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ADDIS ABABA SCIENCE &

TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY
ENGINEERING FOUNDATION
ASSIGNMENT ON :-

Effect of Landfill on the


enviroment
Prepared By:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Hayleab tesfaye
Lakew mengistu
Dereje kuma
Kemal a/kadir
Dereje seman
Ayichew
alemayehu

Class A

cde 0092/05
cde 0105/05
cde
cde
cde
cde

Since

there is a rapid increase in the average


trash produced by a human being per day, it
results in a huge amount of additive increase
in trash at a international level.

Where Does our Trash Go?

31% Recycled
69% Land filled

After recycling!

Total 151.9 million tons


of trash per year

What is a trash?
Trash

is a rubbish people throw away


because they can no longer use it.
Trash can be household, commercial or
industrial.
There can be variations in the trash
produced depending on the consumption.

These

huge sums of trash cannot be kept


in open.
They increase toxicity of the environment
and there will be no fresh air to breathe.
It promotes increase of parasites and give
birth to many diseases.
So to dispose of these wastes various
waste disposal techniques are used.

Landfill Sites
Of all the techniques, efficient ones
are

What is a landfill site?


A landfill

site is a licensed facility where waste is


deposited for permanent disposal. It is a structured
place
Whereas, a dumping site is a site same as a landfill
but it is not properly structured.
Probably it is a hole or a pit where waste is over
thrown.

A Landfill
Cell
The goal of a landfill is to cover it, isolate it,
and keep it from contaminating our air and
groundwater.

Tractors Compact Waste to Create


Layers in a Landfill Cell

Problems the Landfill sites pose


Groundwater

Contamination
Production of Landfill Gas
Landfill fires
Offensive odours
Litter
Pests (Vermin, seagulls, flies)
Increased traffic for duration of infilling
Long term settlement after completion

Groundwater Contamination
Groundwater

contamination can occur if


Leachate leaks into the soils and rock
surrounding a landfill site, eventually making its
way to the water table.
Leachate is formed when water percolates
through solid waste.
It can be highly toxic.

Landfill Gas
Landfill

gas is produced during the natural


breakdown of biodegradable waste.
The composition of landfill gas changes
over time.
The gas from a typical landfill site consists
mostly of methane and carbon dioxide.

Landfill fires
As

waste decomposes it generates heat and


underground fires may start.
These are difficult to extinguish, may last for
long periods, and may spread throughout the
landfill.

How are landfills


made

Landfill Design
Modern

landfills are designed to minimise these


problems:

Location
Landfill Liner
Compaction of waste
Daily Cover
Landfill Cap
Leachate Management System
Landfill Gas management System

Location

In order to obtain a permit a landfill operator must first carry out a


detailed investigation and prove to the satisfaction of the planning
authority and the EA that the site:
is located in a geologically stable area
is not located on a major aquifer;
Is not located in a vulnerable area;
is designed to reduce the risk of damage to the environment and
human health;
will be monitored regularly for the duration of operations and
aftercare period.

Liners
Landfill Liners are constructed on the base and sides of a landfill
site to prevent Leachate from leaking into the surrounding soils.
Landfill Liners may be constructed from:
Compacted Clay
Bentonite Enhanced Sand
Geomembrane
Geotextile Protector
Dense Asphaltic Concrete (DAC)
Combination of the above

How is Landfill
operated

Landfill operations
Waste

is placed in layers approximately 3


m thick and compacted.
At the end of each working day
approximately 0.3 m of clay or sand
material is placed on top of the waste to:
minimise the infiltration of rainwater
isolate the waste from birds and vermin
reduce odours

Landfill operations
To

prevent wastage and the formation of layers


of weakness within the waste mass the daily
cover is scraped off and re-used each day.
Leachate that collects at the base of the waste
mass is collected and re-circulated into the
waste. This:
increases the rate of decomposition of the waste and
therefore, rate of settlement;
decreases disposal costs.

LANDFILL CAP
Landfill caps placed above the waste
after completion of infilling prevent the
infiltration of rainwater, minimising the
production of Leachate.
Landfill Caps are usually constructed
from:
Recomputed clay
Geomembrane

Leachate management
systems
Leachate

management systems are installed to:


prevent the accumulation of leachate in the base of
the landfill
collect, re-circulate and dispose of leachate during
operations and after closure
They comprise of:
leachate drainage blanket at base of landfill
pipes along base and sidewalls of landfill
wells to monitor and extract the leachate

Landfill gas management


system
Landfill

gas management systems are installed


to prevent the build up of gases within the
landfill and to prevent migration of landfill gas
through the underlying strata.
There are 2 ways landfill gas can be managed:
passive
active

Passive

management systems comprise of


wells with perforated tops to allow the gas
to vent into the atmosphere
Active management systems involve the
active extraction of the gas.
The extracted gas can be used to
generate electricity.

Electricity generating
system

Monitoring
Monitoring

is carried out before, during, and after the


placement of waste.
Numerous monitoring wells are constructed around a
landfill site (both upstream and downstream) to check
for contamination.
Chemical testing is carried out regularly on:
Groundwater
Leachate
Landfill Gas

Conclusion

Hence we conclude that landfill sites are

not very pleasant and common to visit,


but they help use to
reduce the negative effects caused by
wastes
generated by humans.

Thanking you