Controlled Rectifiers
(Line Commutated AC to DC
converters)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
+
AC
In p u t
V o lta g e
L in e
C o m m u ta te d
C o n v e rte r
D C O u tp u t
V 0 (d c )

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power
supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage
Type of commutation: Natural / AC line commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Different types of
Line Commutated Converters
AC to DC Converters (Phase controlled
rectifiers)
AC to AC converters (AC voltage controllers)
AC to AC converters (Cyclo converters) at low
output frequency.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Differences Between
Diode Rectifiers
&
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
The diode rectifiers are referred to as
uncontrolled rectifiers .
The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc output
voltage .
Each diode conducts for one half cycle.
Diode conduction angle = 1800 or radians.
We can not control the dc output voltage or the
average dc load current in a diode rectifier
circuit.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Single phase half wave diode rectifier gives an
Vm
Average dc output voltage VO dc
Single phase full wave diode rectifier gives an
Average dc output voltage VO dc
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
2Vm
Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
DC motor control in steel mills, paper and
textile mills employing dc motor drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction motor.
Electrochemical and electrometallurgical
processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Portable hand tool drives.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Classification of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Different types of Single
Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Using a center tapped transformer.
Full wave bridge circuit.
Semi converter.
Full converter.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
Different Types of
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Semi converter (half controlled bridge
converter).
Full converter (fully controlled bridge
converter).
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
10
10
Principle of Phase Controlled
Rectifier Operation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
11
11
Single Phase HalfWave Thyristor
Converter with a Resistive Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
12
12
Supply Voltage
Output Voltage
Output (load)
Current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
13
13
Supply Voltage
Thyristor Voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
14
14
Equations
vs Vm sin t i/p ac supply voltage
Vm max. value of i/p ac supply voltage
Vm
VS
RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage
2
vO vL output voltage across the load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
15
15
When the thyristor is triggered at t
vO vL Vm sin t ; t to
vO
iO iL
Load current; t to
R
Vm sin t
iO iL
I m sin t ; t to
R
Vm
Where I m
max. value of load current
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
16
16
To Derive an Expression for the
Average (DC)
Output Voltage Across The Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
17
17
VO dc
1
Vdc
2
v .d t ;
O
vO Vm sin t for t to
VO dc
1
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
VO dc
Vm sin t.d t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
18
18
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
Vm
sin
t
.
d
Vm
cos t
2
Vm
cos cos ; cos 1
2
Vm
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
19
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
19
Maximum average (dc) o/p
voltage is obtained when 0
and the maximum dc output voltage
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
1 cos 0 ; cos 0 1
2
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
20
20
Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
The average dc output voltage can be varied
by varying the trigger angle from 0 to a
maximum of 180 radians
0
We can plot the control characteristic
O dc
vs by using the equation for VO dc
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
21
21
Control Characteristic
of
Single Phase Half Wave Phase
Controlled Rectifier
with
Resistive Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
22
22
The average dc output voltage is given by the
expression
Vm
VO dc
1 cos
2
We can obtain the control characteristic by
plotting the expression for the dc output
voltage as a function of trigger angle
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
23
23
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
24
24
Control Characteristic
V
O (d c)
dm
0 .6 V
dm
0 .2 V
dm
60
120
180
T r ig g e r a n g le in d e g r e e s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
25
25
Normalizing the dc output
voltage with respect to Vdm , the
Normalized output voltage
Vdc
Vn
Vdm
Vdc
Vn
Vdm
Vm
1 cos
2
Vm
1
1 cos Vdcn
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
26
26
To Derive An
Expression for the
RMS Value of Output Voltage
of a
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier With Resistive Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
27
27
The RMS output voltage is given by
VO RMS
v .d t
2
O
Output voltage vO Vm sin t ; for t to
VO RMS
1 2 2
Vm sin t.d t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
1
2
28
28
1 cos 2 t
By substituting sin t
, we get
2
2
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
1 2 1 cos 2 t
Vm
.d t
2
2
Vm2
1 cos 2 t .d t
1
2
1
2
Vm2
d t cos 2 t.d t
1
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
29
29
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
Vm 1
t
2
Vm
2
Vm
sin 2 t
1
2
1
sin 2 sin 2
2
1
sin 2
2
Vm
sin 2
2
2
1
2
;sin2 0
1
2
1
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
30
30
Performance Parameters
Of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
31
31
Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p
power delivered to the load)
PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Vdc I dc
Where
VO dc Vdc avg./ dc value of o/p voltage.
I O dc I dc avg./dc value of o/p current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
32
32
Output ac power
PO ac VO RMS I O RMS
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
Efficiency
PO dc
PO ac
; % Efficiency
PO dc
PO ac
100
The o/p voltage consists of two components
The dc component VO dc
The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
33
33
The total RMS value of output voltage is given by
VO RMS V
2
O dc
2
r rms
Vac Vr rms V
2
O RMS
2
O dc
Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the
shape of the output voltage is given by
VO RMS
RMS output load voltage
FF
VO dc
DC load output load voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
34
34
The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t. o/p voltage w/f
rv RF
rv
Vr rms
Vac
Vdc
VO dc
2
O RMS
VO dc
2
O dc
VO RMS
VO dc
rv FF 1
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
35
35
Current Ripple Factor ri
Where I r rms I ac I
I r rms
I O dc
2
O RMS
I ac
I dc
2
O dc
Vr pp peak to peak ac ripple output voltage
Vr pp VO max VO min
I r pp peak to peak ac ripple load current
I r pp I O max I O min
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
36
36
Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)
PO dc
TUF
VS I S
Where
VS RMS supply (secondary) voltage
I S RMS supply (secondary) current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
37
37
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
38
38
Where
vS Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
iS i/p supply current
(transformer secondary winding current)
iS 1 Fundamental component of the i/p supply current
I P Peak value of the input supply current
Phase angle difference between (sine wave
components) the fundamental components of i/p
supply current & the input supply voltage.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
39
39
Displacement angle (phase angle)
For an RL load
Displacement angle = Load impedance angle
L
tan
for an RL load
R
Displacement Factor (DF) or
Fundamental Power Factor
DF Cos
1
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
40
40
Harmonic Factor (HF) or
Total Harmonic Distortion Factor ; THD
I I
HF
2
I S1
2
S
2
S1
1
2
I 2
S 1
I S 1
1
2
Where
I S RMS value of input supply current.
I S 1 RMS value of fundamental component of
the i/p supply current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
41
41
Input Power Factor (PF)
VS I S 1
I S1
PF
cos
cos
VS I S
IS
The Crest Factor (CF)
CF
I S peak
IS
Peak input supply current
RMS input supply current
For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier
FF 1; 100% ; Vac Vr rms 0 ; TUF 1;
RF rv 0 ; HF THD 0; PF DPF 1
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
42
42
Single Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With
An
RL Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
43
43
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
44
44
Input Supply Voltage (Vs)
&
Thyristor (Output) Current
Waveforms
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
45
45
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
46
46
Output (Load)
Voltage Waveform
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
47
47
To Derive An Expression For
The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
48
48
Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
49
49
Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.
Z R L =Load impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1
R
t
Vm
iO sin t A1e L
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
50
50
Constant A1 is calculated from
initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=
R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L
A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e
R
L
Vm
Z sin
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
51
51
Substituting the value of constant A1 in the
general expression for iO
R
t
L
Vm
Vm
iO
sin t e
sin
Z
Z
we obtain the final expression for the
inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z
sin t sin e
Where t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
R
t
L
52
52
Extinction angle can be calculated by using
the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
0
Z
sin e
R
L
sin
can be calculated by solving the above eqn.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
53
53
To Derive An Expression
For
Average (DC) Load Voltage of a
Single Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier with
RL Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
54
54
VO dc
1
VL
2
VO dc
1
VL
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0
v .d t
O
vO 0 for t 0 to & for t to 2
VO dc
1
VL
vO .d t ;
2
vO Vm sin t for t to
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
55
55
VO dc
1
VL
Vm sin t.d t
2
VO dc
Vm
VL
cos t
2
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
56
56
Effect of Load
Inductance on the Output
During the period t to the
instantaneous o/p voltage is negative and
this reduces the average or the dc output
voltage when compared to a purely
resistive load.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
57
57
Average DC Load Current
I O dc I L Avg
VO dc
RL
Vm
cos cos
2 RL
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
58
58
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier
With RL Load
&
Free Wheeling Diode
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
59
59
i0
+
+
V s
FW D
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
60
60
vS
S u p p ly v o lta g e
iG
G a te p u ls e s
iO
L o a d c u rre n t
t=
0
vO
L o a d v o lta g e
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
61
61
The average output voltage
Vm
Vdc
1 cos which is the same as that
2
of a purely resistive load.
The following points are to be noted
For low value of inductance, the load current
tends to become discontinuous.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
62
62
During the period to
the load current is carried by the SCR.
During the period to load current is
carried by the free wheeling diode.
The value of depends on the value of
R and L and the forward resistance
of the FWD.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
63
63
For Large Load Inductance
the load current does not reach zero, &
we obtain continuous load current
i0
t1
t2
t3
t4
SCR
FW D
SCR
FW D
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
64
64
Single Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier With
A
General Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
65
65
iO
+
vS
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
L
+
vO
E
66
66
E
sin
Vm
1
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
67
67
vO
L o a d v o lta g e
E
0
iO
Im
0
L o a d c u rren t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
68
68
Equations
vS Vm sin t Input supply voltage.
vO Vm sin t o/p load voltage
for t to .
vO E for t 0 to &
for t to 2 .
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
69
69
Expression for the Load Current
When the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
, the eqn. for the circuit can be written as
diO
Vm sin t iO R L
+E ; t
dt
The general expression for the output load
current can be written as
Vm
E
iO sin t Ae
Z
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
70
70
Where
Z R L = Load Impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
The general expression for the o/p current can
1
be written as
Vm
E
iO
sin t Ae
Z
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
R
t
L
71
71
To find the value of the constant
'A' apply the initial conditions at t ,
load current iO 0, Equating the general
expression for the load current to zero at
t , we get
Vm
E
iO 0
sin Ae
Z
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
72
72
We obtain the value of constant 'A' as
R
V
E
L
m
A sin e
R Z
Substituting the value of the constant 'A' in the
expression for the load current; we get the
complete expression for the output load current as
Vm
E E Vm
iO
sin t sin e
Z
R R Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
R
t
L
73
73
To Derive
An
Expression For The Average
Or
DC Load Voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
74
74
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0
v .d t
O
vO Vm sin t Output load voltage for t to
vO E for t 0 to & for t to 2
VO dc
E.d t V
sin t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
0
E.d t
75
75
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
E t
2
1
2
Vm
Vm cos t
E t
E 0 Vm cos cos E 2
E
cos cos 2
2
2
Vm
cos cos
E
2
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
76
76
Conduction angle of thyristor
RMS Output Voltage can be calculated
by using the expression
VO RMS
v .d t
2
O
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
77
77
Single Phase
Full Wave Controlled Rectifier
Using A
Center Tapped Transformer
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
78
78
+
vO
AC
S u p p ly
T
B
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
79
79
Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
80
80
vO
0
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
81
81
To Derive An Expression For
The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
82
82
Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
83
83
Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.
Z R L =Load impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1
R
t
Vm
iO sin t A1e L
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
84
84
Constant A1 is calculated from
initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=
R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L
A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e
R
L
Vm
Z sin
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
85
85
Substituting the value of constant A1 in the
general expression for iO
R
t
L
Vm
Vm
iO
sin t e
sin
Z
Z
we obtain the final expression for the
inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z
sin t sin e
Where t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
R
t
L
86
86
Extinction angle can be calculated by using
the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
0
Z
sin e
R
L
sin
can be calculated by solving the above eqn.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
87
87
To Derive An Expression For The DC
Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
88
88
vO
0
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
89
89
VO dc
1
Vdc
v
.
d
VO dc
1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
VO dc
VO dc
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc
cos cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
90
90
When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0
Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
Vm
VO dc
cos cos
Vm
VO dc
cos 1
Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; for R load, when
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
91
91
To calculate the RMS output voltage we use
the expression
1
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
VO RMS
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
92
92
Discontinuous Load Current
Operation with FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
93
93
vO
0
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
94
94
Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to
Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;
T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &
vO 0 during discontinuous load current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
95
95
To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage For
A
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier
With RL Load & FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
96
96
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
1
Vdc
vO .d t
t 0
1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
Vm
Vdc
1 cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
97
97
The load current is discontinuous for low values
of load inductance and for large values of
trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger angles.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
98
98
Continuous Load Current
Operation
(Without FWD)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
99
99
vO
0
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
100
100
To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
101
101
vO
0
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
102
102
VO dc
1
Vdc
vO .d t
VO dc
1
Vdc
VO dc
Vm
Vdc
V
sin
t
.
d
cos t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
103
103
VO dc Vdc
Vm
cos cos ;
cos cos
VO dc
VO dc
Vm
Vdc cos cos
2Vm
Vdc
cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
104
104
By plotting VO(dc) versus ,
we obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier with RL
load for continuous load current operation
without FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
105
105
Vdc Vdm cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
106
106
Vdc Vdm cos
V O (dc)
V
dm
0 .6 V
dm
0 .2 V
dm
0
 0 .2 V d m
 0 .6 V
V
30
60
90
120
150
180
dm
dm
T r ig g e r a n g le i n d e g r e e s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
107
107
By varying the trigger angle we can vary the
output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 90
i.e., 0 90 ;
0
cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive
Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive
Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
108
108
For trigger angle , 900 to 1800
0
0
i
.
e
.,
90
180
cos is negative and hence
Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;
Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.
In this case the converter operates
as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
109
109
Drawbacks Of Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer
We require a centre tapped transformer which
is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
110
110
Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier
2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(SemiConverter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does not
require a centre tapped transformer
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
111
111
Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled Bridge
Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
112
112
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
113
113
Trigger Pattern of Thyristors
Thyristor T1 is triggered at
t , at t 2 ,...
Thyristor T2 is triggered at
t , at t 3 ,...
The time delay between the gating
signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
0
114
114
Waveforms of
single phase semiconverter
with general load & FWD
for > 900
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
115
115
Single Quadrant
Operation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
116
116
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
117
117
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
118
118
Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct
from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct
from t to 2
FWD conducts during
t 0 to , to ,...
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
119
119
Load Voltage & Load Current
Waveform of Single Phase Semi
Converter for
< 900
& Continuous load current operation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
120
120
vO
iO
()
()
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
121
121
To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase SemiConverter With
R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free Load
Current Operation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
122
122
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
1
Vdc
vO .d t
t 0
1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
Vm
Vdc
1 cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
123
123
Vdc can be varied from a max.
2Vm
value of
to 0 by varying from 0 to .
For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
Normalized dc o/p voltage is
Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn
1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
124
124
RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)
2
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
Vm2
1
2
1
2
1 cos 2 t .d t
Vm 1
sin 2
2
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
1
2
125
125
Single Phase Full Wave
Full Converter
(Fully Controlled Bridge
Converter)
With R,L, & E Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
126
126
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
127
127
Waveforms of
Single Phase Full Converter
Assuming Continuous (Constant
Load Current)
&
Ripple Free Load Current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
128
128
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
129
129
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
130
130
C o n s ta n t L o a d C u rr e n t
iO = Ia
iO
Ia
iT 1
&
iT 2
&
iT 4
Ia
Ia
iT 3
Ia
t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
131
131
To Derive
An Expression For
The Average DC Output Voltage of a
Single Phase Full Converter
assuming
Continuous & Constant Load Current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
132
132
The average dc output voltage
can be determined by using the expression
1
VO dc Vdc
vO .d t ;
2 0
The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p
2
pulses during the input supply time period of
0 to 2 radians. Hence the Average or dc
o/p voltage can be calculated as
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
133
133
2
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
134
134
Maximum average dc output voltage is
calculated for a trigger angle 0
and is obtained as
2Vm
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
cos 0
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
135
135
The normalized average output voltage is given by
VO dc
Vdc
Vdcn Vn
Vdc max Vdm
Vdcn
2Vm
cos
Vn
cos
2Vm
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
136
136
By plotting VO(dc) versus ,
we obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave fully controlled bridge converter
(single phase full converter)
for constant & continuous
load current operation.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
137
137
To plot the control characteristic of a
Single Phase Full Converter for constant
& continuous load current operation.
We use the equation for the average/ dc
output voltage
2Vm
VO dc Vdc
cos
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
138
138
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
139
139
Vdc Vdm cos
V O (dc)
V
dm
0 .6 V
dm
0 .2 V
dm
0
 0 .2 V d m
 0 .6 V
V
30
60
90
120
150
180
dm
dm
T r ig g e r a n g le i n d e g r e e s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
140
140
During the period from t = to the input voltage
vS and the input current iS are both positive and the
power flows from the supply to the load.
The converter is said to be operated in the
rectification mode
Controlled Rectifier Operation
for 0 < < 900
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
141
141
During the period from t = to (+), the input
voltage vS is negative and the input current iS is positive
and the output power becomes negative and there will be
reverse power flow from the load circuit to the supply.
The converter is said to be operated in the inversion
mode.
Line Commutated Inverter Operation
for 900 < < 1800
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
142
142
Two Quadrant Operation
of a Single Phase Full Converter
0< < 900
Controlled Rectifier
Operation
900< <1800
Line Commutated
Inverter Operation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
143
143
To Derive An
Expression For The
RMS Value Of The Output Voltage
The rms value of the output voltage
is calculated as
VO RMS
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
v
.
d
2
O
144
144
The single phase full converter gives two
output voltage pulses during the input supply
time period and hence the single phase full
converter is referred to as a two pulse converter.
The rms output voltage can be calculated as
VO RMS
v .d t
2
O
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
145
145
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
2
m
2
m
2
m
2
m
sin t.d t
sin t.d t
1 cos 2 t .d
2
d t
cos 2 t.d t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
146
146
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
t
2
2
m
sin 2 t
2
m
sin 2 sin 2
2
m
sin 2 2 sin 2
;
2
sin 2 2 sin 2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
147
147
VO RMS
V
sin 2 sin 2
2
2
2
m
2
m
2
m
V
V
Vm
VO RMS
0
2
2
2
Vm
VO RMS
VS
2
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the
rms input supply voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
148
148
Thyristor Current Waveforms
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
149
149
C o n s ta n t L o a d C u rr e n t
iO = Ia
iO
Ia
iT 1
&
iT 2
&
iT 4
Ia
Ia
iT 3
Ia
t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
150
150
The rms thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT RMS
I O RMS
2
The average thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT Avg
I O dc
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
151
151
Single Phase Dual Converter
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
152
152
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
153
153
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
154
154
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
155
155
The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is
2Vm
Vdc1
cos 1
The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is
2Vm
Vdc 2
cos 2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
156
156
In the dual converter operation one
converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with 90 & the second converter is
operated as a line commutated inverter
0
in the inversion mode with 90
Vdc1 Vdc 2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
157
157
2Vm
2Vm
2Vm
cos 1
cos 2
cos 2
cos 1 cos 2
or
cos 2 cos 1 cos 1
2 1 or
1 2
radians
Which gives
2 1
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
158
158
To Obtain an Expression
for the
Instantaneous Circulating Current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
159
159
vO1 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 1.
vO2 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 2.
The circulating current ir can be determined by
integrating the instantaneous voltage difference
(which is the voltage drop across the circulating
current reactor Lr), starting from t = (2  1).
As the two average output voltages during the
interval t = (+1) to (2  1) are equal and
opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current ir is zero.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
160
160
1
ir
Lr
vr .d t ; vr vO1 vO 2
2 1
As the o/p voltage vO 2 is negative
vr vO1 vO 2
1
ir
Lr
vO 2 .d t ;
2 1
vO1 Vm sin t for 2 1 to t
O1
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
161
161
Vm
ir
sin t.d t sin t.d t
Lr 2 1
2 1
2Vm
ir
cos t cos 1
Lr
t
The instantaneous value of the circulating current
depends on the delay angle.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
162
162
For trigger angle (delay angle) 1 0,
the magnitude of circulating current becomes min.
when t n , n 0, 2, 4,.... & magnitude becomes
max. when t n , n 1,3,5,....
If the peak load current is I p , one of the
converters that controls the power flow
may carry a peak current of
4Vm
Ip
,
Lr
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
163
163
where
I p I L max
Vm
,
RL
&
ir max
4Vm
max. circulating current
Lr
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
164
164
The Dual Converter
Can Be Operated
In Two Different Modes Of Operation
Noncirculating current (circulating current
free) mode of operation.
Circulating current mode of operation.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
165
165
NonCirculating
Current Mode of Operation
In this mode only one converter is operated at a
time.
When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900
Vdc is positive and Idc is positive.
When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900
Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
166
166
Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode, both the converters are switched
ON and operated at the same time.
The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted such
that (1 + 2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800  1).
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
167
167
When 0 <1 <900, converter 1 operates as a
controlled rectifier and converter 2 operates as
an inverter with 900 <2<1800.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive.
When 900 <1 <1800, converter 1 operates as
an Inverter and converter 2 operated as a
controlled rectifier by adjusting its trigger
angle 2 such that 0 <2<900.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
168
168
Four Quadrant Operation
Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900
Conv. 1
Rectifying
1 < 900
Conv. 2
Rectifying
2 < 900
Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
169
169
Advantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
The circulating current maintains continuous
conduction of both the converters over the
complete control range, independent of the load.
One converter always operates as a rectifier and the
other converter operates as an inverter, the power
flow in either direction at any time is possible.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
170
170
As both the converters are in continuous
conduction we obtain faster dynamic response.
i.e., the time response for changing from one
quadrant operation to another is faster.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
171
171
Disadvantages of Circulating Current Mode
Of Operation
There is always a circulating current flowing between
the converters.
When the load current falls to zero, there will be a
circulating current flowing between the converters so
we need to connect circulating current reactors in
order to limit the peak circulating current to safe level.
The converter thyristors should be rated to carry a
peak current much greater than the peak load current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao
172
172
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