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Department of Civil Engineering

Polytechnic Port Dickson


Report (Site Diary)(contd)

Fill Site Report

Date of work
Working hours start and end
Types of work done
Amount & type of employees,
materials, machinery and plant
Application materials
Work supervisor notes
The weather conditions



4.2.2 Know the dutiews of Site Supervisor and Assisstant Engineer:

Describe the duty of: i. Site Supervosor ii. Assistant Engineer

The duties of a Technician

or a site supervisor :
> Supervising construction
> Look after the welfare of
> Ensure that the materials
in good condition. (cement,
bricks and others)
> Conducts materials testing
and analysis, using tools and
> Confer with Asst. Eng to
determine project details,
such as plan preparation,
acceptance testing, and
evaluation of field conditions.
> Prepare reports and
document project activities
and data.

The duties of an assistant

> Translate drawings and
ensure that work on
construction sites in
accordance with the drawings
> Solve the problems /
confusion about the drawing
by the main contractor and
sub contractors
> Doing as directed by the
construction manager
> Assist in designing,
developing and executing
construction projects

Report (Site Diary)

Tell us where the current progress
Provides a record of resources (labor,
plant & material)
Report problems that occur

Report (Site Diary)(contd)

Fill Site Report

Date of work
Working hours start and end
Types of work done
Amount & type of employees,
materials, machinery and plant
Application materials
Work supervisor notes
The weather conditions



is a temporary
platform constructed for
reaching heights above
arms' reach for the
purpose of building
maintenance, or repair
Scaffolding is generally
made of lumber and steel
and can range from simple
to complex in design,
depending on its use and

Millions of construction
workers, painters, and building
maintenance crews work on
scaffolding every day, and due
to the nature of its use,
scaffolding must be properly
constructed and used to ensure
the safety of those who use it.


As a working platform:
- so that the worker can stand on the
platform do the work easily & safely

As a platform for placing material &

logistic needed by the workers to carry
out their job
As a platform and walking passage:
- scaffolding support the platform that
been used by the worker as their walking
path to transport the material & logistic

Factor considered during design stage

Among the factors need to be
considered during the design
process of scaffold are as
a) Easier to be erected
b) Strong
c) Light / Not heavy
d) Safe
e) Suitable
f) Passage Link / Passage
connecting to other places

i. Steps Scaffolding

This scaffold is the most useful ascending aid for activities

involving frequent ascent/descent and transport of loads.

Slanting steps reaching from platform to platform with 100

mm deep steps can safely and comfortably be traversed
forwards and backwards.

Stairway rails add to the all round safety.

No tools required, spacing of platforms by every two meters

ease assembling or dismantling of the tower.

200 mm dia swivel castors with locking device and height

adjusters to cope with uneven surfaces for ease of mobility
and handling.

All individual parts are separately available as apares or

extension parts.



ii. Birdcage scaffolding

A birdcage scaffold consists of a mass of

standards arranged at regular intervals in
parallel lines, usually evenly spaced apart.

These standards are laced together with a

grid of ledgers and transoms at every lift

The top lift is boarded to form the access

platform for work on ceilings and soffits,
e.g. fix lighting, ventilation or sprinklers
over an inside area.

The side bays of the birdcage may also be

required to form a normal access scaffold to
the walls supporting the soffit.


iii. Putlog/Single Scaffolding



consists of a single row of uprights

standards set away from the wall at a

distance that will accommodate the

required width of the working
The standards are joined together
horizontal members called ledgers
The ledgers are tied to the building
cross members called putlog.
It is erected as the building rises &
mostly used for buildings of
brick construction.

A putlog scaffold consists of a single

row of standards, parallel to the face
of the building and set as far away
from it as is necessary to
accommodate a platform of four or
five boards wide, with the inner
edge of the platform as close to the
wall as is practicable.
The standards are connected by a
ledger fixed with right angle
couplers and the putlogs are fixed to
the ledgers using putlog couplers.
The blade end of the putlog tube (or
putlog adaptor) is normally placed
horizontally on the brickwork being
built, taking care to use the
maximum bearing area.

Putlog Scaffold tied into the

brickwork using putlogs or
tubes with putlog adaptors


iv. Cantilever Scaffolding

A cantilever scaffold is a scaffold that is

supported by cantilevered load-bearing

Needles should be secured by through bolting,

anchoring, or propping between the needle
and the floor above.

Where possible the inboard part of the needle

should be at least 3 times the outboard length.

The base of the scaffold should be tied to the

needle as close as practical to the locating
Uhead jack.


All practicable steps need to be taken to

protect the area below the cantilever during
the erection and dismantling process.
Additional precautions such as full planking
and plying the base lift of the scaffold,
kickboards and screening should be used to
prevent the dislodgement of materials from
the working platforms.


Cantilevered scaffold using a

beam arrangement

Cantilevered scaffold use of

propping tower for weight

v. Hanging/Suspended Scaffolding.

A suspended scaffold incorporates a suspended

platform that is capable of being raised or
lowered when in use.
An example of a suspended scaffold is a swing
stage scaffold.
These types of scaffolds are commonly
associated with the types window washers
Hanging scaffolds are classified as a special duty
scaffold and should be designed and notified as
Hanging scaffold foundations are opposite to
that of a standing scaffold.
Particular attention must be paid to whether the
structure the hanging scaffold is to be attached to
is able to support the hanging scaffold and its
intended loads.


3.50 : Know the types of strut in constructio n

What is shoring

It is the method of providing temporary support

(shores) to an unsafe structure.

Types of Shoring Horizontal shoring or flying shoring

Vertical shoring or dead shoring Inclined Shoring or
flying shoring

The art of shoring comprises the temporary support of

buildings, and may become necessary because of the
failure or settlement of some portion of the structure or
for the purpose of upholding the upper portion while
alterations are being made in the lower.


Shoring Material

There are several different forms of

shoring, each adapted to suit peculiar

Much of the shoring for ordinary

cases is done with heavy, roughly
sawn timbers strongly braced
together, but for especially heavy
work steel members may be
introduced and prove of great value.


i. Raking Shore
The most general shoring is the
raking shore.
It consists of one or more timbers
from the face of the structure to
supported and bedded upon the
As the ground is usually of a more
or less
yielding nature, a stout timber
plate termed a sole-piece, of
sufficient area to withstand being
driven into the soil, is placed to
receive the base of the raking timber
or timbers.


A wall-plate, with the object of

increasing the area of support, is fixed
the face of the wall by means of hooks
driven into the wall.
Where space is available, an angle of 6
is the best to adopt for the main shore,
the auxiliary members ranging in their
slope from 45 to 75.
In many cases, especially in towns, th
angle of slope is governed by outside
influences such as the width of the


ii. Flying Shores

It is a system of providing temporary

supports to the party walls of the two
buildings where the intermediate building
is to be pulled down and rebuilt.
All types of arrangements of supporting

the unsafe structure in which the shores

do not reach the ground come under
They flying shore consists of wall plates,

needles, cleats, horizontal struts

(commonly known as horizontal shores)
and inclined struts arranged in different
forms which varies with the situation.


In this system also the wall plates are

placed against the wall and secured to
A horizontal strut is placed between
the wall plates and is supported by a
system of needle and cleats.
The inclined struts are supported by
the needle at their top and by straining
pieces at their feet.
The straining piece is also known as
straining sill and is spiked to the
horizontal shore.


ii. Horizontal Strut


straining piece is also known as

straining sill and is spiked to the
horizontal shore.
The width of straining piece is the
same as that of the strut.
When the distance between the
walls (to be strutted apart) is
considerable, a horizontal shore
can not be safe and a trussed
framework of members is necessary
to perform the function of flying


iii. Dead or Needle Shoring

Dead or needle shoring, often more
simply referred to as propping, is
used for supporting existing walls,
floors and roofing whilst works are
out to form openings or remove
walls at lower level.
Steel or timber uprights are provided
to support loads from a structure,
normally in association with wedges
head and sole plates to distribute
stresses over larger areas.


When opening in the wall are to be made,

holes are cut in the wall at such a height as to
allow sufficient space for insertion of the beam
or girder that will be provided permanently to
carry the weight of the structure above.

Distance at which the holes are cut depends

upon the type of masonry and it varies from
1.2m to 1.8m centre.

Beams called needles are placed in the holes

and are supported by vertical props called dead
shores at their ends on either side of the wall.

The needles may be of timber or steel and are

of sufficient section to carry the load above.