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Presented by
Yoginder Yadav
Tanuj Jindal


Gear finishing is necessary because
none of the methods of gear
manufacturing produces gears of
accurate dimensions and shape. Due
to which any error in production will
lead to noisy performance of the
gear box. Irregular wear of the teeth
and uneven load distribution on the
teeth are the factors enough to
cause an early failure of the gears

It is a finishing operation that removes small
amount of metal from the flanks of gear teeth.
May correct small errors in tooth spacing, helix
angle, tooth profile and concentricity.
Can eliminate tooth end load concentration , reduce
gear noise and increase load carrying capacity.
It has been used successfully in finishing
gears of diameter pitches from 180 to 2.
Shaving is done by two methods
a) Rack shaving
b) Rotary shaving

Rack shaving
In rack shaving a rack type
shaving tool is reciprocated
under the gear and in feed
takes place at the end of
each stroke.
150 mm is the maximum
diameter of gear that can
be shaved by rack shaving

In Rotary shaving, the cutter
has the same basic form as
the rough cut gear. The teeth
of the cutter have grooves cut
across the flanks in planes at
right angles to the axis of the
cutter; these grooves form
the cutting edges, but
because only a small amount
of metal between 0'03 and
0'08 mm is to be removed.

Burnishing is applied to unhardened gears
for finishing to very accurate dimensions.
In this method the machined gear is rolled
under pressure with three hardened master
gears of high accuracy and finish.
Though the method provide smooth and
accurate tooth profile but due to localized
residual stress.
It is very advisable to employ
the method on precision gears.

Grinding is a very accurate method and is,
though relatively expensive, more widely
used for finishing teeth of different type and
size of gears of hard material or hardened
Hardened gears are difficult to finish by
shaving and burnishing methods.
Like gear milling, gear grinding is also
done on two principles
(i) Forming
,which is more productive and accurate

Gear lapping
The object of employing the lapping process
for finishing gears is to achieve high degree
of finish.
The gear to be finished after machining and
heat treatment and even after grinding is run
in mesh with a gear shaped lapping tool or
another mating gear of cast iron.
Lapping can remove very small
amount of metal and correct
small errors up to 0.05mm.

Gear tooth honing is a gear finishing process that improves
the surface finish of the tooth profile and reduces the noise
of spur and helical gears after heat treatment.
Gear honing is a finishing method for hardened gears The
grain size of the abrasive with which it is charged is selected
to suit the honing allowance (01025 to 0.05 mm) and the
surface finish requirements. The work gear is meshed with
the honing tool in a crossed axis relationship.
There is no in feed mechanism. The gear is run in both the
directions during the process.
Gear tooth honing can be carried out with either a constant
pressure between teeth of the gear and honing tool.