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Controlled Rectifiers

(Line Commutated AC to DC
converters)

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

+
AC
In p u t
V o lta g e

L in e
C o m m u ta te d
C o n v e rte r

D C O u tp u t
V 0 (d c )
-

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power


supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage
Type of commutation: Natural / AC line commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

Different types of
Line Commutated Converters
AC to DC Converters (Phase controlled
rectifiers)
AC to AC converters (AC voltage controllers)
AC to AC converters (Cyclo converters) at low
output frequency.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

Differences Between
Diode Rectifiers
&
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

The diode rectifiers are referred to as


uncontrolled rectifiers .
The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc output
voltage .
Each diode conducts for one half cycle.
Diode conduction angle = 1800 or radians.
We can not control the dc output voltage or the
average dc load current in a diode rectifier
circuit.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

Single phase half wave diode rectifier gives an


Vm
Average dc output voltage VO dc

Single phase full wave diode rectifier gives an


Average dc output voltage VO dc
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

2Vm

Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
DC motor control in steel mills, paper and
textile mills employing dc motor drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction motor.
Electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical
processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Portable hand tool drives.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

Classification of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

Different types of Single


Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Using a center tapped transformer.
Full wave bridge circuit.
Semi converter.
Full converter.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

Different Types of
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Semi converter (half controlled bridge
converter).
Full converter (fully controlled bridge
converter).
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

10
10

Principle of Phase Controlled


Rectifier Operation

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

11
11

Single Phase Half-Wave Thyristor


Converter with a Resistive Load

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

12
12

Supply Voltage

Output Voltage

Output (load)
Current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

13
13

Supply Voltage

Thyristor Voltage

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

14
14

Equations
vs Vm sin t i/p ac supply voltage
Vm max. value of i/p ac supply voltage
Vm
VS
RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage
2
vO vL output voltage across the load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

15
15

When the thyristor is triggered at t


vO vL Vm sin t ; t to
vO
iO iL
Load current; t to
R
Vm sin t
iO iL
I m sin t ; t to
R
Vm
Where I m
max. value of load current
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

16
16

To Derive an Expression for the


Average (DC)
Output Voltage Across The Load

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

17
17

VO dc

1
Vdc
2

v .d t ;
O

vO Vm sin t for t to

VO dc

1
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t

VO dc

Vm sin t.d t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

18
18

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

Vm

sin

t
.
d

Vm

cos t
2

Vm

cos cos ; cos 1


2
Vm

1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
19

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

19

Maximum average (dc) o/p


voltage is obtained when 0
and the maximum dc output voltage
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
1 cos 0 ; cos 0 1
2
Vm
Vdc max Vdm

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

20
20

Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
The average dc output voltage can be varied
by varying the trigger angle from 0 to a
maximum of 180 radians
0

We can plot the control characteristic

O dc

vs by using the equation for VO dc

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

21
21

Control Characteristic
of
Single Phase Half Wave Phase
Controlled Rectifier
with
Resistive Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

22
22

The average dc output voltage is given by the


expression
Vm
VO dc
1 cos
2
We can obtain the control characteristic by
plotting the expression for the dc output
voltage as a function of trigger angle
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

23
23

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

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24

Control Characteristic
V

O (d c)

dm

0 .6 V

dm

0 .2 V

dm

60

120

180

T r ig g e r a n g le in d e g r e e s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

25
25

Normalizing the dc output


voltage with respect to Vdm , the
Normalized output voltage
Vdc
Vn
Vdm
Vdc
Vn
Vdm

Vm
1 cos
2
Vm

1
1 cos Vdcn
2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

26
26

To Derive An
Expression for the
RMS Value of Output Voltage
of a
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier With Resistive Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

27
27

The RMS output voltage is given by


VO RMS

v .d t
2
O

Output voltage vO Vm sin t ; for t to


VO RMS

1 2 2

Vm sin t.d t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

1
2

28
28

1 cos 2 t
By substituting sin t
, we get
2
2

VO RMS
VO RMS

VO RMS

1 2 1 cos 2 t

Vm
.d t

2
2

Vm2

1 cos 2 t .d t

1
2

1
2

Vm2

d t cos 2 t.d t

1
2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

29
29

VO RMS

VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS

Vm 1

t
2
Vm

2
Vm

sin 2 t

1
2

1
sin 2 sin 2

2


1
sin 2
2

Vm
sin 2

2
2

1
2

;sin2 0

1
2

1
2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

30
30

Performance Parameters
Of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

31
31

Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p


power delivered to the load)
PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Vdc I dc
Where
VO dc Vdc avg./ dc value of o/p voltage.
I O dc I dc avg./dc value of o/p current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

32
32

Output ac power
PO ac VO RMS I O RMS
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
Efficiency

PO dc
PO ac

; % Efficiency

PO dc
PO ac

100

The o/p voltage consists of two components


The dc component VO dc
The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

33
33

The total RMS value of output voltage is given by


VO RMS V

2
O dc

2
r rms

Vac Vr rms V

2
O RMS

2
O dc

Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the


shape of the output voltage is given by
VO RMS
RMS output load voltage
FF

VO dc
DC load output load voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

34
34

The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t. o/p voltage w/f


rv RF

rv

Vr rms

Vac

Vdc

VO dc

2
O RMS

VO dc

2
O dc

VO RMS

VO dc

rv FF 1
2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

35
35

Current Ripple Factor ri


Where I r rms I ac I

I r rms
I O dc

2
O RMS

I ac

I dc
2
O dc

Vr pp peak to peak ac ripple output voltage


Vr pp VO max VO min
I r pp peak to peak ac ripple load current
I r pp I O max I O min
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

36
36

Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)


PO dc
TUF
VS I S
Where
VS RMS supply (secondary) voltage
I S RMS supply (secondary) current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

37
37

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

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38

Where
vS Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
iS i/p supply current
(transformer secondary winding current)
iS 1 Fundamental component of the i/p supply current
I P Peak value of the input supply current

Phase angle difference between (sine wave


components) the fundamental components of i/p
supply current & the input supply voltage.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

39
39

Displacement angle (phase angle)


For an RL load
Displacement angle = Load impedance angle
L
tan
for an RL load
R
Displacement Factor (DF) or
Fundamental Power Factor
DF Cos
1

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

40
40

Harmonic Factor (HF) or


Total Harmonic Distortion Factor ; THD
I I
HF

2
I S1
2
S

2
S1

1
2

I 2
S 1

I S 1

1
2

Where
I S RMS value of input supply current.
I S 1 RMS value of fundamental component of
the i/p supply current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

41
41

Input Power Factor (PF)


VS I S 1
I S1
PF
cos
cos
VS I S
IS
The Crest Factor (CF)
CF

I S peak
IS

Peak input supply current

RMS input supply current

For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier


FF 1; 100% ; Vac Vr rms 0 ; TUF 1;
RF rv 0 ; HF THD 0; PF DPF 1
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

42
42

Single Phase Half Wave


Controlled Rectifier
With
An
RL Load

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

43
43

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

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44

Input Supply Voltage (Vs)


&
Thyristor (Output) Current
Waveforms

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

45
45

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

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46

Output (Load)
Voltage Waveform

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

47
47

To Derive An Expression For


The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

48
48

Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

49
49

Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.


Z R L =Load impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1

R
t
Vm
iO sin t A1e L
Z

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

50
50

Constant A1 is calculated from



initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=

R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L

A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e

R
L

Vm

Z sin

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

51
51

Substituting the value of constant A1 in the


general expression for iO
R
t
L

Vm
Vm

iO
sin t e
sin

Z
Z

we obtain the final expression for the


inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z

sin t sin e

Where t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

R
t
L

52
52

Extinction angle can be calculated by using


the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

0
Z

sin e

R

L

sin

can be calculated by solving the above eqn.


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

53
53

To Derive An Expression
For
Average (DC) Load Voltage of a
Single Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier with
RL Load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

54
54

VO dc

1
VL
2

VO dc

1
VL
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0

v .d t
O

vO 0 for t 0 to & for t to 2


VO dc

1
VL
vO .d t ;
2

vO Vm sin t for t to
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

55
55

VO dc

1
VL
Vm sin t.d t
2

VO dc

Vm
VL
cos t
2

Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

56
56

Effect of Load
Inductance on the Output

During the period t to the


instantaneous o/p voltage is negative and
this reduces the average or the dc output
voltage when compared to a purely
resistive load.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

57
57

Average DC Load Current

I O dc I L Avg

VO dc
RL

Vm

cos cos
2 RL

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

58
58

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled


Rectifier
With RL Load
&
Free Wheeling Diode

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

59
59

i0
+

+
V s

FW D
L

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

60
60

vS

S u p p ly v o lta g e

iG

G a te p u ls e s

iO

L o a d c u rre n t

t=
0

vO

L o a d v o lta g e

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

61
61

The average output voltage


Vm
Vdc
1 cos which is the same as that
2
of a purely resistive load.
The following points are to be noted
For low value of inductance, the load current
tends to become discontinuous.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

62
62

During the period to


the load current is carried by the SCR.
During the period to load current is
carried by the free wheeling diode.
The value of depends on the value of
R and L and the forward resistance
of the FWD.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

63
63

For Large Load Inductance


the load current does not reach zero, &
we obtain continuous load current
i0

t1

t2

t3

t4

SCR

FW D

SCR

FW D

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

64
64

Single Phase Half Wave


Controlled Rectifier With
A
General Load

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

65
65

iO
+

vS

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

L
+

vO

E
66
66

E
sin
Vm
1

For trigger angle ,


the Thyristor conducts from t to
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

67
67

vO

L o a d v o lta g e
E
0

iO

Im
0

L o a d c u rren t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

68
68

Equations
vS Vm sin t Input supply voltage.
vO Vm sin t o/p load voltage
for t to .
vO E for t 0 to &
for t to 2 .
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

69
69

Expression for the Load Current


When the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
, the eqn. for the circuit can be written as
diO
Vm sin t iO R L
+E ; t
dt
The general expression for the output load
current can be written as
Vm
E
iO sin t Ae
Z
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

70
70

Where
Z R L = Load Impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
The general expression for the o/p current can
1

be written as

Vm
E
iO
sin t Ae
Z
R

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

R
t
L

71
71

To find the value of the constant


'A' apply the initial conditions at t ,
load current iO 0, Equating the general
expression for the load current to zero at

t , we get
Vm
E
iO 0
sin Ae
Z
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

72
72

We obtain the value of constant 'A' as


R
V
E
L
m
A sin e
R Z

Substituting the value of the constant 'A' in the


expression for the load current; we get the
complete expression for the output load current as

Vm
E E Vm

iO
sin t sin e
Z
R R Z

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

R
t
L

73
73

To Derive
An
Expression For The Average
Or
DC Load Voltage

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

74
74

VO dc

VO dc

vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0

v .d t
O

vO Vm sin t Output load voltage for t to


vO E for t 0 to & for t to 2
VO dc

E.d t V

sin t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao
0

E.d t
75
75

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

E t
2
1

2
Vm

Vm cos t

E t

E 0 Vm cos cos E 2

E
cos cos 2

2
2
Vm

cos cos
E
2
2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

76
76

Conduction angle of thyristor


RMS Output Voltage can be calculated
by using the expression
VO RMS

v .d t
2
O

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

77
77

Single Phase
Full Wave Controlled Rectifier
Using A
Center Tapped Transformer

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

78
78

+
vO
AC
S u p p ly

T
B
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

79
79

Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

80
80

vO

0
iO


()

()

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

81
81

To Derive An Expression For


The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

82
82

Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

83
83

Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.


Z R L =Load impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1

R
t
Vm
iO sin t A1e L
Z

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

84
84

Constant A1 is calculated from



initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=

R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L

A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e

R
L

Vm

Z sin

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

85
85

Substituting the value of constant A1 in the


general expression for iO
R
t
L

Vm
Vm

iO
sin t e
sin

Z
Z

we obtain the final expression for the


inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z

sin t sin e

Where t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

R
t
L

86
86

Extinction angle can be calculated by using


the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

0
Z

sin e

R

L

sin

can be calculated by solving the above eqn.


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

87
87

To Derive An Expression For The DC


Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

88
88

vO

0
iO


()

()

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


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89

VO dc

1
Vdc
v
.
d

VO dc

1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t

VO dc
VO dc

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc
cos cos

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

90
90

When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0


Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
Vm
VO dc
cos cos

Vm
VO dc
cos 1

Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; for R load, when

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

91
91

To calculate the RMS output voltage we use


the expression

1
2
2

Vm sin t.d t

VO RMS

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

92
92

Discontinuous Load Current


Operation with FWD

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93

vO

0
iO


()

()

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94
94

Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to

Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;

T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &

vO 0 during discontinuous load current.


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

95
95

To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage For
A
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier
With RL Load & FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

96
96

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

1
Vdc
vO .d t

t 0

1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

Vm
Vdc
1 cos

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


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97
97

The load current is discontinuous for low values


of load inductance and for large values of
trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger angles.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

98
98

Continuous Load Current


Operation
(Without FWD)

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

99
99

vO

0
iO

()

()

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

100
100

To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

101
101

vO

0
iO

()

()

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


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102
102

VO dc

1
Vdc

vO .d t

VO dc

1
Vdc

VO dc

Vm
Vdc

V
sin

t
.
d


cos t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

103
103

VO dc Vdc
Vm

cos cos ;

cos cos
VO dc

VO dc

Vm
Vdc cos cos

2Vm
Vdc
cos

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

104
104

By plotting VO(dc) versus ,


we obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier with RL
load for continuous load current operation
without FWD

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

105
105

Vdc Vdm cos

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


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106
106

Vdc Vdm cos

V O (dc)
V

dm

0 .6 V

dm

0 .2 V

dm

0
- 0 .2 V d m
- 0 .6 V
-V

30

60

90

120

150

180

dm

dm

T r ig g e r a n g le i n d e g r e e s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
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107

By varying the trigger angle we can vary the


output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 90

i.e., 0 90 ;
0

cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive

Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive


Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
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108
108

For trigger angle , 900 to 1800


0
0
i
.
e
.,
90

180

cos is negative and hence


Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;

Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.

In this case the converter operates


as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.

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109
109

Drawbacks Of Full Wave


Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer

We require a centre tapped transformer which


is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

110
110

Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier
2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi-Converter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does not
require a centre tapped transformer
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

111
111

Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled Bridge
Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)

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112
112

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113
113

Trigger Pattern of Thyristors


Thyristor T1 is triggered at

t , at t 2 ,...

Thyristor T2 is triggered at

t , at t 3 ,...

The time delay between the gating


signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Rao

0
114
114

Waveforms of
single phase semi-converter
with general load & FWD
for > 900

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115
115

Single Quadrant
Operation
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116

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117

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118

Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct


from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct

from t to 2

FWD conducts during

t 0 to , to ,...
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119
119

Load Voltage & Load Current


Waveform of Single Phase Semi
Converter for
< 900
& Continuous load current operation

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120
120

vO

iO

()

()

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121

To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase Semi-Converter With
R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free Load
Current Operation
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Rao

122
122

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

1
Vdc
vO .d t

t 0

1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

Vm
Vdc
1 cos

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123

Vdc can be varied from a max.


2Vm
value of
to 0 by varying from 0 to .

For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is


2Vm
Vdc max Vdm

Normalized dc o/p voltage is


Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn

1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm

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124
124

RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)


2

2
2

Vm sin t.d t

VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS

Vm2

1
2

1
2

1 cos 2 t .d t

Vm 1
sin 2

2
2

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Rao

1
2

125
125

Single Phase Full Wave


Full Converter
(Fully Controlled Bridge
Converter)
With R,L, & E Load

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126
126

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127

Waveforms of
Single Phase Full Converter
Assuming Continuous (Constant
Load Current)
&
Ripple Free Load Current
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128

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129

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130

C o n s ta n t L o a d C u rr e n t
iO = Ia

iO
Ia

iT 1
&

iT 2

&

iT 4

Ia

Ia

iT 3

Ia
t

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131

To Derive
An Expression For
The Average DC Output Voltage of a
Single Phase Full Converter
assuming
Continuous & Constant Load Current
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132
132

The average dc output voltage


can be determined by using the expression

1
VO dc Vdc
vO .d t ;
2 0

The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p


2

pulses during the input supply time period of


0 to 2 radians. Hence the Average or dc
o/p voltage can be calculated as
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133
133


2
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
2

2Vm

Vdc
cos t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

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134

Maximum average dc output voltage is


calculated for a trigger angle 0
and is obtained as
2Vm
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
cos 0

2Vm
Vdc max Vdm

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135

The normalized average output voltage is given by


VO dc
Vdc
Vdcn Vn

Vdc max Vdm


Vdcn

2Vm
cos
Vn
cos
2Vm

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136

By plotting VO(dc) versus ,


we obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave fully controlled bridge converter
(single phase full converter)
for constant & continuous
load current operation.

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137

To plot the control characteristic of a


Single Phase Full Converter for constant
& continuous load current operation.
We use the equation for the average/ dc
output voltage
2Vm
VO dc Vdc
cos

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138

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139

Vdc Vdm cos

V O (dc)
V

dm

0 .6 V

dm

0 .2 V

dm

0
- 0 .2 V d m
- 0 .6 V
-V

30

60

90

120

150

180

dm

dm

T r ig g e r a n g le i n d e g r e e s
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Rao

140
140

During the period from t = to the input voltage


vS and the input current iS are both positive and the
power flows from the supply to the load.
The converter is said to be operated in the
rectification mode
Controlled Rectifier Operation
for 0 < < 900

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141

During the period from t = to (+), the input


voltage vS is negative and the input current iS is positive
and the output power becomes negative and there will be
reverse power flow from the load circuit to the supply.
The converter is said to be operated in the inversion
mode.
Line Commutated Inverter Operation
for 900 < < 1800

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142
142

Two Quadrant Operation


of a Single Phase Full Converter
0< < 900

Controlled Rectifier
Operation

900< <1800
Line Commutated
Inverter Operation
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Rao

143
143

To Derive An
Expression For The
RMS Value Of The Output Voltage

The rms value of the output voltage

is calculated as
VO RMS

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Rao

v
.
d

2
O

144
144

The single phase full converter gives two


output voltage pulses during the input supply
time period and hence the single phase full
converter is referred to as a two pulse converter.
The rms output voltage can be calculated as
VO RMS

v .d t

2
O

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145
145

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS

2
m

2
m

2
m

2
m

sin t.d t

sin t.d t

1 cos 2 t .d
2

d t

cos 2 t.d t

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146
146

VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS

t
2
2
m

sin 2 t

2
m

sin 2 sin 2

2
m

sin 2 2 sin 2

;
2


sin 2 2 sin 2

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147
147

VO RMS

V
sin 2 sin 2

2
2


2
m

2
m

2
m

V
V
Vm
VO RMS

0
2
2
2
Vm
VO RMS
VS
2
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the
rms input supply voltage
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148

Thyristor Current Waveforms

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149
149

C o n s ta n t L o a d C u rr e n t
iO = Ia

iO
Ia

iT 1
&

iT 2

&

iT 4

Ia

Ia

iT 3

Ia
t

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150
150

The rms thyristor current can be


calculated as
IT RMS

I O RMS

2
The average thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT Avg

I O dc
2

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151

Single Phase Dual Converter

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152

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153

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154

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155

The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is


2Vm
Vdc1
cos 1

The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is


2Vm
Vdc 2
cos 2

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156

In the dual converter operation one


converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with 90 & the second converter is
operated as a line commutated inverter
0

in the inversion mode with 90

Vdc1 Vdc 2

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157

2Vm
2Vm
2Vm
cos 1
cos 2
cos 2

cos 1 cos 2
or
cos 2 cos 1 cos 1

2 1 or

1 2

radians

Which gives

2 1
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Rao

158
158

To Obtain an Expression
for the
Instantaneous Circulating Current

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159
159

vO1 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 1.


vO2 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 2.
The circulating current ir can be determined by
integrating the instantaneous voltage difference
(which is the voltage drop across the circulating
current reactor Lr), starting from t = (2 - 1).
As the two average output voltages during the
interval t = (+1) to (2 - 1) are equal and
opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current ir is zero.
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160
160

1
ir

Lr

vr .d t ; vr vO1 vO 2

2 1
As the o/p voltage vO 2 is negative

vr vO1 vO 2

1
ir

Lr

vO 2 .d t ;

2 1
vO1 Vm sin t for 2 1 to t
O1

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161
161

Vm
ir
sin t.d t sin t.d t
Lr 2 1

2 1
2Vm
ir
cos t cos 1
Lr
t

The instantaneous value of the circulating current


depends on the delay angle.
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162
162

For trigger angle (delay angle) 1 0,


the magnitude of circulating current becomes min.
when t n , n 0, 2, 4,.... & magnitude becomes
max. when t n , n 1,3,5,....
If the peak load current is I p , one of the
converters that controls the power flow
may carry a peak current of

4Vm
Ip
,
Lr

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163
163

where
I p I L max

Vm

,
RL

&
ir max

4Vm

max. circulating current


Lr

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164
164

The Dual Converter


Can Be Operated
In Two Different Modes Of Operation

Non-circulating current (circulating current


free) mode of operation.
Circulating current mode of operation.

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165

Non-Circulating
Current Mode of Operation
In this mode only one converter is operated at a
time.
When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900
Vdc is positive and Idc is positive.
When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900
Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.
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166
166

Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode, both the converters are switched
ON and operated at the same time.
The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted such
that (1 + 2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800 - 1).

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167

When 0 <1 <900, converter 1 operates as a


controlled rectifier and converter 2 operates as
an inverter with 900 <2<1800.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive.
When 900 <1 <1800, converter 1 operates as
an Inverter and converter 2 operated as a
controlled rectifier by adjusting its trigger
angle 2 such that 0 <2<900.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.
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168

Four Quadrant Operation


Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900

Conv. 1
Rectifying
1 < 900

Conv. 2
Rectifying
2 < 900

Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900

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169

Advantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
The circulating current maintains continuous
conduction of both the converters over the
complete control range, independent of the load.
One converter always operates as a rectifier and the
other converter operates as an inverter, the power
flow in either direction at any time is possible.

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170

As both the converters are in continuous


conduction we obtain faster dynamic response.
i.e., the time response for changing from one
quadrant operation to another is faster.

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171

Disadvantages of Circulating Current Mode


Of Operation

There is always a circulating current flowing between


the converters.
When the load current falls to zero, there will be a
circulating current flowing between the converters so
we need to connect circulating current reactors in
order to limit the peak circulating current to safe level.
The converter thyristors should be rated to carry a
peak current much greater than the peak load current.

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172