,
Draw a free-body diagram (FBD).

What, Why, and How of a FBD


Equations of Equilibrium

EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is
zero, the particle is in equilibrium.
Newtons First Law:
If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the
particle will remain at rest or
Will remain constant velocity if originally in motion.

Conditions of Equilibrium of a
Particle

Particle acted
upon by two
forces:
- equal
magnitude
- same line of

Particle acted upon by three


or more forces:
- graphical solution yields a
polygon

closed
R F 0
- algebraic
F 0 solution
F 0

THE WHAT, WHY, AND HOW OF A FREEBODY DIAGRAM (FBD)


Free-body diagrams are one of the most important things
for you to know how to draw and use for statics and other
subjects!

What?
It is a drawing that shows all external forces acting on the
particle.

Why?

It is key to being able to write the equations of equilibrium


which are used to solve for the unknowns (usually forces
or angles).

How?

1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free


from its surroundings.

2. Show all the forces that act on the


particle.
Active forces: They want to move the particle.
Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.
3. Identify each force and show all known
magnitudes and directions. Show all unknown
magnitudes and / or directions asy variables.
FBD at A
FDA
Note : Cylinder mass = 40 Kg

FB
30
x

FC = 392.4 N (What is
this?)

FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS

Space Diagram: A sketch showing


the physical conditions of the
problem.

Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing


only the forces on the selected particle.
2-9

Coplanar force system


Given: The box weighs 550 N and
geometry is as shown.
Find:

The forces in the ropes AB


and AC.

Plan:
1. Draw a FBD for point A.
2. Apply the E-of-E to solve for the forces in ropes AB
and AC.

Coplanar force system


y
FB

FC
5

30

3
4

FD = 550 N

Applying the scalar E-of-E at A, we get;


+ F x = FB cos 30 FC (4/5) = 0
+ F y = FB sin 30 + FC (3/5) - 550 N = 0
Solving the above equations, we get;
FB = 478 N
and FC = 518 N

FBD at point A

Coplanar force system


Given: The mass of lamp is 20 kg and
geometry is as shown.
Find: The force in each cable.
Plan:

1. Draw a FBD for Point D.


2. Apply E-of-E at Point D to solve for the unknowns (F CD &
FDE).
3. Knowing FCD, repeat this process at point C.

Coplanar force system


FBD at point D
y
FCD

FDE
30

W = 20 (9.81) N

Applying the scalar E-of-E at D, we get;


+ Fy = FDE sin 30 20 (9.81) = 0
+ Fx = FDE cos 30 FCD = 0
Solving the above equations, we get:
FDE = 392 N

and FCD = 340 N

Coplanar force system


FBD at point C
y

FAC
4

FCD =340 N

FBC
45

Applying the scalar E-of-E at C, we get;


+ Fx = 340 FBC sin 45 FAC (3/5) = 0
+ Fy = FAC (4/5) FBC cos 45 = 0
Solving the above equations, we get;
FBC = 275 N

and FAC = 243 N

RECAP OF THE LECTURE


Explain and Apply equations of equilibrium, and,
Draw a free-body diagram (FBD).