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Heat and Mass Transfer II

(ME-315)

Chapter 3
Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces:
Heat transfer from surfaces with uniform crosssections
Solutions based on various boundary conditions,
Fin efficiency curves
Applications and design.

Need for Fins


The rate of heat transfer from a surface at a
temperature Ts to the surrounding medium at
T is given by Newtons law of cooling as

If Ts and T are fixed how can we increase the


heat transfer ?
Increase A or h

Need for Fins


We can increase the surface area by attaching to
the surface an extended surfaces called fins made
of highly conductive materials such as aluminum.
Finned surfaces are manufactured by extruding,
welding, or wrapping a thin metal sheet on a
surface.
Fins enhance heat transfer from a surface by
exposing a larger surface area to convection and
radiation.

Need for Fins

Chapter 3
The thin plate fins of a
car radiator greatly
increase the rate of
heat transfer to the air

Fin Configurations

Assumptions
1. The heat conduction in the fin is steady and onedimensional.
2. There is no energy generation in the fin.
3. The convective environment is characterized by a
uniform and constant heat transfer coefficient and
temperature.
4. The fin has a constant thermal conductivity.
5. The contact between the base of the fin and the
primary surface is perfect.
6. The fin has a constant base temperature.

Fin Equation

General Equation

From Fouriers law

where Ac is the cross-sectional area, which may


vary with x . Since the conduction heat rate at x+dx
may be expressed as

General Equation

General Equation

This result provides a general form of the energy


equation for an extended surface. Its solution for
appropriate boundary conditions provides the
temperature distribution

Fins with uniform cross section


For the prescribed fins, Ac is a constant and As = Px, where
As is the surface area measured from the base to x and P is
the fin perimeter. Accordingly,
dAc /dx = 0
and
dAs /dx = P,

Since

dAc /dx = 0 and


Reduces to

dAs /dx = P,

To simplify the equation

Its general solution is of the form

To evaluate the constants C1 and C2 of we need to


specify appropriate boundary conditions.
Like temperature at the base of the fin (x= 0)

Longitudinal Convecting Fins


1. Rectangular Fin
1. Constant base temperature and convecting tip:
Applying an energy balance to a control surface about
this tip (x=L)

Incorporating both boundary conditions in


general solution we get
BC1 @ x=0
BC2 @ x=L

Above
equation
will
yield
temperature profile as shown in
figure
.
Note that the magnitude of the
temperature gradient decreases
with increasing x. This trend is a
consequence of the reduction in
the conduction heat transfer
qx(x) with increasing x due to
continuous convection losses
from the fin surface.

Heat transfer from Fin


We can calculate total heat transfer either considering
conduction from the base or convection from total surface
of fin both will yield same result
Conduction:

Convection:

where Af is the total, including the tip, fin surface area

Introducing expression of in both equation will yield


same following result:

21

Case: Convective heat loss from the fin tip is


negligible( adiabatic case).

From general solution we get

Fin heat transfer rate


As discussed earlier heat transfer rate can be
written as:

23

Case: when temperature at the fin tip is


known

From general solution we get

Fin heat transfer rate


As discussed earlier heat transfer rate can be
written as:

25

Infinitely Long Fin (Tfin tip=T)

For a sufficiently long fin the temperature at the fin tip


approaches the ambient temperature
Boundary condition: (L)=T(L)-T=0

Infinitely Long Fin (Tfin tip=T)

For a sufficiently long fin the temperature at the fin tip


approaches the ambient temperature
Boundary condition: (L)=T(L)-T=0

The temperature distribution:


T ( x) - T
- x
= e- mx = e
Tb - T

hp / kAc

heat transfer from the entire fin


dT
&
Q =- kAc
dx

= hpkAc ( Tb - T
x=0

Corrected Length concept


A practical way of accounting for the heat loss
from the fin tip is to replace the fin length L in the
relation for the insulated tip case by a corrected
length defined as

28

Fin Efficiency

To maximize the heat transfer from a fin the


temperature of the fin should be uniform
(maximized) at the base value of Tb

In reality, the temperature drops along the fin, and


thus the heat transfer from the fin is less
To account for the effect we define
a fin efficiency
Q&fin
Actual heat transfer rate from the fin
hfin = &
=
Q
Ideal heat transfer rate from the fin

fin ,max

if the entire fin were at base temperature

or &
Q fin = hfin Q&fin ,max = hfin hAfin (Tb - T )

Fin Efficiency

For constant cross section of very long fins:


Q&fin
hpkAc ( Tb - T ) 1 kAc
1
hlong , fin = &
=
=
=
Q fin ,max
hAfin ( Tb - T )
L hp
mL

For constant cross section with adiabatic tip:

hadiabatic , fin

Q&fin
hpkAc ( Tb - T ) tanh mL
= &
=
Q fin ,max
hAfin ( Tb - T )

Afin = P*L

tanh mL
=
mL

Fin Effectiveness

The performance of the fins is judged on the basis of


the enhancement in heat transfer relative to the no-fin
case.
The performance of fins is expressed
in terms of the fin effectiveness
defined as

Q&fin
Q&fin
efin =
=
=
&
Qno fin hAb ( Tb - T )

Heat transfer rate


from the fin of base
area Ab
Heat transfer
rate from the
surface of area
Ab

Fin effectiveness

33

Efficiency

Efficiency of straight fins (rectangular, triangular,


and parabolic profiles).

Efficiency

Efficiency of annular fins of rectangular profile

Fin Effectiveness
An effectiveness of fin =1 indicates that the addition of
fins to the surface does not affect heat transfer at all.
That is, heat conducted to the fin through the base area
Ab is equal to the heat transferred from the same area Ab
to the surrounding medium.
An effectiveness of fin < 1 indicates that the fin actually
acts as insulation, slowing down the heat transfer from
the surface. This situation can occur when fins made of
low thermal conductivity materials are used.
An effectiveness of fin > 1 indicates that fins are
enhancing heat transfer from the surface, as they
should. However, the use of fins cannot be justified
unless fin is sufficiently larger than 1.

Fin Effectiveness
Both the fin efficiency and fin effectiveness are related to
the performance of the fin, but they are different
quantities. However, they are related to each other by

Efficiency of Common Fin Shapes

Efficiency of Common Fin Shapes

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes
Steam in a heating system flows
through tubes whose outer
diameter is D1= 3 cm and whose
walls are maintained at a
temperature of 120C. Circular
aluminum fins (k = 180 W/m C)
of outer diameter D2 = 6 cm and
constant thickness t = 2 mm are
attached to the tube, as shown in
Fig.

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes
The space between the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are
200 fins per meter length of the tube. Heat is transferred
to the surrounding air at T = 25C, with a combined heat
transfer coefficient of h= 60 W/m2 C. Determine the
increase in heat transfer from the tube per meter of its
length as a result of adding fins.
SOLUTION
Circular aluminum fins are to be attached to the tubes of
a heating system. The increase in heat transfer from the
tubes per unit length as a result of adding fins is to be
determined.

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes
Assumptions
1 Steady operating conditions exist.
2 The heat transfer coefficient is uniform over the entire
fin surfaces.
3 Thermal conductivity is constant.
4 Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the fins is given
to be k = 180 W/m C.
Analysis In the case of no fins, heat transfer from the
tube per meter of its length is determined from Newtons
law of cooling to be

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes

Efficiency can be found directly from the efficiency chart if


we know the corrected length

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes

Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from


Steam Pipes